New Caledonia

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Ajië
[aji] Nord and Sud provinces: Houaïlou east coast, and Monéo to Kouaoua and inland valleys. 5,360 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A’jie, Anjie, Houaïlou, Wai, Wailu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic. Comments: Christian.

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Arhâ
[aqr] Nord and Sud provinces: west coast, Poya, upper valleys. 170 (2009 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ara. Dialects: None known. Arhâ and Arhö [aok] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic. Comments: Christian.

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Arhö
[aok] Nord and Sud provinces: Cradji, Nékliai, and Poya on west coast. 10 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 350. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aro. Dialects: None known. Arhö and Arhâ [aqr] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic. Comments: Different from Arhâ [aqr]. Christian.

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Bislama
[bis] Sud province: mainly Nouméa. Ethnic population: 2,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bichelamar. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific. Comments: Non-indigenous. All from Vanuatu. Christian.

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Bwatoo
[bwa] Nord and Sud provinces: west coast, Voh Koné area, Baco, Gatope, and Oundjo; Népou and Poya. 150 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lexical similarity: most closely with Haveke [hvk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke. Comments: Christian.

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Caac
[msq] Nord province: east coast, Pouébo. 1,170 (2009 census), increasing. 33% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caaac, Caawac, Moenebeng, Mwelebeng. Dialects: Pouébo (Pwebo), La Conception (Saint Louis). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Cemuhî
[cam] Nord province: east coast, Touho, from Congouma to Wagap and inland valleys. 2,600 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camuhi, Camuki, Cemuhi, Cèmuhî, Tie, Touho, Tyamuhi, Wagap. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Drehu
[dhv] Loyalty Iles province: Lifou and Tiga. 13,000 (2009), increasing. 60% live in greater Nouméa. Population figure adapted from 2009 census figure of 15,586 includes many second language speakers. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dehu, De’u, Lifou, Lifu, Qene Drehu. Dialects: Minimal dialect difference between the 3 districts of Wetr, Gaica and Mu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands. Comments: Christian.

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Drubea
[duf] Sud province: west coast, Païta; east coast, Unia. 1,210 (2009 census), decreasing. Over a third live outside the traditional language area, mostly in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diubea, Dubea, Dumbea, Naa Drubea, Naa Dubea, Ndumbea, Nraa Drubea, Paita. Dialects: None known. Slight differences between west and east coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Fagauvea
[uve] Loyalty Iles province: Lifou and Tiga, Ouvea Atoll, north and south. 2,220 (2009 census), increasing. 51% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Faga Uvea, Faga-Uvea, West Uvean. Dialects: None known. Related to Wallisian [wls], but 3 centuries of contact with Iaai [iai] have resulted in significant phonological and lexical differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic. Comments: Different from East Uvean [wls] on Uvea Island in Wallis Islands. Christian.

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French
[fra] Sud province: Nouméa. 68,300 in New Caledonia (2009 census). L2 users: 191,000 in New Caledonia (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, French Constitution, Article 2). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Futuna, East
[fud] Sud province: mainly Nouméa. Ethnic population: 2,900. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Futunian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Futuna-Aniwa [fut] (West Futuna) in Vanuatu. Christian.

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Fwâi
[fwa] Nord province: east coast, Hienghène; Panié to Pindache and lower valleys. 1,860 (2009 census), increasing. 30% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Poai, Yehen, Yengen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi. Comments: Christian.

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Haeke
[aek] Nord province: west coast, Baco and Voh-Koné. 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aeke, ’Aeke, Baco, Haeake. Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Haekic. Comments: Christian.

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Haveke
[hvk] Nord province: west coast, Voh-Koné: Gatope, Oundjo, and Tiéta. 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aveke, ’Aveke. Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Bwatoo [bwa] is most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Hmwaveke
[mrk] Nord province: west coast, Tiéta and Voh. 200 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ceta, Faa Ceta, ’Moaveke. Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke. Comments: Christian.

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Iaai
[iai] Loyalty Iles province: Ouvéa. 4,080 (2009 census). 57% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hwen Iaai, Iai, Yai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands. Comments: Christian.

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Javanese, New Caledonian
[jas] Sud province: Nouméa peninsula. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Migrant workers who came primarily between 1900 and 1938. Since World War II migration continued in both directions by individuals and families. The language is influenced by French, in contrast to Javanese [jav] of Indonesia, which is influenced by Indonesian [ind]. Muslim.

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Jawe
[jaz] Nord province: east coast, Hienghène, Tao to Tchamboenne; inland villages on both sides of central divide. 990 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diahoue, Njawe, Oubatch, Ubach. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi. Comments: Christian.

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Neku
[nek] Sud province: west coast, Bourail and Moindou, lower valley. 130 (2009 census), decreasing. 34% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic. Comments: Christian.

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Nêlêmwa-Nixumwak
[nee] Nord province: west coast, Koumac (Nixumwak) and Poum (Nelemwa). 1,090 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fwa-Goumak, Koumac, Kumak. Dialects: Nelemwa (Nelema, Nenema), Nixumwak (Fwa Kumak, Koumac, Kumak). Dialect differences mostly phonological and lexical. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Nemi
[nem] Nord province: east coast, Hienghène, coast north of town and upper inland valleys; west coast, Ouélisse, Témala and Voh. 910 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: East Coast Nemi, West Coast Nemi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi. Comments: Christian.

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Nengone
[nen] Loyalty Iles province: Mare and Tiga. 8,720 (2009 census), increasing. 53% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Iwatenu, Mare, Pene Nengone. Dialects: None known. Iwateno (Iwatenu) is a register of respect; Egesho is a joking or insulting register. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands. Comments: Christian.

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Numèè
[kdk] Sud province: Isle Ouen (Ouen); Isle of Pines (Kwenyii). Numee dialect: Touaouru, Goro, and Yate on south end of main island. 2,180 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dialectes de l’Extreme Sud, Duauru, Kapone, Kunie, Kwényi, Naa Numee, Naa-Wee, Ouen, Touaouru, Truaru, Tuauru, Uen, Wen, Xere. Dialects: Numèè (Touaouru), Ouen, Kwényi (Kunie). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern. Comments: Distinct from Nume [tgs] of Vanuatu. Some regard Kwenyii (Isle of Pines) a distinct language, probably more on sociolinguistic than purely linguistic grounds. Christian.

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Nyelâyu
[yly] Nord province: Belep island; mainland at Arama, balade, and Tiari. 1,960 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nielaiou, Nielaiu, Nyalayu, Puma, Yalasu, Yalayu. Dialects: Belep, Arama, Tiari-Balade. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Orowe
[bpk] Sud province: west coast, Azareu, Bouirou and upper valleys, Ny, and Pothé. 490 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abwebwe, Boewe, Boewi, ’Ôrôê. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ajië [aji]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic. Comments: Christian.

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Paicî
[pri] Nord province: east coast, Poindimié and Ponérihouen; west coast, Koné, Poya, and inland valleys. 7,250 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cî, Paaci, Pati, Ponerihouen. Dialects: Minor lexical and phonetic variation between East and West Coast, and on the East between Poindimié and Ponérihouen regions. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Pije
[piz] Nord province: east coast, Hienghène, Oué-hawa, Tiendanite, and Tipindjé; Touho: Ouanache and Tiouandé. 180 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pindje, Pinje. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi. Comments: Christian.

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Pwaamei
[pme] Nord province: west coast, Boyen, Ouélisse, Témala and Voh. 290 (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Poamei, Pwamei. Dialects: Hnaaka, Yaak (Zaak). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North. Comments: Christian.

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Pwapwâ
[pop] Nord province: west coast, Boyen, Témala, and Voh. 40 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Poapoa, Pwapwa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North. Comments: Christian.

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Sîshëë
[sih] Nord province: Poya commune; Sud province: Bourail commune; Coral Sea coastal plain. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in the 1990s. Ethnic population: 19 (2009 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nere, Siche, Sirhe, Yirhe, Yirhee, Ziche, Zira, Zire. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri.

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Tayo
[cks] South of greater Nouméa, Saint Louis; Mont-Dore and Ploum. 900 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Patois, Patois de St-Louis. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of French [fra]. Classification: Creole, French based. Comments: Christian.

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Tîrî
[cir] Sud province: west coast, Couli (Sarraméa), La Foa lower valleys (Tîrî); east coast, Kouaoua, upper valleys (Méa). 600 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ciiri, Ciri, Grand Couli, Hamea, Ha-Tiri, Méa, Tinrin, Tiri-Mea. Dialects: Tîrî, Méa (Ha Mea, Hameha, Mea, Xaa Mea). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri. Comments: Christian.

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Vamale
[mkt] Nord province: east coast Ouanache, Téganpaïk, and Tiouandé (Vamale dialect); West coast Tiéta and Voh (Hmwaeke dialect). 100 (2009 census), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hmwaeke, ’Moaeke, Pamale. Dialects: Vamale, Hmwaeke. Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern.

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Waamwang
[wmn] Nord province: Voh commune. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wamoang. Dialects: Now generally regarded as extinct dialect of Voh-Koné group of languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke.

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Wallisian
[wls] Sud province: mainly Nouméa. Ethnic population: 18,400. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: East Uvean, Uvean, Wallisien. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo’ou. Comments: Non-indigenous. Originally from Uvea Island in Wallis and Futuna. Borrowed heavily from Tongan [ton]. Tongan increasingly influenced by English [eng] and Wallisian by French [fra]. Christian.

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Xârâcùù
[ane] Nord and Sud provinces: east coast, Canala and Thio; west coast Boulouparis and La Foa. 5,730 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anesu, Canala, Haraneu, Kanala, Naa Xaracuu, Xaracii. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure. Comments: Christian.

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Xârâgurè
[axx] Sud province: east coast, Thio; west coast, Ouinané. 760 (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aragure, ’Aragure, Borendy, Borindi, Haragure, Naa Xaragure, Thio, Xaragure. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure. Comments: Christian.

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Yuanga
[nua] Nord province: west coast and central north, inland valleys between Gomen (Thuanga) and Ouégoa (Juanga). 2,400 (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonde, Gomen, Juanga, Nua, Nyua, Nyuaanga, Thuanga, Yuaanga, Yuaga, Zwanga. Dialects: Thuanga (Gomen), Juanga (Bonde, Paimboas). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern. Comments: Christian.

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