Namibia

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Afrikaans
[afr] Hardap and Khomas regions. L1 users: 180,000 (2014 UNSD). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (2009, National Curriculum, Basic Education, Sections 4.1, 5.1, 5.5), Most commonly used as educational medium. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Former official status. Not known in the north, in Owambo tribes, and Kavango and Caprivi regions.

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Diriku
[diu] Kavango West and Kavango East regions; Otjozondjupa and Zambezi regions. L1 users: 10,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 36,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Dciriku, Diriko, Gciriku, Manyo, Mbogedo, Mbogedu, Rugciriku, Rumanyo, Shimbogedu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Simaa [sie] and Kwangali [kwn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.332).

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English
[eng] 350,200 in Namibia, all users. L1 users: 50,200 (2014 UNSD). L2 users: 300,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fwe
[fwe] Zambezi region. L1 users: 9,950 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kuhane [sbs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.402). Comments: Different from We dialect of Tonga [toi].

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German, Standard
[deu] Khomas region: large Windhoek community; Omaruru, Otjiwarongo, and larger cities. L1 users: 11,200 (2014 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2009, National Curriculum, Basic Education, Sections 4.1, 5.1, 5.5), mostly as a language medium in government schools. Alternate Names: Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hai||om
[hgm] Otjozondjupa region: Grootfontein area; possibly in Mangetti Dune, Omataku, Baghani, Tsintsabis. L1 users: 16,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 46,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Haikom, Haikum, Heikom, Heikom Bushman, Heikum, Hei||om, Oshikwankala Hai||om , Xwaga. Dialects: Kede (Kedde, Keddi), ‡Akhoe, Gomkhoe (Gomaikhoe, Mangetti-Hai||om, Xomkhoe). Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Khoekhoe, Hainum. Comments: Possibly in Angola, where they reportedly originated. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Herero
[her] Omaheke region; Otjozondjupa region: southeast corner and central area, Otumborombonga; Kunene region: Sesfontein north to Angola border area. L1 users: 173,000 (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 191,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ochiherero, Otjiherero, Ovaherero. Dialects: Mbandieru (East Herero, Mbanderu), Central Herero, Himba (Ovahimba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.30). Comments: Erroneously called ‘Damara’. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ju|’hoansi
[ktz] Otjozondjupa region: east central; Omaheke region: north border; Kavango East and Kavango West regions. L1 users: 25,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 30,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2009, National Curriculum, Basic Education, Sections 4.1.5.1 and 5.5), used in primary education. Alternate Names: !Xo, !Xun, Dobe Kung, Dzu’oasi, Ju’oasi, Ju|’hoan, Kung, Kung-Tsumkwe, Tshumkwe, Xaixai, Xû, Zhu’oasi. Autonym: Ju|’hoansi. Dialects: Dzu’oasi (Ssu Ghassi, Zhu’oase), Nogau (Agau), ‡Kx’au||’ein (||Au||ei, ||X’au||’e, ‡Kx’au||’ei, Auen, Kaukau, Koko, Kung-Gobabis). Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ju|’hoan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khoekhoe
[naq] Erongo, Kunene, and Otjozondjupa (Otiwarongo area) regions; south central near Ikaras and Hardap regions. L1 users: 200,000 (Brenzinger 2013). Total users in all countries: 202,200. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Bergdamara, Damara, Hai||’om, Khoekhoegowab, Khoekhoegowap, Maqua, Nama, Namakwa, Naman, Namaqua, Tama, Tamakwa, Tamma, “Hottentot” (pej.). Dialects: Sesfontein-Dama (Sesfontein Damara), Namidama, Central Damara (Central Dama), Central Nama (Nama), Bondelswarts-Nama (Bondelswarts), Topnaar-Nama (Topnaar). Lexical similarity: Sesfontein Damara over 80% with central dialects, 80% with Haiom [hgm] (Haacke 2008). Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Khoekhoe, Nama.

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Khwedam
[xuu] Zambezi and Kavango East regions, between Okavango and Zambezi rivers. L1 users: 4,000 (Brenzinger 2013). Total users in all countries: 7,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khoe, Khwe-||Ani, Kxoe, Kxoedam, Xun, “Barakwena” (pej.), “Barakwengo” (pej.), “Mbarakwena” (pej.), “Water Bushmen” (pej.). Autonym: Khwe, Khwedam. Dialects: ||Xo-Kxoe, ||Xom-Kxoe, Buma-Kxoe, Buga-Kxoe, ||Ani. Minor dialect differences within Khwe. Related to ||Ani [hnh], Naro [nhr], and Khoekhoe [naq] but is quite distinct from each of these and not mutually intelligible. Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Kalahari Khoe, Northwest. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuhane
[sbs] Zambezi region. L1 users: 23,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 30,870. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuahane, Chikwahane, Ciikuhane, Echisubia, Ikuhane, Mbalangwe, Subia, Subiya, Supia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Luyana [lyn], 60% with Tonga [toi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.42). Comments: Mbalangwe applies to speakers living in Mafwe area (Maho 1998:51). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kung-Ekoka
[knw] Otjozondjupa and Erongo regions: to Usakos and Dunguati; Khomas region: small border group. L1 users: 9,000 (Brenzinger 2013). Total users in all countries: 20,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Hu, !Khung, !Ku, !Kung, !Xu, !Xun, !Xung, Ekoka !Xung, Ekoka-!Xû, Kung, Qxü. Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Possibly the same as Northwestern !Kung [vaj]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwambi
[kwm] Oshana region; Omusati and Ohangwena regions bordering Oshana; southwest Oshikoto region. L1 users: 30,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Otjiwambo, Owambo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.23).

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Kwangali
[kwn] Kavango East and Kavango West regions. L1 users: 157,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 167,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Kwangare, Kwangari, Rukwangali, Rukwangari, Sikwangali. Dialects: Sambyu (Sambio, Sambiu, Shisambyu). May be intelligible of Diriku [diu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.33).

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Kwanyama
[kua] Oshikoto, Kunene, and Ohangwena regions; Kavango West, northeast Omusati, and eastern Oshana regions. L1 users: 1,020,000 (2014 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2009, National Curriculum, Basic Education, Sections 4.1.5.1 and 5.5), mainly used as education medium in primary grades. Alternate Names: Humba, Kuanyama, Kwancama, Kwanjama, Ochikwanyama, Oshikwanyama, Otjiwambo, Ovambo, Owambo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.21).

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Lozi
[loz] Widespread in Zambezi and Kavango East regions. L1 users: 25,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (2009, National Curriculum, Basic Education, Sections 4.1.5.1 and 5.5), mainly used as primary educational medium in certain areas. Spoken as lingua franca by all residents of East Caprivi Strip. Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Lozi (K.21). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mashi
[mho] Kavango East and Zambezi regions; scattered nomadic groups. L1 users: 200 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Masi. Dialects: North Kwandu, South Kwandu, Mashi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.34). Comments: Non-indigenous. Nomadic. Distinct from Mashi [shr] (Shi) which relates to Havu [hav] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion.

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Mbalanhu
[lnb] Kunene region. L1 users: 200 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mbaanhu, Mbalantu, Mbaluntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.214).

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Kavango East and Zambezi regions. L1 users: 6,900 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Gova, Kusso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimbukushu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kwangali [kwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.333). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Namibian Sign Language
[nbs] Scattered. L1 users: 8,310 (2008 WFD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2009, National Curriculum, Basic Education, Sections 4.1.5.1 and 5.5), used in educational settings. Classification: Sign language.

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Naro
[nhr] Omaheke region: east of Gobabis to Botswana border. L1 users: 2,000 (Brenzinger 2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Nharo. Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Kalahari Khoe, Southwest.

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Ndonga
[ndo] Kunene, Omusati, and Oshana regions; east area, Oshikoto and Ohangwena regions. Areas in Kunene and Oshana regions are small and scattered. L1 users: 700,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ambo, Ochindonga, Oshindonga, Osindonga, Otjiwambo, Owambo. Dialects: Ngandyera, Eunda Kolonkadhi, Kwaludhi. Ngandyera may be a separate language. Partially intelligible of Kwanyama [kua]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.22). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Northwestern !Kung
[vaj] Kavango East and Zambezi regions; Otjozondjupa region: southeast of Omataku river. L1 users: 54,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 59,630. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !’O-!Khung, !Ku, !Kung, !Xun, Sekela, Vasekela Bushman, Vasekele. Dialects: None known. May be the same as Kung-Ekoka [knw]. Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Large numbers migrated to Namibia and South Africa due to the Angola war.

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Tswana
[tsn] Omaheke region: Botswana border; Hardap region. L1 users: 5,310 (2014 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Setswana. Dialects: Tlharo, Tlhaping, Tawana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31).

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!Xóõ
[nmn] Hardap region: Botswana border, Aranos and Leonardville area. L1 users: 500 (2014 C. Naumann). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Auni (|Auni, |Auo), Kakia (Masarwa), Ki|hazi, Ng|u|en (||U||en, |Nu||en, |U||en, Ng|u|ei, Nu||en), Nusan (Ng|usan, Noosan, Nu-San), Xatia (|Eikusi, |Kusi, Katia, Kattea, Khatia, Vaalpens), !Kwi. Classification: Tuu, Taa.

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Yeyi
[yey] Zambezi region. L1 users: 5,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciyei, Seyeyi, Shiyeyi, Yeei, Yei, “Koba” (pej.), “Kuba” (pej.), “Sekoba” (pej.). Dialects: Shirwanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Yeyi (R.41). Comments: Christian.

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Zemba
[dhm] Kunene region: south of Kunene river. L1 users: 12,000 (2009 J. Strasen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhimba, Himba, Luzimba, Oluthimba, Otjidhimba, Simba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.311).

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