Malta

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English
[eng] 385,600 in Malta, all users. L1 users: 16,600 (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 369,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1964, Constitution, Article 5(2)). Alternate Names: Ingliż. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Italian
[ita] Widespread. 234,430 in Malta, all users. L1 users: 2,430 (European Commission 2006). L2 users: 232,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Italiano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Non-indigenous. An official language of Malta until 1936.

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Maltese
[mlt] Widespread. 403,000 (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 482,880. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1964, Constitution, Article 5(2)). Autonym: Malti. Dialects: Standard Maltese, Port Maltese, Rural West Maltese, Rural East Maltese, Rural Central Maltese, Zurrieq, Gozo. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Descended from Tunisian Spoken Arabic [aeb] with heavy borrowings from Italian [ita]; separately developed with different syntax and phonology. Influence from Romance began in the late eleventh century when the Normans ousted the Arabs from the islands and the language was isolated from its Arabic source, continuing to develop alongside Italian [ita] (Fabri 2010).

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Maltese Sign Language
[mdl] Scattered. 200 (2014 Malta Deaf People Association). 200 signers out of 1,000 deaf and hard-of-hearing (2014 Malta Deaf People Association). 2,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSM, Lingwa tas-Sinjali Maltija, Lingwi tas-Sinjali Maltin. Dialects: None known. Language isolate, but influence from British Sign Language [bfi] (Azzopardi-Alexander 2009). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 7 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Taught as an L2. Christian.

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