Niger

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Arabic, Algerian Saharan Spoken
[aao] Agadez area. L1 users: 10,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Originally from Algeria. Muslim.

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Arabic, Hassaniyya
[mey] Tahoua region: Tchin-tabaraden department. L1 users: 10,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hasanya, Hassani, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sulaka. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Arabic, Libyan Spoken
[ayl] Agadez region: Bilma north from N’guigmi to Libya border; Diffa region; Zinder region: Goure department. L1 users: 5,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Libyan Vernacular Arabic, Sulaimitian Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Shuwa
[shu] Diffa region: north shore, Lake Chad. L1 users: 5,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Arabe Choa, Chadic Arabic, Shua. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] 7,800 in Niger (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2010, Constitution, Article 5), used in education. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dazaga
[dzg] Diffa region: N’guigmi department, east near Chadian border; Zinder region: Goure department. L1 users: 50,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Daza, Toubou, Tubu. Dialects: Kashirda, Azzaga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu. Comments: Muslim.

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French
[fra] 2,176,000 in Niger, all users. L1 users: 6,000 (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 2,170,000 (2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Central-Eastern Niger
[fuq] Widespread. L1 users: 450,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Fula, Fulani, Fulbe, Peul, Peulh. Dialects: Wodaabe. Culturally distinct from other Fulfulde varieties. Many loanwords from Hausa [hau]. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: The Fulbe (15,000,000) from Senegal to Sudan consider themselves one ethnic group speaking one language, but acknowledge differences in speech. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Fulfulde, Western Niger
[fuh] Tillabéri region: west and central; Dosso region: Burkina Faso border east to Dogondoutchi area; group in Niamey. L1 users: 450,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (all Fulani). Total users in all countries: 1,650,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Fula, Fulani, Fulbe, Gorgal Fulfulde, Northeastern Burkina Faso Fulfulde, Peul, Peulh. Autonym: Fulfulde. Dialects: Dallol, Bitinkoore, Tera. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: The Fulbe from Senegal to Sudan consider themselves 1 ethnic group speaking 1 language, but acknowledge differences in speech. Muslim.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Tillabéri region: Say department, Burkina Faso border, south of Niamey. L1 users: 30,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulimancema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gurma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Hausa
[hau] Widespread in cities; along Nigeria border. 13,020,000 in Niger, all users. L1 users: 8,520,000 (2015). L2 users: 4,500,000 (2015). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (2001, Language Law No. 2001-037), mainly used in education. The main trade language of Niger. Alternate Names: Haoussa, Hausawa, Haussa. Dialects: Dawra, Katsina, Damagaram, Gobirawa, Aderawa, Arewa, Kurfey, Gaya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Muslim.

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Kanuri, Bilma
[bms] Agadez region: Bilma town area; group southwest. L1 users: 20,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bla Bla, Kanouri, Kanoury. Dialects: Bilma, Fachi. Kanuri subgroup member. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Muslim.

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Kanuri, Central
[knc] Diffa region: Banda area, west of Lake Chad, along Nigeria border. L1 users: 80,000 (1998). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kanuri, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri, “Beriberi” (pej.). Dialects: Movar (Mavar, Mobber, Mober, Mowor). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Movar may be a separate language. Muslim.

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Kanuri, Manga
[kby] Zinder region; Diffa Region: Maine-soroa and Diffa departments; Nigeria border. L1 users: 280,000 (1998). Total users in all countries: 480,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Kanouri, Kanoury, Manga. Dialects: Manga, Dagara. Dialect subgroup member with other Kanuri varieties and Kanembu [kbl] in Chad. A member of macrolanguage Kanuri [kau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Dagara dialect may be a separate language. Muslim.

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Kanuri, Tumari
[krt] Diffa region: Tumari in N’guigmi. Dialects in neighboring villages. L1 users: 40,000 (1998). 20,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanambu, Kanembu. Dialects: Tumari, Sugurti (Suwurti), Kubari (Kuwuri). Different from Kanembu [kbl] in Chad, although referred to as Kanembu in Niger. Gradual differentiation between Kanembu in Chad and Kanuri dialects. Reportedly most similar to Movar dialect of Central Kanuri [knc]. A member of macrolanguage Kanuri [kau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tagdal
[tda] Agadez region: Arlit and Tchirozerene departments; Tahoua region: southeast; northwest Zinder and north central Maradi regions. L1 users: 26,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Igalan. Dialects: Azawagh (Southern Tagdal), Air (Northern Tagdal). Tagdal lexicon is about 75%–80% Berber. Everyday vocabulary is about 50% Berber and 50% Songhay. Classification: Mixed language, Songhay-Berber. Comments: Nomadic. Muslim.

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Tamahaq, Tahaggart
[thv] Agadez region: north border area. L1 users: 20,000 (1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tamachek, Tamahaq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomachek, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg. Dialects: Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Djanet, Ganet). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamajaq, Tawallammat
[ttq] Agadez region: Tchirozerine department; Dosso region: Dogondoutchi department; northwest Maradi region; Tahoua and Tillabéri regions. Eastern dialect: central Tahoua from Ingal to Mali border; western dialect: west, north and northwest of Niamey. L1 users: 450,000 (1998). Total users in all countries: 801,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Amazigh, Tahoua, Tahoua Tamajeq, Tamachek, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tewellemet, Tomacheck, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg. Autonym: Tamajaq. Dialects: Tawallammat Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram. A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamajeq, Tayart
[thz] Agadez region: Arlit and Tchirozerine departments; northwest Zinder and east, southeast Tahoua regions; Maradi region: Dakoro and Mayahi departments. L1 users: 250,000 (1998). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Amazigh, Tamachek, Tomacheck, Touareg, Tuareg. Autonym: Tamajeq. Dialects: Air (Agadez, Tamestayert, Tayart, Tayert), Tanassfarwat (Tamagarast). A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: Nomadic. Muslim.

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Tasawaq
[twq] Ingal and Teguidda-n-Tessoumt, near Agadez. L1 users: 8,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingelshi. Autonym: Ingalkoyyu’. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tagdal [tda], Tadaksahak [dsq] of Mali, and Korandje [kcy] of Algeria. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern. Comments: Shares Songhay and Tamajaq features. Muslim.

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Tedaga
[tuq] Agadez region: Bilma department; Diffa region: N’guigmi department. L1 users: 10,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tebu, Teda, Tibbu, Toubou, Tubu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Tebu. Comments: Seminomadic. Muslim.

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Zarma
[dje] Tillabéri and Dosso regions; also Niamey. L1 users: 3,280,000 (2015). Total users in all countries: 3,370,100. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarmaci. Dialects: Kaado. In Niger, dialects from Dendi [ddn] and Songai blend into Zarma. Intelligibility is high, ethnic autonym: Dendi or Songai. Cannot understand Songhay, Koyraboro Senni [ses] in Mali. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Ethnic groups include Kurtey (32,000), Wogo (28,000), Songhay (400,000), Dendi (40,000). Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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