Namibia

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Afrikaans
[afr] Hardap and Khomas regions. 214,000 in Namibia (2010 UNSD). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Former official status. Not known in the north, in Owambo tribes, and Kavango and Caprivi regions.

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Diriku
[diu] Kavango West and Kavango East regions; Otjozondjupa and Zambezi regions. 10,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 36,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Dciriku, Diriko, Gciriku, Manyo, Mbogedo, Mbogedu, Rugciriku, Rumanyo, Shimbogedu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Simaa [sie] and Kwangali [kwn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.332).

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English
[eng] 129,000 in Namibia (2010 UNSD). L2 users: 300,000 in Namibia (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fwe
[fwe] Zambezi region. 9,950 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kuhane [sbs]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.402). Comments: Different from We dialect of Tonga [toi].

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German, Standard
[deu] Khomas region: large Windhoek community; Omaruru, Otjiwarongo, and larger cities. 7,230 in Namibia (2010 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hai||om
[hgm] Otjozondjupa region: Grootfontein area; possibly in Mangetti Dune, Omataku, Baghani, Tsintsabis. 16,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 46,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Haikom, Haikum, Hei||om, Heikom, Heikom Bushman, Heikum, Oshikwankala Hai||om , Xwaga. Dialects: Kede (Kedde, Keddi), ‡Akhoe, Gomkhoe (Gomaikhoe, Mangetti-Hai||om, Xomkhoe). Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Khoekhoe, Hainum. Comments: Possibly in Angola, where they reportedly originated. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Herero
[her] Omaheke region; Otjozondjupa region: southeast corner and central area, Otumborombonga; Kunene region: Sesfontein north to Angola border area. 62,600 in Namibia (2010 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 73,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ochiherero, Otjiherero, Ovaherero. Dialects: Mbandieru (East Herero, Mbanderu), Central Herero, Himba (Ovahimba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.30). Comments: Erroneously called ‘Damara’. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ju|’hoan
[ktz] Otjozondjupa region: east central; Omaheke region: north border; Kavango East and Kavango West regions. 25,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 30,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Xo, !Xun, Dobe Kung, Dzu’oasi, Ju’oasi, Kung, Kung-Tsumkwe, Tshumkwe, Xaixai, Xû, Zhu’oasi. Dialects: Dzu’oasi (Ssu Ghassi, Zhu’oase), Nogau (Agau), ‡Kx’au||’ein (||Au||ei, ||X’au||’e, ‡Kx’au||’ei, Auen, Kaukau, Koko, Kung-Gobabis). Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ju|’hoan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khoekhoe
[naq] Erongo, Kunene, and Otjozondjupa (Otiwarongo area) regions; south central near Ikaras and Hardap regions. 200,000 in Namibia (Brenzinger 2013). Total users in all countries: 202,200. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Bergdamara, Damara, Hai||’om, “Hottentot” (pej.), Khoekhoegowab, Khoekhoegowap, Maqua, Nama, Namakwa, Naman, Namaqua, Tama, Tamakwa, Tamma. Dialects: Sesfontein-Dama (Sesfontein Damara), Namidama, Central Damara (Central Dama), Central Nama (Nama), Bondelswarts-Nama (Bondelswarts), Topnaar-Nama (Topnaar). Lexical similarity: Sesfontein Damara over 80% with central dialects, 80% with Haiom [hgm] (Haacke 2008). Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Khoekhoe, Nama.

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Khwe
[xuu] Zambezi and Kavango East regions, between Okavango and Zambezi rivers. 4,000 in Namibia (Brenzinger 2013). Total users in all countries: 7,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Barakwena” (pej.), “Barakwengo” (pej.), Khoe, Khwe-||Ani, Kxoe, Kxoedam, “Mbarakwena” (pej.), “Water Bushmen” (pej.), Xun. Dialects: ||Xo-Kxoe, ||Xom-Kxoe, Buma-Kxoe, Buga-Kxoe, ||Ani. Minor dialect differences within Khwe. Related to ||Ani [hnh], Naro [nhr], and Khoekhoe [naq] but is quite distinct from each of these and not mutually intelligible. Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Kalahari Khoe, Northwest. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kuhane
[sbs] Zambezi region. 23,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 30,830. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuahane, Chikwahane, Ciikuhane, Echisubia, Ikuhane, Mbalangwe, Subia, Subiya, Supia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Luyana [lyn], 60% with Tonga [toi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subiya-Totela (K.42). Comments: Mbalangwe applies to speakers living in Mafwe area (Maho 1998:51). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kung-Ekoka
[knw] Otjozondjupa and Erongo regions: to Usakos and Dunguati; Khomas region: small border group. 9,000 in Namibia (Brenzinger 2013). Total users in all countries: 20,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Hu, !Khung, !Ku, !Kung, !Xu, !Xun, !Xung, Ekoka !Xung, Ekoka-!Xû, Kung, Qxü. Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Possibly the same as Northwestern !Kung [vaj]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwambi
[kwm] Oshana region; Omusati and Ohangwena regions bordering Oshana; southwest Oshikoto region. 30,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Otjiwambo, Owambo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.23).

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Kwangali
[kwn] Kavango East and Kavango West regions. 157,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 167,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Kwangare, Kwangari, Rukwangali, Rukwangari, Sikwangali. Dialects: Sambyu (Sambio, Sambiu, Shisambyu). May be intelligible of Diriku [diu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.33).

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Kwanyama
[kua] Oshikoto, Kunene, and Ohangwena regions; Kavango West, northeast Omusati, and eastern Oshana regions. 585,000 in Namibia (2010 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Humba, Kuanyama, Kwancama, Kwanjama, Ochikwanyama, Otjiwambo, Ovambo, Owambo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.21).

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Lozi
[loz] Widespread in Zambezi and Kavango East regions. 25,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Spoken as lingua franca by all residents of East Caprivi Strip. Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Lozi (K.21). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mashi
[mho] Kavango East and Zambezi regions; scattered nomadic groups. 200 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Masi. Dialects: North Kwandu, South Kwandu, Mashi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.34). Comments: Non-indigenous. Nomadic. Distinct from Mashi [shr] (Shi) which relates to Havu [hav] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion.

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Mbalanhu
[lnb] Kunene region. 200 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mbaanhu, Mbalantu, Mbaluntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.214).

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Kavango East and Zambezi regions. 6,900 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 35,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Gova, Kusso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimbukushu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kwangali [kwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.333). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Namibian Sign Language
[nbs] Scattered. 8,310 (2008 WFD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language.

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Naro
[nhr] Omaheke region: east of Gobabis to Botswana border. 2,000 in Namibia (Brenzinger 2013). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Nharo. Classification: Khoe-Kwadi, Khoe, Kalahari Khoe, Southwest.

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Ndonga
[ndo] Kunene, Omusati, and Oshana regions; east area, Oshikoto and Ohangwena regions. Areas in Kunene and Oshana regions are small and scattered. 700,000 (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Education Act No. 16, Article 35), implemented by Ministry of Education, 2003. Alternate Names: Ambo, Ochindonga, Oshindonga, Osindonga, Otjiwambo, Owambo. Dialects: Ngandyera, Eunda Kolonkadhi, Kwaludhi. Ngandyera may be a separate language. Partially intelligible of Kwanyama [kua]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.22). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Northwestern !Kung
[vaj] Kavango East and Zambezi regions; Otjozondjupa region: southeast of Omataku river. 54,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 59,630. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: !Ku, !Kung, !’O-!Khung, !Xun, Sekela, Vasekela Bushman, Vasekele. Dialects: None known. May be the same as Kung-Ekoka [knw]. Classification: Kx’a, !Kung. Comments: Large numbers migrated to Namibia and South Africa due to the Angola war.

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Tswana
[tsn] Omaheke region: Botswana border; Hardap region. 2,380 in Namibia (2010 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Tlharo, Tlhaping, Tawana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.31).

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!Xóõ
[nmn] Hardap region: Botswana border, Aranos and Leonardville area. 500 in Namibia (2014 C. Naumann). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Auni (|Auni, |Auo), Kakia (Masarwa), Ki|hazi, Ng|u|en (||U||en, |Nu||en, |U||en, Ng|u|ei, Nu||en), Nusan (Ng|usan, Noosan, Nu-San), Xatia (|Eikusi, |Kusi, Katia, Kattea, Khatia, Vaalpens), !Kwi. Classification: Tuu, Taa.

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Yeyi
[yey] Zambezi region. 5,000 in Namibia (2002 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ciyei, “Koba” (pej.), “Kuba” (pej.), “Sekoba” (pej.), Seyeyi, Shiyeyi, Yeei, Yei. Dialects: Shirwanga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Yeyi (R.41). Comments: Christian.

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Zemba
[dhm] Kunene region: south of Kunene river. 12,000 in Namibia (2009 J. Strasen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhimba, Himba, Luzimba, Oluthimba, Otjidhimba, Simba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.311).

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