Mozambique

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Barwe
[bwg] Tete Province. 17,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balke, Cibalke Dialects: Probably good comprehension of Nyungwe [nyu] or Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40)

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Chopi
[cce] South coast, north of Limpopo river. Center is Quissico, Inhambane Province, south Zavala district, 100 km coastal strip between Inharrime and Chidunguela. 760,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cicopi, Copi, Shichopi, Shicopi, Tschopi, Txitxopi, Txopi Dialects: Copi, Khambani, Lambwe, Lengue (Kilenge, Lenge), Ndonge, Tonga. Many dialects; all mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 44% with Gitonga [toh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Chopi (S.61) Comments: Distinct from Chopi (Dhopaluo), a dialect of Acholi [ach] of Uganda.

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Chuwabu
[chw] Central coast between Quelimane and Mlanje mountains. 947,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chichwabo, Chuabo, Chuwabo, Chwabo, Cicuabo, Cuabo, Cuwabo, Echuabo, Echuwabo, Txuwabo Dialects: Central Chuwabo, Karungu, Maindo, Marale, Nyaringa. Lexical similarity: 78% between Chuwabo of Makusi district and Marrare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.34) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dema
[dmx] Far west, just north of Zimbabwe. 5,000 (2000 J. and M. Bister). Population displaced during Cabora Bassa Dam construction. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10)

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Kokola
[kzn] Western Zambezia Province, all the way to the Lolo [llb] language area. 80,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)

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Koti
[eko] Nampula Province, Angoche district, Angoche island coast area; Nampula city community. 77,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angoche, Angoxe, Coti, Ekoti Dialects: Ekoti, Enatthembo (“Edheidhei” (pej.), Esakaji, Esangaje, Esangaji, “Etteittei” (pej.), Sangaje). A separate language within the Makhuwa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.311) Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kunda
[kdn] Confluence of Luangwe and Zambezi rivers area. 5,500 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chicunda, Chikunda, Cikunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42) Comments: Different from Kunda, a dialect of Nyanja [nya], and Kunda dialect of Lusengo [lse] in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lolo
[llb] Western Zambezia Province. 162,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ilolo Dialects: May be a dialect of Lomwe [ngl] or Makhuwa [vmw]. Similar to Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)

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Lomwe
[ngl] Northeast and central, most of Zambezia Province, south Nampula Province. Prestige center is Alto Molocue. 1,500,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acilowe, Alomwe, Chilowe, Cilowe, Elomwe, Ilomwe, Ingulu, Lomue, Mihavane, Mihavani, Mihawani, Ngulu, Nguru, Walomwe, Western Makua Dialects: Most similar to Makhuwa [vmw] and Chuwabu [chw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.32) Comments: Different from Ngulu (Kingulu) of Tanzania. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Maindo
[cwb] Micaune, northeast of Chinde, Zambezi river mouth. 21,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chwambo Dialects: Badoni, Mitange. Lexical similarity: 84% with Chuwabu [chw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Makhuwa
[vmw] Nampula, south of Meetto area. 3,090,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Makhuwa, Emakhuwa, Emakua, Macua, Makhuwa-Makhuwana, Makhuwwa of Nampula, Makoane, Makua, Maquoua Dialects: Central Makua (Emakhuwana, Makhuwana, Makuana), Empamela (Nampamela), Emwaja, Enaharra (Emathipane, Maharra, Nahara), Enlai (Mulai), Enyara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.31) Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Makhuwa-Marrevone
[xmc] Central Cabo Delgado Province coast, Moma to Angoche. 463,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Makhuwa, Emaka, Maca, Maka, Marevone, Marrevone, South Maca Dialects: Enlai, Makhuwana (Emakhuwana), Naharra (Enaharra), Nampamela (Empamela). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Makhuwa-Meetto
[mgh] Cabo Delgado and Niassa provinces. Also in Tanzania. 963,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 1,348,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Emeto, Imeetto, Medo, Meetto, Meto, Mêto, Metto Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with Makhuwa-Saka [xsq], 78%–82% with the Nahara dialect of Makhuwa-Marrevone [xmc], 78%–80% with Makhuwa [vmw], 66%–68% with Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Makhuwa-Moniga
[mhm] Cabo Delgado Province. 200,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emakhuwa-Emoniga, Emoniga, Moniga Dialects: Lexical similarity: 56% with Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Makhuwa-Saka
[xsq] Cabo Delgado Province. 212,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esaaka, Isaanga, Ishanga, Saaka, Saanga, Saka, Sanga Dialects: Rati (Erati), Saka (Esaaka). Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh], 78%–80% with Makhuwa [vmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30) Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Makhuwa-Shirima
[vmk] South of Niassa Province. 618,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chirima, Eshirima, Makhuwa-Exirima, Makhuwa-Niassa, Makhuwa-Xirima, Shirima, West Makua, Xirima Dialects: Probably not intelligible of Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh] or Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)

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Makonde
[kde] Cabo Delgado Province. Maviha dialect: Mueda. 360,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimakonde, Chinimakonde, Cimakonde, Konde, Maconde, Makonda, Matambwe, Shimakonde Dialects: Maviha (Chimaviha, Kimawiha, Mabiha, Mavia, Mawia), Vadonde (Donde, Ndonde), Vamakonde (Makonde), Vamwalu (Mwalu), Vamwambe (Mwambe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.23) Comments: Reserved toward outsiders. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Makwe
[ymk] Cabo Delgado Province coast, Tanzania border south to Quionga, Palma, to just south of Olumbe; interior along Ruvuma river to Pundanhar. Also in Tanzania (Maraba). 22,000 in Mozambique (2003). Population total all countries: 32,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimakwe, Macue, Palma Dialects: Coastal Makwe (Palma), Interior Makwe. Not inherently intelligible with Swahili [swh]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Swahili [swh], 57% with Mwani [wmw], 48% with Yao [yao]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.402) Comments: Muslim.

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Manyawa
[mny] Western Zambezia Province, Lugela district. 173,000 (2006). 85% monolingual in Lugela District. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)

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Manyika
[mxc] North Manica Province, north of Ndau, west of Tewe. 164,000 in Mozambique (2006). 760,000 Shona in Mozambique (1980 census) probably included Manyika, Ndau, Tewe, and Tawala. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimanyika, Manika Dialects: Bocha (Boka), Bunji, Bvumba, Domba, Guta, Here, Hungwe, Jindwi, Karombe, Nyamuka, Nyatwe, Unyama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Marenje
[vmr] Western Zambezia Province. 90,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emarendje, Marendje Dialects: Related to Lolo [llb] and Kokola [kzn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)

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Mozambican Sign Language
[mzy] In at least 3 largest cities: Maputo, Beira, and Nampula. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Some dialectal variation. Standardization efforts are in progress (1999). Not related to or based on Portuguese [por] nor Portuguese Sign Language [psr]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Being taught and developed.

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Mwani
[wmw] Cabo Delgado Province coast, north of Pemba, Arimba to Palma, Ibo and Mocimboa da Praia; offshore Querimba archipelago. 100,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ibo, Kimwani, Muane, Mwane, Quimuane Dialects: Kisanga (Kikisanga, Quissanga), Nkojo (Kinkojo), Nsimbwa (Kinsimbwa), Wibo (Kiwibo). Not intelligible of Swahili [swh]. Kiwibo is prestige dialect. Kinsimbwa, the northernmost Mocimboa da Praia dialect, is inherently intelligible with others, even though it is the most distinct. Lexical similarity: 60% with Swahili [swh], 48% with Yao [yao]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.403) Comments: Ethnonym: Namwaní or Mwaní by Portuguese speakers. Muslim.

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Nathembo
[nte] Southeast Nampula Province, north of Angohe, Sangange Peninsula, Zubairi, Charamatane, Amisse, Mutembua, Namaeca, Namaponda, to Mogincual and Khibulani. 25,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esakaji, Sakaji, Sanagage, Sangaji, Sankaji, Theithei Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.312) Comments: Similar to Makhuwa [vmw] and Swahili [swh]. Sakaji is a place name.

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Ndau
[ndc] South central, Sofala and Manica provinces, south of Beira. Also in Zimbabwe. 1,580,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 2,380,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona Dialects: Danda (Cidanda, Cindanda, Ndanda, Vadanda, Watande), Dondo (Chibabava, Cidondo, Wadondo), Gova (Cigova), Ndau (Cindau), Shanga (Changa, Chichanga, Chisenji, Chixanga, Cimashanga, Mashanga, Senji, Xanga). Similar to Manyika [mxc]; much more divergent from Union Shona [sna]. Danda and Ndanda may be the same language. Ndau (Gova) [sna] in Mozambique is more similar to Ndau, but in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Ndau is more similar to the Korekore dialect of Shona. Lexical similarity: 92% between Danda and Dondo dialects, 85% between Dondo and Shanga dialects; 74%–81% between Ndau dialects and Manyika [mxc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.15) Comments: Other geographical or ethnic names: Dzika, Hijo, Buzi (Buji), Tomboji, and Mukwilo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ngoni
[ngo] Central Cabo Delgado Province; Niassa Province, Macuaida area; northeast Tete Province. 53,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angoni, Chingoni, Kingoni, Kisutu, Sutu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.12) Comments: Formerly spoke Zulu [zul]. The Ngoni people in Malawi do not speak Ngoni but Nyanja [nya] as L1. Muslim.

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Nsenga
[nse] 192,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Senga Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41) Comments: Different from Senga dialect of Tumbuka [tum] of Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nyanja
[nya] Niassa, Zambezia, and Tete provinces. Chewa dialect: Macanga district, Tete; Ngoni dialect: Niassa Province, Sanga and Lago; Angoni dialect: Tete; Nyanja dialect: Niassa and Tete, along Lake Niassa. 599,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chinyanja Dialects: Angoni, Chewa (Cewa, Chichewa, Cicewa), Ngoni (Cingoni), Nyanja (Cinyanja). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Nyanja (N.31) Comments: Ngoni people in Angonia District of Tete Province in western Mozambique have shifted to Nyanja. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nyungwe
[nyu] Central area, Zambezi river banks north of Sena [seh] language area. 439,000 (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Chinyungwi, Cinyungwe, Nyongwe, Teta, Tete, Yungwe Dialects: Similar to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.43)

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Phimbi
[phm] Central area, Zambezi river banks north of Sena [seh] language area. 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pimbi Dialects: Similar to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.40)

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Portuguese
[por] 35,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 10). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician

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Ronga
[rng] South of Maputo Province on the coast. Also in South Africa. 721,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 722,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gironga, Shironga, Xironga Dialects: Kalanga, Konde, Putru. Partially intelligible with Tsonga [tso] and Tswa [tsc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.54)

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Sena
[seh] Northwest, Sofala, Manica, Tete, and Zambezia provinces, lower Zambezi river region. 1,340,000 (2006). 86,000 Podzo in Mozambique (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chisena, Cisena Dialects: Bangwe (South Sena), Caia (Care, North Sena, Sare), Gombe, Gorongosa, Podzo (Chipodzo, Cipodzo, Phodzo, Puthsu, Shiputhsu), Rue (Chirue), Sangwe. Similar to Nyungwe [nyu], Nyanja [nya], Phimbi [phm], and Kunda [kdn] of Zambia. Sena Central is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 92% between the Podzo and Sena-Sare dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Swahili
[swh] Northern. 10,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42)

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Swati
[ssw] 1,200 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Siswati, Siswazi, Swazi, Tekela, Tekeza Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.402)

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Takwane
[tke] Western Zambezia Province. 181,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thakwani Dialects: Related to Manyawa [mny]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makua (P.30)

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Tawara
[twl] South of Tete Province, north of Zimbabwe. 60,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tawala Dialects: Tawara-Chioco, Tawara-Daque. Northernmost variety is related to the Korekore dialect of Shone [sna]; appears to have been influenced by Nyungwe [nyu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10)

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Tewe
[twx] Manica Province, Chimoio city and district. 250,000 (2000 NELIMO). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiute, Ciute, Teve, Vateve, Wateve Dialects: Considered by many a Manyika [mxc] dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13)

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Tonga
[toh] South, Inhambane area up to Morrumbane. 375,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bitonga, Gitonga, Inhambane, Shengwe, Tonga-Inhambane Dialects: Gitonga Gy Khogani, Nyambe (Cinyambe), Sewi (Gisewi). Lexical similarity: 44% with Chopi [cce]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Chopi (S.62) Comments: Different from Tonga [tog] of Malawi and Tonga [toi] of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

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Tsonga
[tso] South of Maputo, most of Maputo and Gaza provinces. 1,710,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gwamba, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Xitsonga Dialects: Bila (Vila), Changana (Changa, Hanganu, Hlanganu, Langanu, Shangaan, Shangana, Shilanganu, Xichangana), Jonga (Djonga, Dzonga), Ngwalungu (Shingwalungu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.52) Comments: Christian, traditional religion, Muslim.

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Tswa
[tsc] South, most of Inhambane Province. Also in South Africa, Zimbabwe. 1,160,000 in Mozambique (2006). Population total all countries: 1,180,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Shitshwa, Tshwa, Xitshwa Dialects: Hlengwe (Khambana-Makwakwe, Khambani, Lengwe, Lhengwe, Makwakwe-Khambana, Shilengwe), Mandla, Ndxhonge, Nhayi, Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga, Dzivi, Dzonga-Dzibi, Xidzivi). Partially intelligible of Ronga [rng] and Tsonga [tso]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Ronga (S.51)

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Yao
[yao] Niassa Province, south and west of Lake Malawi. Possibly in Zimbabwe. 496,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao Dialects: Chikonono (Cikonono), Machinga, Makale (Cimakale), Mangochi, Massaninga (Cimassaninga), Tunduru Yao. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21) Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Zulu
[zul] 3,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Isizulu, Zunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.406)

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