Netherlands

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Achterhoeks
[act] Gelderland province. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aachterhoeks, Achterhoek. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Identified by the government as variant of Low Saxon [nds] (1996).

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Drents
[drt] Drenthe province: near German border; Overijssel province: Steenwijkerland municipality. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Drente. Dialects: North Drente (Noord-Drents), South Drente (Zuid-Drents). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Identified by the government as variant of Low Saxon [nds] (1996).

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Dutch
[nld] 15,700,000 in Netherlands (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 22,040,690. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Hollands, Nederlands. Dialects: Northern North Hollandish (Westfries). Belgian variety of Dutch (not Vlaams [vls]) only slightly different from that of the Netherlands. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian.

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English
[eng] Widespread. L2 users: 15,000,000 in Netherlands (European Commission 2012). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Frisian
[fry] Friesland province; Groningen province: De Marne municipality. 467,000 in Netherlands (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 470,120. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Friesland Province (1996, Ratification Act, ECRML, No. 136). Alternate Names: Fries, Frysk. Dialects: Westerlauwers Fries, Súdhoeksk, Wâldfrysk, Klaaifrysk. Linguistically between Dutch [nld] and English [eng]. Lexical similarity: 71% with Standard German [deu], 61% with English [eng], 74% with East Frisian Low Saxon [frs]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Frisian.

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Gronings
[gos] Drenthe and Groningen provinces: Delfzijl, Oldambt, and Bellingwedde municipalties. 592,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Groningen, Grunnings. Dialects: West Groningen (West Gronings), Groningen-East Frisian (Gronings-Oostfries), Veenkoloniaals (Veen Colony), Westerwolds (Westerwold). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Identified by the government as variant of Low Saxon [nds] (1996).

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Limburgish
[lim] Limburg province: Maastricht, Heerlen, Roermond, Venlo. 700,000 in Netherlands (2001). Total users in all countries: 1,300,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Limburg Province (1996, Ratification Act, ECRML, No. 136), effective 1997. Alternate Names: Limberger, Limbourgeois, Limburgan, Limburgian, Limburgic, Limburgs, Limburgs Plat. Dialects: A Rhenisch-Maas group of dialects, often combined with Cleves dialects (Kleverländisch) as Rheinmaasländisch. Limburgish straddles the border between, Low Franconian and Middle Franconian varieties. More-or-less mutually intelligible with Ripuarian dialects, but show fewer, High German shifts (2001 R. Hahn). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Rhenisch Franconian. Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] 1,220 in Netherlands (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes. Dialects: Manouche. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Sallands
[sdz] Overijssels province: Sallands. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sallan, Salland. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Identified by the government as variant of Low Saxon [nds] (1996).

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Sign Language of the Netherlands
[dse] Scattered. 7,500 in Netherlands (2014 EUD). 45,000 deaf, 495,000 hard of hearing (2005 National Hearing Foundation). 7,500 sign language users (2014 EUD). 10,000–13,000 deaf or severely hard of hearing (Dovenschap brochure). 86,500 deaf (2014 IMB). L2 users: 15,000 in Netherlands. Total users in all countries: 22,500 (as L1: 7,500; as L2: 15,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dutch Sign Language, Nederlandse Gebarentaal, NGT, SLN. Dialects: Seven recognized dialects. Five developed around the original five deaf schools: Groningen, Amsterdam, The Hague, Rotterdam, and Brabant (Stoop 2014). One is associated with the unique home for deaf elderly people, and one is the standardized variety. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 400 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Organizations for SLN teachers and interpreters. A sign center (Nederlands Gebarencentrum) develops NGT teaching materials and studies NGT lexicography. Research on NGT done at University of Amsterdam and Radboud University. Although NGT recommended for official recognition by a special committee, the Dutch government has not recognized the language (Schermer 2012). Taught as L2 (e.g. parents of deaf children). Teachers at deaf schools and interpreters have official college-level training. Secular, Christian.

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Stellingwerfs
[stl] Friesland province: Stellingwerven region, Oosterwolde and Wolvega centers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Stellingwarfs, Stellingwerf. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Identified by the government as variant of Low Saxon [nds] (1996).

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Twents
[twd] Overijssels province. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Twente. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Identified by the government as variant of Low Saxon [nds] (1996).

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Veluws
[vel] Gelderland province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Veluwe. Dialects: East Veluws, North Veluws. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Identified by the government as variant of Low Saxon [nds] (1996).

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Vlaams
[vls] Zeeland province. 122,000 in Netherlands (1998 University of Ghent). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Vlaemsch, West Vlaams. Dialects: West Vlaams, Frans Vlaams (Vlaemsch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Sometimes refer to Dutch as Vlaams. Dutch is language of trade, tourism, school. Difficult to understand nearby Brabant dialect of Dutch, perhaps due to Scheldt River being natural barrier. Christian.

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Zeeuws
[zea] South Holland and Zeeland provinces. Rhine-Scheldt Delta islands have their own dialects. 220000 Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zeaws. Dialects: Goerees, Flakkees, Schouws, Duvelands, Fluplands, Bevelands, Walchers, Axels, Kezands. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Recognition under European Charter Part 2 requested (2001). Christian.

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