New Caledonia

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Ajië
[aji] North and South provinces: Houaïlou east coast, and Monéo to Kouaoua and inland valleys. Population: 5,360 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: A’jie, Anjie, Houaïlou, Wai, Wailu. Autonym: Waawilûû. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic.

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Arhâ
[aqr] North and South provinces: west coast, Poya, upper valleys. Population: 170 (2009 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ara. Dialects: None known. Arhâ and Arhö [aok] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic.

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Arhö
[aok] North and South provinces: Cradji, Nékliai, and Poya on west coast. Population: 10 (Wurm 2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 350. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aro. Dialects: None known. Arhö and Arhâ [aqr] are very closely related to each other and to Ajië [aji], but are mutually unintelligible (de la Fontinelle 1976). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic.

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Bislama
[bis] South province: mainly Nouméa. Population: Ethnic population: 2,500 (2014). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bichelamar. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific.

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Bwatoo
[bwa] North and South provinces: west coast, Voh Koné area, Baco, Gatope, and Oundjo; Népou and Poya. Population: 150 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Lexical similarity: most closely with Haveke [hvk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke.

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Caac
[msq] North province: east coast, Pouébo. Population: 1,170 (2009 census), increasing. 33% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caaac, Caawac, Moenebeng, Mwelebeng. Dialects: Pouébo (Pwebo), La Conception (Saint Louis). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern.

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Cemuhî
[cam] North province: east coast, Touho, from Congouma to Wagap and inland valleys. Population: 2,600 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camuhi, Camuki, Cemuhi, Cèmuhî, Tie, Touho, Tyamuhi, Wagap. Autonym: Cemuhî. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central.

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Drehu
[dhv] Loyalty Islands province: Lifou and Tiga. Population: 13,000 (2009), increasing. 60% live in greater Nouméa. Population figure adapted from 2009 census figure of 15,586 includes many second language speakers. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: De’u, Dehu, Lifou, Lifouan, Lifu, Qene Drehu. Autonym: Drehu. Dialects: Minimal dialect difference between the 3 districts of Wetr, Gaica and Mu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands.

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Drubea
[duf] South province: west coast, Païta; east coast, Unia. Population: 1,210 (2009 census), decreasing. Over a third live outside the traditional language area, mostly in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diubea, Dubea, Dumbea, Naa Drubea, Naa Dubea, Ndumbea, Nraa Drubea, Paita. Dialects: None known. Slight differences between west and east coast. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern.

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Fagauvea
[uve] Loyalty Islands province: Lifou and Tiga, Ouvea Atoll, north and south. Population: 2,220 (2009 census), increasing. 51% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Faga Uvea, Faga-Uvea, Iaian, Ouvean, West Uvean. Dialects: None known. Related to Wallisian [wls], but 3 centuries of contact with Iaai [iai] have resulted in significant phonological and lexical differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic.

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French
[fra] South province: Nouméa. Population: 266,300 in New Caledonia, all users. L1 users: 68,300 in New Caledonia (2009 census). L2 users: 198,000 (2014). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1958, French Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Futuna, East
[fud] South province: mainly Nouméa. Population: Ethnic population: 2,900. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Futunian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic.

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Fwâi
[fwa] North province: east coast, Hienghène; Panié to Pindache and lower valleys. Population: 1,860 (2009 census), increasing. 30% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fûai, Poai, Yehen, Yengen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi.

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Haeke
[aek] North province: west coast, Baco and Voh-Koné. Population: 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: ’Aeke, Aeke, Baco, Haeake. Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Haekic.

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Haveke
[hvk] North province: west coast, Voh-Koné: Gatope, Oundjo, and Tiéta. Population: 300 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: ’Aveke, Aveke. Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Bwatoo [bwa] is most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern.

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Hmwaveke
[mrk] North province: west coast, Tiéta and Voh. Population: 200 (2009), decreasing. Estimated population based on 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: ’Moaveke, Ceta, Faa Ceta. Dialects: Regarded as a dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke.

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Iaai
[iai] Loyalty Islands province: Ouvéa. Population: 4,080 (2009 census). 57% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hwen Iaai, Iai, Yai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands.

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Javanese, New Caledonian
[jas] South province: Nouméa peninsula. Population: Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese.

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Jawe
[jaz] North province: east coast, Hienghène, Tao to Tchamboenne; inland villages on both sides of central divide. Population: 990 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diahoue, Njawe, Oubatch, Ubach. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi.

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Neku
[nek] South province: west coast, Bourail and Moindou, lower valley. Population: 130 (2009 census), decreasing. 34% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic.

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Nêlêmwa-Nixumwak
[nee] North province: west coast, Koumac (Nixumwak) and Poum (Nelemwa). Population: 1,090 (2009 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fwa-Goumak, Koumac, Kumak. Dialects: Nelemwa (Nelema, Nenema), Nixumwak (Fwa Kumak, Koumac, Kumak). Dialect differences mostly phonological and lexical. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern.

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Nemi
[nem] North province: east coast, Hienghène, coast north of town and upper inland valleys; west coast, Ouélisse, Témala and Voh. Population: 910 (2009 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: East Coast Nemi, West Coast Nemi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi.

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Nengone
[nen] Loyalty Islands province: Mare and Tiga. Population: 8,720 (2009 census), increasing. 53% live in greater Nouméa. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Iwatenu, Mare, Marean, Nengonese, Pene Nengone. Autonym: Nengone. Dialects: None known. Iwateno (Iwatenu) is a register of respect; Egesho is a joking or insulting register. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Loyalty Islands.

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Numèè
[kdk] South province: Isle Ouen (Ouen dialect); Isle of Pines (Kwényi dialect); Touaouru, Goro, and Yate on south end of main island (Numèè dialect). Population: 2,180 (2009 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dialectes de l’Extreme Sud, Duauru, Kapone, Kunie, Kwényi, Naa Numee, Naa-Wee, Ouen, Touaouru, Truaru, Tuauru, Uen, Wen, Xere. Dialects: Numèè (Touaouru), Ouen, Kwényi (Kunie). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, Extreme Southern.

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Nyelâyu
[yly] North province: Belep island; mainland at Arama, Balade, and Tiari. Population: 1,960 (2009 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nielaiou, Nielaiu, Nyalayu, Puma, Yalasu, Yalayu. Dialects: Belep, Arama, Tiari-Balade. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern.

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Orowe
[bpk] South province: west coast, Azareu, Bouirou and upper valleys, Ny and Pothé. Population: 490 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: ’Ôrôê, Abwebwe, Boewe, Boewi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ajië [aji]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Wailic.

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Paicî
[pri] North province: east coast, Poindimié and Ponérihouen; west coast, Koné, Poya, and inland valleys. Population: 7,250 (2009 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cî, Paaci, Pati, Ponerihouen. Autonym: Paicî. Dialects: Minor lexical and phonetic variation between East and West Coast, and on the East between Poindimié and Ponérihouen regions. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Central.

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Pije
[piz] North province: east coast, Hienghène, Oué-hawa, Tiendanite, and Tipindjé; Touho: Ouanache and Tiouandé. Population: 180 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Pindje, Pinje. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Nemi.

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Pwaamei
[pme] North province: west coast, Boyen, Ouélisse, Témala and Voh. Population: 290 (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Poamei, Pwamei. Dialects: Hnaaka, Yaak (Zaak). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North.

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Pwapwâ
[pop] North province: west coast, Boyen, Témala, and Voh. Population: 40 (2006 census), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Poapoa, Pwapwa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North.

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Sîshëë
[sih] North province: Poya commune; South province: Bourail commune; Coral Sea coastal plain. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died by the year 2000. Ethnic population: 19 (2009 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nere, Siche, Sirhe, Yirhe, Yirhee, Ziche, Zira, Zire. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri.

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Tayo
[cks] South province: south of greater Nouméa, Saint Louis; Mont-Dore and Ploum. Population: 900 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Patois, Patois de St-Louis. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of French [fra]. Classification: Creole, French based.

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Tîrî
[cir] South province: west coast, Couli (Sarraméa), La Foa lower valleys (Tîrî dialect); east coast, Kouaoua, upper valleys (Méa dialect). Population: 600 (2009 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ciiri, Ciri, Grand Couli, Ha-Tiri, Hamea, Méa, Tinrin, Tiri-Mea. Dialects: Tîrî, Méa (Ha Mea, Hameha, Mea, Xaa Mea). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Zire-Tiri.

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Vamale
[mkt] North province: east coast Ouanache, Téganpaïk, and Tiouandé (Vamale dialect); West coast Tiéta and Voh (Hmwaeke dialect). Population: 100 (2009 census), decreasing. Estimated population based on census. 2009 census figures for all 6 Voh-Koné languages: 1,203. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: ’Moaeke, Hmwaeke, Pamale. Dialects: Vamale, Hmwaeke. Regarded as dialect of Voh-Koné (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern.

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Waamwang
[wmn] North province: Voh commune. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably survived into the 1950s (Sakiyama 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Wamoang. Dialects: Now generally regarded as extinct dialect of Voh-Koné group of languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, North, Hmwaveke.

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Wallisian
[wls] South province: mainly Nouméa. Population: Ethnic population: 18,400. Ethnic population estimated from global population figure for Futunians and Wallisians (2009 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: East Uvean, Uvean, Wallisien. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, East Uvean-Niuafo’ou.

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Xârâcùù
[ane] North and South provinces: east coast, Canala and Thio; west coast Boulouparis and La Foa. Population: 5,730 (2009 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anesu, Canala, Haraneu, Kanala, Naa Xaracuu, Xaracii. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure.

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Xârâgurè
[axx] South province: east coast, Thio; west coast, Ouinané. Population: 760 (2009 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: ’Aragure, Aragure, Borendy, Borindi, Haragure, Naa Xaragure, Thio, Xaragure. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Southern, South, Xaracuu-Xaragure.

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Yuanga
[nua] North province: west coast and central north, inland valleys between Gomen (Thuanga) and Ouégoa (Juanga). Population: 2,400 (2009 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonde, Gomen, Juanga, Nua, Nyua, Nyuaanga, Thuanga, Yuaanga, Yuaga, Zwanga. Dialects: Thuanga (Gomen), Juanga (Bonde, Paimboas). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, New Caledonian, Northern, Extreme Northern.

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