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Angika
[anp] Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts. 18,600 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Athpariya
[aph] Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, north of the Tamur, between the Dhankuta khola west, and the Tangkhuwa east; Dhankuta municipality and Bhirgau VDC. 5,530 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2002, Education Plan, Section 1.1.3). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Arthare, Athapre, Athpare, Athpre, Sanango Ring Dialects: None known. Athpare and Belhariya [byw] are very similar, but not mutually intelligible (Bickel 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Communities prefer to be called Kirati rather than Kirant. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Avadhi
[awa] Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi, Rupandehi and Kapilvastu districts; Bheri Zone, Banke and Bardia districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district; Seti Zone, Kailali district; Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district. 502,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 20,000 in Nepal (1991 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kushwadiya. Alternate Names: Abadhi, Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Awadhi, Dehati, Deshi, Gawnaru, Koseli Dialects: Baiswari, Chhatisgadhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Sikh.

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Bagheli
[bfy] Kosi Zone, Morang district. Ethnic population: 137,000 (2001 census). Kewat. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Gangai. Alternate Names: Bagelkhandi, Bhugelkhud, Gangai, Kawathi, Kenat, Kevat Boli, Kevati, Kewani, Kewat, Kewati, Kewot, Mandal, Mannadi, Riwai Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, East Central zone Comments: Further research is needed to identify whether Bagheli in Nepal is linked with Gangai (and Rajbanshi [rjs] or with Avadhi [awa]) as is Bagheli in India. Hindu.

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Bahing
[bhj] Sagarmatha Zone, northeast Okhaldhunga district, Harkapur, Ragdip, Bigutar, Baruneswor, Okhaldhunga, Rumjatar, Barnalu, Mamkha, Ratmate, Serna, Diyale, and Bhadaure VDCs (Rumdali dialect); mid southeastern Okhaldhunga district, Ketuke, Moli, Waksa, and Ubu VDCs (Tolocha dialect); Solukhumbu district south tip, Necha Batase and Sallyan VDCs; Khotang district; Kathmandu. 11,700 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Baying, Bayung, Kiranti-Bayung Dialects: Hangu, Moblocha, Nechali, Rumdali, Tolacha. 85% or above intelligibility among all dialects. Rumdali is best understood among all Bahing dialects (Lee et al 2005); Bahing is more homogeneous than most Kiranti languages. Related to Sunwar [suz]. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% with dialects, 48% with Sunwar [suz] (Lee et al 2005). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Bantawa
[bap] Kosi Zone, Morang, Dhankuta, Bhojpur, and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Khotang, Okhaldunga, and Udayapur districts; Mechi Zone, Ilam, Jhapa, Panchthar, and Taplejung districts. Amchoke dialect: Limbu area, especially Ilam district. Homeland is Eastern hills but many migrated to the Tarai. 133,000 in Nepal (2011 census). Population total all countries: 166,600. 6,000 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai.Some varieties are used as traditional lingua franca among Rai minorities in eastern Nepal, Sikkim, India, and Bhutan, and as L1 among Rai of other origin. (Bradley 1996). Alternate Names: Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa Dialects: Amchoke (Western Bantawa), Dhankuta (Eastern Bantawa), Dilpali (Northern Bantawa), Hatuwali (Southern Bantawa). Dialects are reportedly mutually inherently intelligible. Rungchenbung and Yangma are subvarieties of Dilpali. Eastern dialect is most divergent. Lexical similarity: Bantawa dialects and closely related languages form a continuum. Differences are primarily in meaning shifts and usage. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baram
[brd] Gandaki Zone, Central and southern Gorkha district, Dandagaun and Mailung VDCs, Takhu village up the Doraundi Khola, east side above Chorgate, near Kumhali. About 7 villages. May be in Dhading district. 160 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,380 (2001 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Baramou. Alternate Names: Baraamu, Baramu Dialects: Dandagaun, Mailung. Related to Thangmi [thf] (Grierson-Konow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Belhariya
[byw] Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, Belhara village and hill west of Dhankuta Bajar. 600 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Athpagari, Athpahariya, Athpare, Athpariya, Belhare Dialects: None known. Different from Athpariya [aph], although also called and closely related to it (Winter 1991). Not intelligible with Athpariya although Athpariya speakers claim full intelligibility (Bickel 1996:21). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Athpare refers to the ethnic group made up of Belhare and Athpariya which have close cultural ties, but who recognize their linguistic differences. They clarify by calling the Dhankuta people Noupagari and the Belhare people Athpagari (Bickel 1996). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Bengali
[ben] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Saptari district. Some in Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, Patan, Birgunj, Bhairawa, Nepalguni, and Janakpur. 21,100 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bangala, Bangla, Bangla-Bhasa Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Classified as a cultural group (2001 census). Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Bhojpuri
[bho] Narayani Zone, Rautahat, Bara, Parsa, and Chitwan districts; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi and Rupandehi districts; Janakpur Zone, Sarlahi district. 1,580,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 74,100 in Nepal (1991 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri Dialects: Banarsi Boli, Bangar Boli, Bhojpuri Tharu, Kashika, Mallika, Purbi Boli, Sheikh Boli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Bhujel
[byh] Gandaki Zone, Tanahun district, Kulmun, Arthumpka, Andimul, and Baniyatar; Gorkha district, Beltar; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, Dhodeni; Narayani Zone, Chitwan district, Chanaute. Separated from Chepang [cdm] language areaby Trisuli river. 21,700 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,200 (Regmi 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bhujel. Alternate Names: Bujal, Bujhel, Bujheli, Bujhyal, “Gharti” (pej.), Pukhgyal Ngur, Western Chepang Dialects: Andimul, Arthumpka, Baniyatar, Beltar, Chanaute, Dhodeni, Kulmun. More than 80% intelligibility among all the dialects. Pronominal affix differences hinder intelligibility with Chepang [cdm]. Lexical similarity: Between 34% (2011 D. Regmi) and 98% (2004 R. Caughley) with Chepang [cdm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Chepang-Bhujel Comments: Similar culturally to Magar and Gurung living near the Bhujel. Gharti is a sub-caste name associated with former slavery. Bhujels reject the name, but outsiders often use it. Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Bote
[bmj] Gandaki Zone,Tanahu district; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district; Narayani Zone, Chitwan district. Along the rivers, especially the Gandaki. 8,770 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 7,970. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bote. Alternate Names: Bote-Majhi, Pakhe-Bote, Pani-Bote Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: 2 groups of Bote: Pani (water) Bote and Pakhe (land) Bote. Hindu.

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Byangsi
[bee] Mahakali Zone, Darchula district, Byas valley. 9 villages. 480 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 2,100. L2 users: 160 in Nepal (1991 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Byasi. Alternate Names: Byangkho Lwo, Byanshi, Byansi, Byasi, Sauka, Shauka Dialects: Byansi, Pang Sungkhu Boli, Rang, Sauka, Yerjungkhu Boli. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora

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Chamling
[rab] East, Sagarmatha Zone, mainly central Khotang district and northern Udayapur districts. 76,800 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Camling, Chamlinge Rai, Rodong Dialects: Balamtali, Halesi, Ratanchhali. Ratanchhali and Halesi dialects are similar to each other but Balamtali is very different. Reportedly most similar to Bantawa [bap] and Puma [pum] linguistically. Many speak a variety mixed with Nepali [npi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Many ethnic subgroups, but linguistically homogeneous. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Chantyal
[chx] Dhawalagiri Zone, Myagdi district, Kali Gandaki river valley. Ethnic Chantel in Baglung district. 4,280 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,820 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Chhantyal. Alternate Names: Chantel, Chantel Kham, Chentel, Chhantel, Chhantyal, Khamkura Dialects: None known. Related to Gurung [ggn], Manangba [nmm], Tamang [tdg], and Thakali [ths] (Noonan 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Some believe Chantyal will be replaced soon. Outsiders often regard it as Magar, but they claim a Thakuri origin (de Sales 1993). Much lexical borrowing from Nepali. Sometimes called Khamkura as are Kham languages, which can have a general meaning of local non-Nepali dialect. (Watters 2002). Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Chepang
[cdm] Narayani Zone, Makwanpur, Chitwan districts; Bagmati Zone, southern Dhading district; Gandaki Zone, southern Gorkha district. 48,500 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Chepang. Alternate Names: Praja Bhasa, Tsepang Dialects: Eastern Chepang, Western Chepang. Bhujel [byh] has difficult intelligibility with Chepang due to different pronominal suffix morphology. Dialects of Chepang differ in verb forms. Reportedly similar in morphology to Kirati languages. Lexical similarity: 98% with Bhujel [byh] (2004 R. Caughley, based on 100-item word list). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Chepang-Bhujel Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chhintang
[ctn] East, Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, Chhintang and Aahale VDCs. 3,710 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Chhintange, Chintang, Chintang Rûng, Teli Dialects: Mulgaun, Sambhugaon. Probably not intelligible with Bantawa [bap], but sometimes considered a dialect of it due to reportedly ethnic similarities. Only a few lexical items and grammatical markers are different between the two dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chhulung
[cur] Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, Ankhisalla VDC. 2,050 (2011 census), decreasing. L1 speakers dwindling (Van Driem 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Chhiling, Chhilling, Chholung, Chhûlûng Rûng, Chiling, Chulung, Chülüng Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chukwa
[cuw] Kosi Zone, Bhojpur district, Kulung VDC, Jimigau. 100 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Only 5 fluent speakers (2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Cukwa Ring, Pohing, Pohing Kha Dialects: None known. A noticeable number of shared nouns with Northern Lohorung [lbr] (2011 J. Eppele). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Linguistically between Kulung-Nachering-Sangpang and Meohang-Saam (Hansson 1991), but there is no supporting data. The Chukwa claim a close linguistic and ethnic affiliation with Saam [raq]; they say that their language is very different from Kulung [kle], although Van Driem (2001) lists Chukwa as a subgroup of Kulung. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Danuwar
[dhw] Narayani Zone, Makwanpur; Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli; Bagmati Zone, Kabhrepalanchok and Lalitpur Districts. 45,800 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005). Ethnic population: 53,200. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Danuwar. Alternate Names: Danuwar Rai, Danwar, Denwar, Dhanvar, Dhanwar Dialects: Bakultar Danuwar, Dukuchhap Danuwar, Judigaon Danuwar, Kamala Khonch Danuwar, Panchkhal Danuwar, Sindhuli Danuwar. Danuwar Kachariya in Rautahat and elsewhere is probably distinct from Danuwar [dhw]. The dialects spoken in Bakultar, Panchkhal, Judigaon (Kabhrepalanchok) district are mutually intelligible, whereas the dialects spoken in Dukuchhap (Lalitpur district) and Sindhuli are different. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Darai
[dry] Narayani Zone, Chitwan district, Bharatpur municipality, Mangalpur, Kathar, Jagatpur, and Chainpur VDCs; Gandaki Zone, Tanahun district, Vyas municipality, Kyamin and Ramjakot VDCs. 11,700 (2011 census), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 14,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Darai. Dialects: Chitwan, Tanahun. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bote [bmj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Darai do not have social subdivisions found in most other Nepali groups. They do not organize communities into social, religious, economic, or political organizations (Bista 1996). Hindu.

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Dhimal
[dhi] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district, 24 villages; Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts, 51 villages; eastern and western dialects are separated by Kankai river in Jhapa. 19,300 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 19,750. Ethnic population: 19,500. L2 users: 410 in Nepal (1991 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Dhimal. Alternate Names: Dhemal Dialects: Eastern Dhimal, Western Dhimal. 75%–80% intelligibility between eastern and western dialect speakers. Lexical similarity: 80%–82% with dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Dhimalish Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Dolpo
[dre] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Barbung river valley, villages north and east of Kag; Tarap river valley, Lang village and north; beyond mountains west of upper Kali Gandaki river valley; confined by the Dhaulagiri Himal south and Tibet north; Suligag river valley, north of Rengi village and the lake area; headwaters of Karnali river; many small villages in Nangong, Panzang, Tarap, and Barbung river valleys. 1,670 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 8,000 (2010 K. Kopp). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Dolpo. Alternate Names: Dolkha, Dolpa Tibetan, Dolpali, Dolpike, Phoke Dolpa Dialects: None known. Phoksumdo Lake, Barbung River, and Charka areas are slightly different, but intelligibility is good. The central valleys of Nankong and Dho Tarap are well understood by other varieties. Lexical similarity: 78% with Loke [loy], 69% with Lhomi [lhm], 68% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Walungge [ola], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 67% with Nubri [kte], 66% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 62% with Jirel [jul] and Sherpa [xsr] (2010 K. Kopp). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Dotyali
[dty] Mahakali Zone, Baitadi, Dadeldhura, north Kanchanpur, south Daichula districts; Seti Zone, Doti, north Kailali, southwest Bajhang districts. Small area in Bheri Zone. 788,000 in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dotali, Doteli Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nepali [npi] and Kumaoni [kfy]. A member of macrolanguage Nepali [nep]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari

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Dumi
[dus] Sagarmatha Zone, north Khotang district, Makpa, Jalapa, Baksila, Sapteshwor, and Kharmi VDCs. 7,640 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Dumi Bo’o, Dumi Bro, Hopupo Bro, Lsi Rai, Ro’do Bo’, Sotmali Dialects: Kharbari, Lamdija, Makpa. Reportedly most similar to Khaling [klr] and Koi [kkt]. Makpa dialect is markedly divergent. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Efforts have been made by some to preserve the language by creating written materials. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Dungmali
[raa] Kosi Zone; east Bhojpur district, Thulo Dungma, Sano Dungma, and Bastim VDCs, east border is Arun river. 6,260 (2011 census), decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Arthare, Arthare-Khesang, Dungmali Pûk, Dungmali-Bantawa, Khesange Dialects: Khesang (Khesange). 82% cognate with Bantawa [bap] but morphology and phonology differ (Winter 1991). Lexical similarity: 80% with Bantawa [bap], 65% with Puma [pum]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Local names which may not be dialects: Chhinamkhang, Chhichhangchha, Hangbang, Khandung, Pungwai, Roktulung, Tuncha, Waitpang. Traditional religion.

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Dura
[drq] Gandaki Zone, Lamjung district, Dura Danda. Ethnic population: 2,160 (2011 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Dura. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish Comments: Tandrange may be a dialect of Dura. Hindu, Buddhist.

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Ghale, Northern
[ghh] Gandaki Zone, Gorkha district, Buri Gandaki valley. 4,440 (2006 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lila, Ril-Lila Dialects: Jagat, Khorla, Nyak, Philim, Uiya. Nyak is most diverse dialect. Philim has 94% intelligibility of Uiya. 75%–79% intelligibility of Barpak in Southern Ghale [ghe]. Dialect chain runs north and south. Lexical similarity: 73%–89% among dialects, 65%–81% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 45%–61% with Kuke [ght], 29%–37% with Western Tamang [tdg], 21%–27% with Nubri [kte], 22%–25% with Tsum [ttz], 19%–23% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 19%–21% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Ghale, Southern
[ghe] Gandaki Zone, Gorkha district, hills south of Macha Khola. 21,500 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galle Gurung, Lila, Ril-Lila Dialects: Barpak, Kyaura, Laprak. Some intelligibility between Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale. Dialect subgroup. Glover (1974:8–12) identifies a Ghale branch under Bodish intermediate between Tibetan and Gurung branches. Lexical similarity: 75%–78% among dialects, 65%–81% with Northern Ghale, 39%–49% with Kuke [ght], 27%–30% with Western Gurung [gvr], 31% with Western Tamang [tdg], 20% with Nubri [kte] and Tsum [ttz], 18% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Ghandruk Sign Language
[gds] Gandaki Zone, Kaski district, Ghandruk. 20 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Similar to Kathmandu and Pokhara dialects of Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Gurung, Eastern
[ggn] Gandaki Zone, Lamjung, Tanahu, and west Gorkha districts. Possibly Manang district. 227,000 (2007), decreasing. 326,000 all Gurung languages in Nepal (2011 census). 23,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 544,000. L2 users: 18,918 L2 speakers of all Gurung languages. Mainly occupational castes who live in and serve the Gurung communities (1991 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Gurung. Alternate Names: Daduwa, Gurung, Tamu Kyi Dialects: Gorkha Gurung, Lamjung Gurung, Tamu Kyi. Eastern and Western Gurung [gvr] do not have adequate intelligibility to handle complex and abstract discourse. Daduwa town in Lamjung District seems central linguistically. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Buddhist, Hindu.

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Gurung, Western
[gvr] Gandaki Zone, Kaski and Syangja districts; Dhawalagiri Zone, Parbat district. Possibly in Myanmar. 125,000 in Nepal (2007), increasing. 326,000 all Gurung languages in Nepal (2011 census). Population total all countries: 158,000. 12,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 544,000. L2 users: 18,918 L2 speakers of all Gurung languages. Mainly occupational castes who live in and serve the Gurung communities (1991 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Gurung. Alternate Names: Gurung, Tamu Kyi Dialects: Northwestern Gurung (Kaski Gurung), Southern Gurung (Syangja Gurung). Dialect speakers may have enough mutual intelligibility to understand complex and abstract discourse, but not enough with Eastern Gurung [ggn]. Related to Thakali [ths]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Helambu Sherpa
[scp] Bagmati Zone, northern Nuwakot and northwestern Sindhupalchok districts. 10,200 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Hyolmo. Alternate Names: Hyolmo, Yholmo, Yohlmu Tam, Yolmo Dialects: Eastern Helambu Sherpa, Lamjung Yohlmo, LangDang Yohlmo, Western Helambu Sherpa. Melamchi river divides dialects. Understand other dialects even for abstract and complex subjects, including possibly Tarke Ghyang, Kahng-Kharka, Pahndang, but not Kagate [syw]. Lexical similarity: 66% with Dolpo [dre] and Walungge [ola]; 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Jirel [jul], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 63% with Loke [loy] and Sherpa [xsr]; 61% with Nubri [kte]; 60% with Lhomi [lhm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: They go to northern India as laborers or resettle in Kathmandu or in India. Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian, traditional religion.

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Hindi
[hin] South, Tarai region; Kathmandu valley. 77,600 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 490,000 in Nepal (1991 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dakhini, Hindi-Urdu, Hindustani, Khariboli Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim.

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Humla
[hut] Seti Zone, Bajura district; Karnali Zone, Humla district, villages northwest from Simikot towards China border, villages slightly northeast of Simikot; Kathmandu. 4,000 (Sharma and Gautam 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dangali, “Humla Bhotia” (pej.), Humli Khyampa, Phoke Dialects: Humli Khyampa, La Yakba, Limi, Nyinba, Upper Humla. Nyinba is nearly unintelligible to other Humla Tibetans but speakers report all dialects are mutually intelligible (Wilde 2001). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist.

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Jerung
[jee] Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli district, Bahadur Khola west bank villages, Sunkosi river south to Mohangar village; Sagarmatha Zone, Okhaldhunga district, Maulang Khola river area, north of Sunkosi river. 1,760 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Jero, Jero Mala, Jerum, Jerunge, Jherung, Zero, Zero Mala, Zerum Dialects: Balkhu-Sisneri, Madhavpur, Ratnawati (Sindhuli). Reportedly most similar to Wambule [wme]. Alternate dialect analysis: Northern dialect spoken in Okhaldhunga District, Southern dialect in Sindhuli District. (2004 J. Opgenort). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: ’Chaurasia’ is the name for the linguistic unit combining Jerung and Wambule [wme]. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Jhankot Sign Language
[jhs] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Jhankot village. Status: Unattested. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Existence attested only by a single source (Taylor 1997).

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Jirel
[jul] Janakpur Zone, Dolakha district, Jiri (main area) and Sikri valleys, eastern hills; Chhyatrapa; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district; Bagmati Zone, Sindhupalchok district; Narayani Zone, Parsa district. 4,830 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Jirel. Alternate Names: Jiri, Jirial, Ziral Dialects: Accent differences, but not real dialects. Some comprehension of Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and some Tibetan dialects. Lexical similarity: 67% with Sherpa [xsr], 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 62% with Dolpo [dre] and Loke [loy], 60% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 57% with Nubri [kte], Lhomi [lhm], and Walungge [ola], 54% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Jumla Sign Language
[jus] Karnali Zone, Jumla district, Jumla town. 8 (2005 International Nepal Fellowship). 8 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45%–49% with Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Deaf children in the Nepalese Sign Language school in Jumla come from 1 or 2 days walk away and do not know Jumla Sign Language.

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Jumli
[jml] Karnali Zone, Jumla, Humla, Kalikot, Mugu districts; Seti Zone, Bajura district, east Bajhang, Achham districts. Small area in Bheri Zone. 850 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Nepali, Jumla, Jumleli, Khas Kura, Sijali, Singja, Sinjali Dialects: Asi, Chaudhabis, Paanchsai, Sinja. 73%–89% intelligible with standard Nepali [npi]. Not sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with standard Nepali [npi] (Bandhu 1971). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian, Hindu.

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Kagate
[syw] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap district, a Likhu Khola ridge. 100 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Kagate Bhote” (pej.), Shuuba, Shyuuba, Syuuba, Syuwa, Yholmo, Yholmoli, Yholmu Dialects: Differs from Helambu Sherpa [scp] by less use of the honorific system in verbs, which makes intelligibility more of a problem for the Kagate. It could be considered a dialect of Helambu Sherpa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kaike
[kzq] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Shahartara VDC, Shahartara, Tupatara, Tarakot, and Belawa villages. 50 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2011 A. Regmi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tarali Kham Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish Comments: Kaike sometimes known as Tarali Kham, though quite different from Kham, a Himalayan language of western Nepal. (Bradley 1997:11). Kaike is both the ethnonym and the glossonym, as the fairy language (kai - fairy, ke - language). Buddhist, Hindu.

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Kayort
[kyv] Kosi Zone, Morang district, Dakuwa Danga, near Rajbanshi [rjs] language area. 22,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Ostensibly related to Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: No known published or survey-based attestation for this as a separate language variety.

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Khaling
[klr] Sagarmatha Zone, Solukhumbu district, Kanku, Basa, Waku, Buksa, Jubing, and Phuleli villages; Khotang district, Buipa and Kharmi villages; Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Tungkhaling village; Sunsari district, Dharan; Mechi Zone, Ilam district, Pang, Sumbek, and Mai Pokhari villages. 14,500 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Khaling Kura Dialects: Northern Khaling, Southern Khaling. Reporteldy most similar to Dumi [dus] and Koi [kkt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Kham, Eastern Parbate
[kif] Dhawalagiri Zone, Baglung district. Nishel dialect: Nisi, Bhalkot, and Budhathok; Bhujel dialect: Kuku, Diza, Kang, Masbang, Musuri, and Sukurdung villages. 7,500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). No adult monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Parbate, Nisel, Nishel Kham, Nisi, Nisi Kham Dialects: Bhujel Kham, Nishel Kham. Partially intelligible with Western Parbate [kjl] dialects. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects, 71% with Western Parbate [kjl], 55% with Gamale [kgj], 44% with Sheshi [kip]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kham, Gamale
[kgj] Rapti Zone, Rolpa district, Dhawalagiri Zone, Baglung district. Gam Khola, western hills, Gam, Jhyalgung, Chalbang, Tamali, Dangadhara, Sheram, Ghusbang, Huiching, Guwakholagau, Maulabang, and Kuipadhara villages. 13,100 (2000), increasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gamale Dialects: Ghusbanggi, Tamali. Only 30% intelligibility with Western Parbate [kjl] due to radical differences in verbal morphology. Lexical similarity: 71% with Western Parbate (most similar) [kjl], 55% with Eastern Parbate [kif] and Sheshi [kip], 45% with Bhujel [kif]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kham, Sheshi
[kip] Rapti Zone, Rukum district, western hills, Jangkot, Kotgaon (Tapnang), Rimsek, Korcabang, Dangdung, Hwama, Dhangsi, Bhabang, and Ghapa villages. 20,000 (2003), decreasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sheshi Dialects: Jangkoti, Tapnanggi. 30% intelligibility levels with Gamale Kham [kgj], and even less with Western Parbate [kjl]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Gamale Kham [kgj] (most similar), 51% with Western Parbate [kjl], 46% with Eastern Parbate [kif]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kham, Western Parbate
[kjl] Rapti Zone, Rukum and Rolpa districts. Taka-Shera is center. Karnali Zone, Dolpa district. 24,500 (2003 SIL), increasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kham-Magar, Takale, Takale Kham, Western Parbate Dialects: Lukumel, Mahatale, Maikoti, Takale, Thabangi, Wale. Reportedly greatest similarities between Eastern [kif] and Western Parbate [kjl]. Parbate, Sheshi, and Gamale groups are all inherently unintelligible. Position of Mahatale and Miruli within the Kham linguistic group is undecided. Lexical similarity: 71% with Gamale Kham [kgj] and Eastern Parbate [kif]; 58% with Bhujel Kham, 51% with Sheshi [kip]. 25% with Magar and Gurung, slightly below 25% with the Tibetan group, 15% with the Rai and Limbu groups. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham Comments: Different from the Khams of eastern Tibet as spoken by the Khampa. Previously migrated in summer to the foot of glaciers on west end of Dhaulagiri massif, and in winter to Rolpa District southern hills. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Kharia
[khr] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district, India border. Small area, Kosi Zone, Morang district. 1,580 in Nepal (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bankariya. Alternate Names: Khariya Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang

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Kisan
[sck] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district, Bahundangi, Dhaijan, Shantinagar, and Anarmani VDCs, Damak municipality. 1,180 in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kisan. Alternate Names: Sadri Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari

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Koi
[kkt] Sagarmatha Zone, northeast Khotang district, Sungdel VDC near Rawakhola headwaters, Sungdel and Dipsung. 1,270 (2011 census). L2 users: Some lower caste people and Sherpa speak Koi in northern Sungdel. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Kohi, Koyee, Koyi, Koyu Dialects: Behere, Sungdel. Reportedly most similar to Dumi [dus] and Khaling [klr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Ethnonym: Koi, live scattered in other language areas, speak only Nepali [npi]. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Kuke
[ght] Gandaki Zone, north Gorkha district, Bihi VDC, Dyang, Rana, Bihi, Ghap, Chak, Kwak, and Krak villages. 29 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhotte, Kutang, Kutang Ghale Dialects: Bihi, Chak, Rana. Varieties spoken in Chhak and Kwak villages are reportedly similar to each other and different from all other villages. Lexical similarity: 62%–76% among dialects, 39%–49% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 45%–61% with Northern Ghale [ghh], 18% with Western (Banspur) Gurung [gvr], 16%–23% with Tamang varieties, 13%–31% with Nubri [kte], 23%–27% with Tsum [ttz], 22%–27% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 19%–24% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale Comments: Referred to as thieves’ language, a mixture of nearby languages. Buddhist (Lamaist), Hindu.

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Kulung
[kle] Sagarmatha Zone, Solukhumbu district, in Hungu river valley, Bung, Pelmang, Chhemsing, Chheskam, Lucham, Chachalung, Satdi, Gudel, Namlung, Sotang, and Chekma villages; Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Yaphu, and Seduwa VDCs; Bhojpur district, Phedi, Limkhim, Khartanga, and Wasepla VDCs. 33,200 in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Kulu Ring, Kulunge Dialects: Sotto Ring. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sotto Ring; only a few words pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Exogamous clan marriage. The high number of Kulung reflect the tendency of smaller groups to consider themselves Kulung, but are not Kulung by origin. The Kulung possibly absorb smaller groups. Traditional religion.

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Kumhali
[kra] Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district, south of Darai [dry] language area; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki Zone, Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti Zone, Dang district. 12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 99,400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kumal. Alternate Names: Kumal, Kumali, Kumbale, Kumhale, Kumkale Dialects: Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Palpa. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Hindu.

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Kurux, Nepali
[kxl] Kosi Zone, Sunsari district. 28,600 (2001 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 41,800. Dhagar (Jhagar). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dhangar, Jangad, Janghard, Jhangad, Jhanger, Oraon, Orau, Uraon, Uraw Dialects: None known. Some differences from Kurux [kru] in India and Bangladesh, but mutually intelligible. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: The alternate names are used for the people. Hindu.

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Kusunda
[kgg] Gandaki Zone, Tanahu district, west hills, Satto Bhatti west of Chepetar, possibly the jungle south of Ambhu; Rapti Zone, Dang district, Ambapur and Deukhuri; Rolpa district, Tunibot; Lumbini Zone, Argakhachi district. 3 (2014 M. Donohue), decreasing. 87 reported in 2001 census, living in Pyuthan, Dang and Tanahun. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 160. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kushunda. Alternate Names: Kusanda Dialects: Gorkha, Rolpa-Dang, Tanahun. The Kusunda speakers of Rolpa, Dang and possibly Arghakhanchi districts of Midwestern Nepal belong to the same family. For this reason, their historical dialects (created by generation and geographical separation) are mutually intelligible. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kyirong
[kgy] Bagmati Zone, Rasuwa district, Setang, Bongswadi, Lingling, Bridhim, Khangjim, Thangmpuchet, Khangim, and Shaphrubesi villages; Kathmandu valley, Swoyambhu, Thulo Barang, Thamel, and Boudha. 500 in Nepal (2013 M. Hedlin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gyirong, Kyerung, Kyirung Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Ethnonym: Kyirong-nga. Buddhist (Lamaist), traditional religion.

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Lapcha
[lep] Mechi Zone, Ilam district. 7,500 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,660. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Lepcha. Alternate Names: “Lapche” (pej.), Lepcha, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa Dialects: Ilammu, Rengjongmu, Tamsangmu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Lepcha Comments: Linguistic position within Tibeto-Burman still under discussion. Buddhist, Christian.

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Lhomi
[lhm] Kosi Zone, north Sankhuwasabha district to the border, Chepuwa VDC, Chepuwa, Chyamtang, Gumba, Chhumusur, and Rukuma villages; Hatiya VDC, Hatiya, Hungung, Pharang, Syaksila, Simbung, Namase, and Shiprung villages; southernmost village is Seksum in Arun valley; some in Kathmandu. 810 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,130. Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Lhomi (Shingsawa). Alternate Names: “Bho Te bhasha” (pej.), “Kar Bhote” (pej.), “Kath Bhote” (pej.), Lhoket Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Dolpo [dre], 68% with Loke [loy], 66% with Walungge [ola], 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 64% with Nubri [kte], 60% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 58% with Sherpa [xsr], 57% with Jirel [jul]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Limbu
[lif] Eastern hills, east of Arun river; Kosi Zone, Dhankuta, Sankhuwasabha, Terhathum, Dhankuta, and Morang districts; Mechi Zone, Taplejung, Panchthar, Ilam, and Jhapa districts. 344,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 381,300. Relatively few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Limbu. Dialects: Chaubise (Charkhole), Chhatthare (Chatthare, Chhathar), Panthare, Phedappe, Tamorkhole (Taplejunge), Yanggrokke (Yanggruppe). Yanggrokke, Chaubise and Charkhole are minor variants of the Panthare dialect; Phedappe and Tamorkhole are similar. Chattare is less well understood by other dialect speakers. The dialect spoken in Sikkim, India, is same as Panthare. Intelligibility among all varieties 84% and higher. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Priestly high language, known by some older people and priests, is called Mundumban. Traditional religion.

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Lingkhim
[lii] Mechi Zone, Ilam district, Phikkal VDC. Status: Unattested. Alternate Names: Saam Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Little information exists to support Lingkhim’s identification as a distinct language. It may be a part of Saam [raq] (Hansson 1988:20–21; Hansson 1991:61, 85). The 2001 census reports 97 speakers of Lingkhim. Van Driem (2001:704) points out that Limkhim is a village in northern Bhojpur district, suggesting that this is an alternate name for Saam.

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Lohorung
[lbr] Kosi Zone, central Sankhuwasabha district, between middle Arun valley and the Sabhakhola, Pangma, Angala, Higuwa, Khorande, Bardeu, Gairiaula, Malta, Sitalpati, and Dhupu. 3,720 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Lohorong, Lohrung, Lohrung Khanawa, Lorung, Northern Lorung Dialects: Biksit (Bikshi). 44% intelligibility of Yamphu [ybi]. A Kirat Rai group. Lexical similarity: 88%–99% between dialects, 64%–67% with Yamphu [ybi], 65%–68% with Southern Yamphu [lrr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Hansson claims that the Biksit dialect is spoken in Dhupu VDC (Hansson 1991). Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Loke
[loy] Dhawalagiri Zone, Mustang district, north central upper Kali Gandaki river area; high valleys north of middle-range Thakali, Gurung and Magar areas. Bahragaun dialect: Kagbeni, Muktinath, and Dzong VDCs; Upper Mustang dialect: Ghimi, Tsarang, Lo Monthang, Surkhang, Chhosher, Chunnup VDCs, and Samar village in Chuksang VDC; Karnali Zone, Dolpa district. 3,030 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bahragaunle, Lhopa. Alternate Names: Glo Skad, Lhopa, Lo Montang, Loba, Lopa, Lowa, Loyu, Mustangi Dialects: Baragaunle (Baragaon, Baragaun, Bhoti Gurung), Upper Mustang (Loke). High intelligibility between dialects reported. Lexical similarity: 79%–88% between dialects, 59%–71% with Dolpo [dre], 54%–57% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 58%–67% with Mugom [muk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Distinct from Lhoba in China and India, a Mirish language. Lo inhabitants are called Lopa or Lowa. Their capital is Manthang, called Mustang by outsiders. Manthang has 200 houses, many monasteries. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Lumba-Yakkha
[luu] Kosi Zone, North Dhankuta district, Arkhoule Jitpur and Marek Kathar VDCs. 1,200 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yakkhaba Cea Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Magar, Eastern
[mgp] Gandaki Zone, Tanahu and south Gorkha districts; Lumbini Zone, Palpa and Nawalparasi districts, east of Bagmati river, central mountains; Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli district. Kosi Zone scattered, Bhojpur, Terhathum, Dhankuta districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Okhaldhunga district; Mechi Zone, Taplejung, Ilam districts. 462,000 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. 789,000 all Magar in Nepal (2011 census). The identification of Magars is complicated by the fact that a number of other ethnic groups (Chantyal, Kham, Kaike, Kusunda, Raute, Raji) have claimed to be Magars to outsiders. Population total all countries: 533,700. Isolated enclaves of monolinguals are found in Nawalparasi and southern Tanahu districts. Ethnic population: 1,620,000 (2001 census). Includes Eastern and Western Magar. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Magar. Alternate Names: Magari, Manggar Dialects: Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Tanahu. Also long-extant migrant communities scattered throughout the Eastern Development Region speak a different variety from those west of Kathmandu. Reports of intelligibility between these varieties vary. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Magar, Western
[mrd] Lumbini Zone, Palpa district; Gandaki Zone, Syangja and Tanahu districts; isolated in Bheri Zone, Surkhet, Jajarkot, and Dailekh districts. Small area in Dhawalagiri Zone, Parbat district. 308,000 (2001 census), decreasing. 789,000 all Magar in Nepal (2011 census). Census statistics likely include non-ethnic Magars and many that do not speak Magar. Ethnic population: 1,620,000 (2001 census). Includes Eastern and Western Magar. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Magar. Alternate Names: Magar, Magari, Mangar, Mangari Dialects: Palpa, Syangja. Some differences between dialects, yet reportedly high intellligibility. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Maithili
[mai] Narayani Zone, Rautahat district; Janakpur Zone, Sarlahi, Mahottari, and Dhanusa districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Siraha and Saptari districts; Kosi Zone, Sunsari and Morang districts. 3,890,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. 793,000 Bajjika, 3,090,000 Maithili (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Apabhramsa, Bihari, Dehati, Maitili, Maitli, Methli, Tirahutia, Tirhuti, Tirhutia Dialects: Bajjika, Bantar, Barei, Barmeli, Dehati, Kawar, Kyabrat, Makrana, Musar, Tati, Thenthi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Written variety considered standard. Hindi [hin] and its speakers considered close, culturally similar; Nepali [npi] accepted. Hindu, Christian.

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Majhi
[mjz] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap district, Chisapani, Bhatauli, Pagarbas, Bhaluwajor, and Rakathum VDCs. 24,400 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 44,800. Ethnic population: 72,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Majhi. Alternate Names: Manjhi Dialects: Manthali, Rajgaun, Sitkha. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Distinct from Majhi in Panjabi group or Bote [bmj]. Majhi, Bote, and Kushar all are used by hill peoples. Hindu, Christian.

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Manangba
[nmm] Gandaki Zone, Manang district, Upper Manang, Pisang, Dhukur Pokhari, Humde, Ghyaru, Ngawal, Braka, Manang, Tengki, and Khangsar villages; Kathmandu. 390 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Manang, Manang Ke, “Manangbhot” (pej.), Manange, Manangi, Nyeshang, Nyeshangte, Nyishang Dialects: Manang, Pisang. Very high intelligibility of Manang dialect by Pisang residents. Very different from Eastern Gurung [ggn]. Lexical similarity: 94% or greater with all varieties of Manangba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Language has Tibetan influence. Most speakers have the surname Gurung or Ghale, but they do not claim to be a part of these distinct ethnolinguistic groups. Buddhist.

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Marwari
[rwr] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Narayani Zone, Parsa district; Kathmandu and other urban areas. 22,600 in Nepal (2001 census). Ethnic population: 44,000. L2 users: 930 in Nepal (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Marwadi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu.

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Meche
[brx] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district. 4,380 in Nepal (2011 census). 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,760 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Meche (Bodo). Alternate Names: Bara, Bodi, Bodo, Boro, Boroni, Mache, Mech, Mechi, Meci Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Bodo-Garo-Northern Naga, Bodo-Koch, Bodo-Garo, Bodo Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mewahang, Eastern
[emg] Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Yaphu, and Choyang VDCs; upper Arun valley east of the river. Sunsari dialect: Sunsari district, Bhaludhunga and Bishnupaduka VDC; Dibum (Dibung) dialect: Mangtewa VDC; Mulgaon-Wangtang dialect: Yaphu VDC. 4,650 all Mewahang (2011 census). Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Eastern Meohang, Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai Dialects: Dibum, Mulgaon-Wangtang, Sunsari. Structurally different from Western Mewahang [raf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: The language is regarded as a dialect of Western Mewahang [raf]. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mewahang, Western
[raf] Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, upper Arun valley west of Arun river, Bala, Yamdang, Tamku, and Sisuwa. Bala dialect: Bala village, Sankhuwasabha VDC; Bumdemba dialect: Sishuwakhola VDC. 4,650 all Mewahang (2011 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai, Western Meohang Dialects: Bala (Balali), Bumdemba. Structurally different from Eastern Mewahang [emg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mugali
[lmh] Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, Arun river east bank, between Mugakhola and Sinuwakhola; Muga, Pakhribas and Phalate VDCs. 1,500 (2010 I. Rai), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Lambicchong, Lambichhong, Lambichong, Lambitshong, Phangduwali Mugali Dialects: Phangdhuwali. Reportedly similar to Chhulung [cur], Belhariya [byw], and Chhintang [ctn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mugom
[muk] Karnali Zone, Mugu district, Mugu, Mangri, Pulu, Kimri, and Dolphu VDCs; Jumla district, Jumla; Kathmandu. 6,500 in Nepal (2006 SIL). Population total all countries: 7,000. 1,630 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 6,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Mugali. Alternate Names: Mugali, Mugu, Mugum Dialects: Karmarong (Karani, Kar-ket, Karmai-kat), Mugom (Moe-ket, Mugali, Mugomba, Mumbai-kat). Intelligibility 89%–93% between dialect speakers (possibly higher). Definitely sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Reportedly similar to Humla [hut], Dolpo [dre], and Loke [loy]. Lexical similarity: more than 85% between dialects, 75% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Karanis want recognition as a separate ethnic group. Mugalis may not accept materials written in Karani, and vice versa. Mugom value Nepali and English as a way to higher education. Mugalis see themselves a bit higher than Karanis, and are more influential as they travel and trade more. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Mundari
[unr] Mechi Zone, southern Jhapa district; Koshi Zone, Morang district. 7,780 in Nepal (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Jhangad. Could be a separate language. Alternate Names: Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari, Munda, Santhali, Satar Dialects: Hasada, Kera, Latar, Naguri, Santhai, Satar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Musasa
[smm] Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli, Dolakha, Mahotari, and Dhanusa districts; Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Siraha and Saptari districts. 50,000 (2003). 20,000 Musasa and 30,000 Musasa Bantar. Ethnic population: 172,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Musahar, Rishaidep Dialects: Bantar. Reportedly similar to Kochila (Saptari) Tharu [thq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bihari Comments: Dalit caste. It has been suggested but not documented that they may speak a sociolect of the larger language groups they live among: Maithili [mai], Bhojpuri [bho], Avadhi [awa], and Kochila Tharu [thq]. Not listed in the 2001 Nepal census. Hindu.

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Naaba
[nao] Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Kimathanka VDC, Kimathanka village; Hatiya VDC, Dangok and Pharang villages; Piibu, Chumusur, and Ridak villages; Tsanga village, across the border in China. 770 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naapa, Naapaa, Naba, Nawa Sherpa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified Comments: The Lhomi [lhm] consider the Naaba people a distinct group. The Naaba have learned Lhomi as a language of wider communication, but are more culturally and linguistically similar to Sherpa [xsr] and Thudam [thw] than to Lhomi. Buddhist.

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Nachering
[ncd] Sagarmatha Zone, upper northeast Khotang district near Rawakhola calley, Lidim Khola river slopes area, headwaters and tributaries to Aiselukharke south, Rakha, Bangdel, Dipsun, Para, Badel, Patel, Bakacho, and Aiselukharka VDCs; Solukhumbu district, Waddu and Sotang VDCs. 10,000 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Bangdale, Bangdel Tûm, Bangdile, Mathsereng, Nacchhering, Nacering Ra, Nachering Tûm, Nachiring, Nasring Dialects: Bangdele (Achero, Hachero, Hangkula), Parali, Rakhali, Sotange. High comprehension of Kulung among northern Nachering and Sampang among southern Nachering. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Different from Sampang, although sometimes called Sangpang or Sampang. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Nar Phu
[npa] Gandaki Zone, Manang district, Nar valley north of Manang valley, Nar (Nargaon, Chhuprung) and Phu (Phugaon, Nartwe) villages. 600 (2011 K. Hildebrandt). 200 Phu speakers, 400 Nar speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nar-Phu Dialects: Nar (Lower Nar, Nar-Mä), Phu (Nar-Tö, Upper Nar). In a dialect continuum with Manangba [nmm] and possibly intelligible with it. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: See themselves as separate from Manangba and Gurung. Used as a secret language to confound Manangis and Gurungs who might otherwise understand their conversation (2002 M. Noonan). Buddhist.

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Nepalese Sign Language
[nsp] Central and east. 5,740 (2001 census). Most are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nepali Sign Language Dialects: Kathmandu, Pokhara. Developed from local and introduced signs. Related to Indian [ins] and Pakistan [pks] sign languages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: The Nepal Federation of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing starts schools for the deaf in the larger towns. A few other smaller organizations also work with the deaf and have Nepalese Sign Language [nsp] classes for the hearing. Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim.

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Nepali
[npi] East and adjacent south central regions. 12,300,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. 143,000 Achhami, 273,000 Baitadeli, 67,600 Bajhangi, 10,700 Bajureli, 490 Dadeldhuri, 3,100 Dailekhi, 5,930 Darchuleli, and 11,800,000 Nepali (2011 census). Population total all countries: 15,360,100. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Interim Constitution, 2063, Article 5(2)). Alternate Names: Eastern Pahadi, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbate Dialects: Acchami, Baitadeli (Baitadi), Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura, Bajureli), Bheri, Dadeldhuri, Dailekhi, Darchulali (Darchuleli, Darjula), Darchuli (Darjula), Gandakeli, Humli, Purbeli, Soradi. Reportedly similar to Dotyali [dty]. Dialects listed may be quite distinct from standard Nepali. Intelligibility is also low among Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami. A member of macrolanguage Nepali [nep]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: Hindu, Buddhist.

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Nepali
[nep] Population total all languages: 16,148,100. Comments: Includes: Dotyali [dty], Nepali [npi].

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Newar
[new] Bagmati Zone, Kathmandu valley; many other urban areas. Fewer far west. 847,000 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 861,000. Many women are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,260,000. Includes 1,245,000 Newar and 11,500 Pahari. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Newar. Alternate Names: Nepal Bhasa, Newaah Bhaaye, Newal Bhaye, “Newari” (pej.) Dialects: Badikhel Pahari, Baglung, Balami, Bhaktapur, Citlang, Dolkhali (Dolakha), Gopali, Kathmandu-Patan-Kirtipur, Pyang Gaon, Sindhupalchok Pahri (Pahari, Pahri), Totali. The Dolakhae dialect of Dolakha has complex person-number verb agreement with residue reflex in the Pahari dialect of Badikhel. These two dialects are not fully intelligible to the speakers of Kathmandu Valley where the language has a simple conjunct-disjunct agreement. Kirtipur and Lalitpur are reportedly similar to Kathmandu. Bhaktapur people mostly understand Kathmandu despite some lexical differences. The Eastern Newar dialects, including at least Dolakha and Tauthali, are mutually unintelligible with the dialects of the Kathmandu Valley. The same may also be true of Pahri of Sindhupalchok and other varieties. Some vocabulary differences between Hindus and Buddhists. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Newar Comments: One of the principal languages of Nepal; historically an official language of the Newar Malla Kings of the three cities of Kathmandu Valley. Kathmandu is the prestige dialect with most published materials. English [eng] highly valued; mixed feelings about Hindi [hin]; Tibetan [bod] does not have high prestige. People learn whichever language will help them economically: Nepali [npi], English [eng], Hindi [hin], and others. Hindu, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Nubri
[kte] Gandaki Zone, North Gorkha district, upper Buri Gandaki river, from Namrung to Samdo and Prok. 2,000 (2001 census). 500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Larke. Alternate Names: Kutang, Kutang Bhotia, Larkye Dialects: Lho, Namrung, Prok, Sama. Only moderately intelligible of Kyirong Tibetan [kgy] (74%). The most distinct variety reportedly spoken in Samdo village. Sama is somewhat divergent. Tsum [ttz] reportedly not intelligible with Nubri. The language spoken in the Kutang area is not intelligible with Nubri, although most who live in this area reportedly can speak and understand Nubri. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% among dialects. Prok is more distinct. 71%–78% with Tsum [ttz]; 66%–74% with Kyirong Tibetan [kgy]; 67% with Dolpo [dre]; 65% with Loke [loy]; 59%–64% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 64% with Olangchung Gola [ola] (Walungge) and Lhomi [lhm]; 61% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 57% with Jirel [jul]; 55% with Sherpa [xsr]; 21%–27% with Northern Ghale [ghh]; 20%–23% with Southern Ghale [ghe]; 14%–31% with Kuke [ght]; 14% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], Western Gurung [gvr], and Banspur Tamang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Nubri marry within their community and from the Kutang community. People trade in Gorkha District and also with Tibet. Ethnonym: Bhotia or Bhote, refers to people of Tibetan origin; in some contexts derogatory. Ethnic identity is closely affiliated between the Nubri and the Kuke [ght]. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Palpa
[plp] Lumbini Zone, Palpa town. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Pahari-Palpa Dialects: Palpa stands midway between Nepali [npi] (Eastern Pahari) and Kumaoni [kfy] (Central Pahari). Might be considered a dialect of Kumaoni or Nepali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northern zone, Eastern Pahari Comments: Pahari, of the hills, also refers to a dialect of Newar [new]. Identification of Palpa as a separate language has been questioned.

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Phangduwali
[phw] Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, Pakhribas VDC, above Mugakhola headwaters. 290 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Phangduvali, Phangduwali Poti Dialects: None known. Linguistically between Yakkha [ybh] and Belhariya [byw]. The language spoken by the Phangduwali people is well-understood by Mugali [lmh] people and vice versa except for a few lexical items and accents. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Van Driem (2001) claims that the Phangduwali are actually Yakkha [ybh], whereas I.P. Rai (forthcoming) suggests these two languages are distinct. Both assert that Phangduwali and Mugali [lmh] are the same language. Traditional religion.

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Puma
[pum] Sagarmatha Zone, south Khotang district, Diplung, Chisapani, Devisthan, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward. 6,690 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: Adults use L2 as much as L1 (Toba, Toba, and Rai 2005). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Rajbanshi
[rjs] Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts. 143,000 (2011 census), increasing. 2,080 Koche, 122,000 Rajbanshi, 18,800 Tajpuriya. L2 users: 3,220 (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rajbanshi (Koch). Alternate Names: Gangai, Koch, Koche, Rajbangsi, Rajbansi, Tajpuria Dialects: Central Rajbanshi, Eastern Rajbanshi, Western Rajbanshi. Intelligibility is fairly high throughout the area (2001 J. Eppele and J. Grimes). Lexical similarity: 77%–95% with all varieties in Nepal (2001 J. Eppele and J. Grimes). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Bengali-Assamese Comments: Hindu, Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Raji
[rji] Bheri Zone, Surkhet, Banke and Bardiya districts; Seti Zone, Kailali district; Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district. 3,760 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rajhi. Alternate Names: Ban Raji, Janggali, Rajibar, Rawati, Rjya Dialects: Barh Bandale, Naukule, Purbiya. Reportedly similar to Rawat [jnl]. Speakers of Barh Bandale and Purbiya have difficulty in understanding the Naukule variety. Lexical similarity: From 84% and 86% between the three varieties; 55% with Raute [rau]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji Comments: The Raji were a nomadic group, but now settled. Sharma (1990) identifies Raji in India (perhaps Bodo Gadaba [gbj]) as a Munda language with borrowings from Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan. Barh Bandale dialect is the most prestigious. May be the same as Rawat [jnl] in India. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Raute
[rau] Mahakali Zone, Dadeldhura district, Jogbudha and Sirsa VDCs, in Karnali and Mahakali (Kali) rivers watershed regions (800 settled). Bheri Zone, Surkhet district, former nomadic camp; midwest and far west forest regions (about 25 nomads). 460 (2011 census), decreasing. All nomadic Raute are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Raute. Alternate Names: Boto boli, Khamchi, Raji, Rajwar, Rautya, Rautye Dialects: None known. There are reportedly many similarities with Raji [rji], but the relationship of Raute with and intelligibility between Rawat [jnl] and Raji [rji] needs further investigation. Lexical similarity: 80% with Rawat [jnl], 60% with Chepang [cdm], 25% with Kham. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ra’te. The name may be of Tibeto-Burman origin, from ra- meaning human plus a person marker, -to or -te. Other scholars suggest it derives from the Sanskrit Indo-Aryan word raut from Sanskrit, rajaputra, prince. Rautes deem their language sacred and are linguistically conservative toward adopting non-Raute words or grammatical features. Traditional religion.

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Saam
[raq] Kosi Zone, northern Bhojpur district, Dobhane and Khatamma (Khartangma) VDCs, straddling Irkhuwa river, in Dangmaya, Okharbote, Khartangma, and Dobhane settlements between Phedi and Irkhuwa rivers. 530 (2011 census). 130 Lingkhim, 400 Saam (2011 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Saam Rai, Saama Kha, Samakha Dialects: Bungla, Lingkhim (Lingkhim Kulung, Lingkhim Rai, Linkhim), Sambya. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Almost no study or documentation has been done on the languages spoken in northern Bhojpur district. Other groups called Saam may be Kulung [kle] or Lingkhim [lii]. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Sampang
[rav] Khotang dialect: Sagarmatha Zone, Khotang district, Tap Khola river upriver villages, Baspani, Khartamcha, Phedi, and Patheka; Koshi Zone, Bhojpur district, Lahure Khola river headwaters, Okharbote; Syam Khola area, Kimalung, Nigale, Talakharka, and Surke; Dingla bazaar area. Phali dialect: Kosi Zone, Bhojpur district, Sangpang, a few elderly speakers. 18,300 (2011 census), decreasing. Phali dialect spoken by a few elderly speakers. 0 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Sampang Gun, Sampang Gung, Sampang Kha, Sampange Rai, Sangpang, Sangpang Gîn, Sangpang Gun, Sangpang Kha Dialects: Khotang, Phali. Mutual intelligibility between the Khartamcha variety and the Patheka variety of the Khotang dialect is high. Mutual intelligibility between the Khotang and Phali Sampang dialect is difficult to estimate but appears to be low. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Sanskrit
[san] Widely dispersed. L2 users: 1,670 in Nepal (2011 census). Use as an L2 is decreasing. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Deva Bhasha, Deva vani, Sanskrit bhasha Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan Comments: Hindu, Buddhist.

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Santhali
[sat] Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi Zone, Jhapa district. 49,900 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 42,700. L2 users: 1,900 in Nepal (1991 census). 1,339 L2 Satar speakers; 559 L2 Santhal speakers (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Satar (Santhal). Alternate Names: Har, Hor, Sainti, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Santhal, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Seke
[skj] Dhawalagiri Zone, Mustang district, Chuksang, Tsaile, Tangbe, Tetang, and Gyakar villages; Jomsom and Pokhara. 700 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tangbe. Dialects: Chuksang, Tangbe, Tetang. Reportedly similarities with Thakali [ths] and Manangba [nmm]. Very different from Loke [loy]. Tangbe dialect speakers do not understand the Chuksang dialect very well, but the Chuksang understand Tangbe. Reportedly understand Gurung but Gurung do not understand Seke. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Seke villages are surrounded by Baragaunle [loy] speaking villages. Buddhist.

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Sherpa
[xsr] Sagarmatha Zone, Solu Khumbu district; Janakpur Zone, Dolakha and Ramechhap districts; Bagmati Zone, northeast Sindhupalchok district. 145,000 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 168,800. A few elderly monolinguals in remote villages (UNESCO). Ethnic population: 155,000 (2001 census). L2 users: Some non-Sherpas who work in the trekking trade learn some Sherpa. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Sherpa. Alternate Names: Serwa, Sharpa, “Sharpa Bhotia” (pej.), Xiaerba Dialects: Central Sherpa (Solu, South Sherpa), East Sherpa (Dolakha, Ramechhap), North Sherpa (Khumbu), West Sherpa. 95% comprehension of Solu dialect by Western and Khumbu. Lexical similarity: 90% between Solu and Khumbu dialects; 67% with Jirel [jul]; 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 62% with Loke [loy] and Dolpo [dre]; 58% with Lhomi [lhm] and Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 57% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 55% with Nubri [kte] and Walungge [ola]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Tourism and increased wealth have given Sherpas the financial means to send their children to Kathmandu and abroad for education contributing to language shift. Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Sonha
[soi] Seti Zone, Kailali District, along Karnali River; Bheri Zone, Surkhet district along Bheri river; Bardia district, Daulatpur VDC, Murgawagaon; Mahakali Zone, along Mahakali river; Kanchanpur district, Bhimadatta VDC, Odaligaon, Mahendranagar tahsil. 580 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sonaha, Sonahaa, Sunah, Sunha Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Avadhi [awa]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Rana Tharu [thr], 73% with Kathariya Tharu [tkt], 72% with Dangaura Tharu [thl]. Sonha and Kathoriya [tkt] form a lexical bridge with Rana and Dangaura varieties of Tharu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: ’Sonha’ is an occupational caste (gold panners). Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sunwar
[suz] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap, Dolakha districts, east hills; Sagarmatha Zone, northwest Okhaldhunga district. 38,200 (2011 census). 37,900 Sunwar, 290 Surel (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 95,300 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Surel. Sunuwar. Alternate Names: Bhujuwar, Kirati-Koits, Koits Lo, Mukhiya, Pirthwar, Sunuwar, Sunwari Dialects: Surel. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with Surel dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Daoist, Hindu.

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Tamang, Eastern
[taj] Kathmandu; Janakpur Zone, Sindhuli, Ramechhap, and Dolkha districts; Bagmati Zone, Kavre Palanchok district; west Sindhupalchowk, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, and east Nuwakot districts; Narayani Zone, Makwanpur and Chitwan districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Okhaldhunga, west Khotang, and Udayapur districts. 1,180,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Population total all countries: 1,197,500. In some remote communities, particularly women, children and elderly people are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,290,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 23,600 in Nepal (1991 census). L2 speakers of all Tamang. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Alternate Names: “Bhotia” (pej.), Ishang, Murmi, Sei Dialects: Central-Eastern Tamang (Temal Tamang), Outer-Eastern Tamang (Sailung Tamang), Southwestern Tamang. Central-Eastern most widely understood among all tested to date: 85% by both Trisuli and Rasuwa Western Tamang [tdg], 93%–98% by Outer-Eastern, 87% by Southwestern Tamang [tsf]. Comprehension of Outer-Eastern 58% by Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 64%–75% by Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 67%–54% by Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 88%–93% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], and 90%–98% among its own varieties. Southwestern Tamang [tsf] may be a bridge between Eastern and Western Tamang (Varenkamp 1996). Lexical similarity: 88%–99% with Outer Eastern varieties; 89%–100% with Central Eastern; 79%–93% with Outer Eastern and Central Eastern, 77%–82% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 86%–93% with Southwestern and Central-Eastern, 74%–80% with Eastern and Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 69%–81% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 72%–80% with Northwestern Dhading Tamang [tmk], 63%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge] (Varenkamp 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Tamang, Eastern Gorkha
[tge] Gandaki Zone, north Gorkha district, south and east of Jagat. 3,980 (2000). Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Dialects: Kasigaon, Kerounja. Lexical similarity: 89% with dialects, 76%–77% with Northwestern (Dhading) Tamang [tmk], 77%–79% with Western (Trisuli) Tamang [tdg], 72%-73% with Western (Rasuwa) Tamang [tdg], 70%–73% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 63%–73% with Eastern Tamang [taj] dialects (Varenkamp 1996), 50% with Western (Banspur) Gurung [gvr], 31%–37% with Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale [ghe], 18%–23% with Kuke [ght], 14%–16% with Nubri [kte], Tsum [ttz], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 12%–14% with Tibetan [bod] (1992 J. Webster). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Refer to themselves as Gurung, but recognize their language is different. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Tamang, Northwestern
[tmk] Bagmati Zone, Nuwakot district, central mountainous strip. 55,000 (1991 census), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Alternate Names: Kath-Bhotiya, Lama Bhote, Murmi, Rongba, Sain, Tamang Gyoi, Tamang Lengmo, Tamang Tam Dialects: Dhading. All Western Tamang varieties have high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 94% with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 82%–83% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 76%–78% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 76%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 72%–80% with Eastern Tamang [taj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tamang, Southwestern
[tsf] Bagmati Zone, southern Dhading district; Narayani Zone, Chitwan, northwest Makwanpur, Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat districts; west and northwest Kathmandu district area. 109,000 (1991 census), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Alternate Names: Kath-Bhotiya, Lama Bhote, Murmi, Rongba, Sain, Tamang Gyoi, Tamang Lengmo, Tamang Tam Dialects: Preliminary results: 86% intelligibility of Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 87% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], 54%–67% by Outer-Eastern Tamang [taj]. Relationship within Tamang needs evaluation. Southwestern Tamang has 80% lexical similarity with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 76%–78% with Western Rasuwa dialect [tdg], 78% with Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 70%–73% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 77%–93% with Eastern Tamang [taj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Tamang, Western
[tdg] Bagmati Zone, west Nuwakot, Rasuwa, and Dhading districts; northeast Sindhupalchok district, Bhote Namlan, and Bhote Chaur, on Trishuli river west bank toward Budhi Gandaki river; Narayani Zone, northwest Makwanpur district, Phakel, Chakhel, Khulekhani, Markhu, Tistung, and Palung; north Kathmandu, Jhor, Thoka, and Gagal Phedi. 323,000 (2000), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Mostly monolingual below school age or over 60 years of age. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Alternate Names: Murmi, Sain Dialects: Northwestern dialect of Western Tamang (Dhading), Rasuwa, Southwestern dialect of Western Tamang, Trisuli (Nuwakot). Preliminary results showed 86% intelligibility of Rasuwa dialect, 81%–88% of Central-Eastern [taj], 78%–88% of Outer-Eastern [taj], 86% of Southwestern [tsf]; 80% of Rasuwa with Trisuli, up to 70% of Outer-Eastern [taj]. Lexical similarity: 94% between Trisuli dialect and Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 82%–83% with Rasuwa, 80% with Southwestern Tamang [tsf], 77%–79% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 82%–83% between Rasuwa and Northwestern [tmk], 78% with Southwestern [tsf], 72% with Eastern Gorkha [tge], 69%–81% between Western varieties and Eastern Tamang varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang Comments: Murmi is the ethnonym used by the Lepcha and Kirati communities and Sain by the Newar. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Thakali
[ths] Dhawalagiri Zone, Mustang district, Thak Khola, mid Kali Gandaki valley, with Annapurna Himal on one side and Dhawalagiri Himal on the other, Tatopani village in the south to Jomsom north. Tukuche dialect: Tukuche to Thaksatsae, in 13 villages: Tukuche, Khanti, Kobang, Larjung, Dampu, Naurikot, Bhurjungkot, Nakung, Tithi, Kunjo, Taglung, Lete, Ghansa. Many live outside the area. 5,240 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 1,060 (1991 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Thakali, Chhairotan, Marphali Thakali, Tieengaule Thakali. Alternate Names: Barhagaule, Panchgaunle, Thaksya Dialects: Marpha (Puntan Thakali), Syang (Yhulkasom), Tukuche (Tamhang Thakali, Thaksaatsaye, Thaksatsae). Thakali dialects have 91%–97% inherent intelligibility. Tukuche dialect most easily understood by others. Tukuche is cultural center and the most prestigeous dialect. Lexical similarity: 41%–46% with Gurung languages, 46%–51% with Tamang languages (1994 J. Webster). Thakali dialects in 4 villages have 75%–86% lexical similarity. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic Comments: Marpha dialect is in an endogamous village. People of Marpha, Syang, Thini, Chhairo, and Chimang villages are sometimes collectively known as Panchgaunle (5 villages), the name used for both the ethnic group and language. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Thangmi
[thf] Janakpur Zone, Dolakha district, villages north and west; Ramechhap district, villages on Sailung Khola; Bagmati zone, Sindhupalchok district, villages east; Kathmandu. 23,200 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 24,000. 100 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 35,000 (Turin 2007). L2 users: Some occupational castes and other ethnic groups in Thangmi-dominant areas speak Thangmi also. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Thami. Alternate Names: Thami, Thangmi Kham, Thangmi Wakhe, Thani Dialects: Eastern Thangmi (Dolakha), Western Thangmi (Sindhupalchok). Related to Baram [brd] (Grierson-Konow). Some cognates with Dolakha dialect of Newar [new]. Dolakha and Sindhupalchok dialects are not mutually intelligible. Differ in phonology, nominal and verbal morphology and lexicon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Tharu, Chitwania
[the] Narayani Zone, Chitwan, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, and Makwanpur districts; Lumbini Zone, Nawalparasi district; Gandaki Zone, Tanahu district. 285,000 in Nepal (2001 census), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Alternate Names: Chitoniya Tharu, Chitwan Tharu, Chitwaniya Dialects: Nawalpuriya Tharu (Laulpuriya Tharu). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tharu, Dangaura
[thl] Rapti Zone, Dang district; Bheri Zone, Bardiya, Banke, and Surkhet districts; Seti Zone, Kailali district; Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district; Lumbini Zone, Rupandehi and Kapilvastu districts. 500,000 in Nepal (2003), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Population total all countries: 674,000. 28,500 monolinguals. L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Alternate Names: Dangaha, Dangali, Dangauli, Dangora, Dangura Dialects: Dangaha (Dang). 68%–91% intelligibility of Rana Tharu [thr], 95% to 97% of Kathoriya [tkt]. Some intelligibility difficulty with speakers from India. Possibly Eastern Hindi Group. Lexical similarity: 85% with Deukhuri, 83% with Malhoriya, 72%–74% with Sonha [soi], 63%–72% with Rana Tharu [thr], 76% with Desauriya, 61%–67% with Chitwania [the], 70% with Kathariya Tharu [tkt], 58%–65% with Hindi [hin], 46%–52% with Kochila Tharu [thq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Tharu, Kathariya
[tkt] Seti Zone, Kailali district, Hasuliya, Udasipur, Pahalmanpur, Lalbojhi, Thapapur, Joshipur, Munuwa, Durgauli, Patharaiya, and Chauha VDCs. 106,000 in Nepal (2006). Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Alternate Names: Kathariya, Kathoriya Tharu Dialects: Speech differences between Nepal and India dialects. Lexical similarity: 70%–76% with Dangaura Tharu [thl] and Rana Tharu [thr], 66% with Hindi [hin], 66%–69% with Buksa [tkb], 63% with Chitwania [the], 51%–59% with Kochila Tharu [thq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Tharu, Kochila
[thq] Kosi Zone, Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha Zone, Saptari and Udayapur districts. 258,000 in Nepal (2003), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Mostly illiterate older women are monolingual. L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu, Dhanuk. Alternate Names: Saptariya Tharu Dialects: Dhanusa, Mahottari, Morangiya, Saptari, Sarlahi, Siraha, Sunsari, Udayapur. Each district has a different variety. Dialect names refer to districts. Lexical similarity: 51%–59% with Kathariya Tharu, 46%–52% with Dangaura Tharu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Tharu from each district usually take the district name as a more specific name or identity. Other Tharu in Siraha, Udayapur, and Saptari districts who call themselves Kochila but speak Sapatariya Tharu. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tharu, Rana
[thr] Mahakali Zone, Kanchanpur district; Seti Zone, Kailali district. 336,000 in Nepal (2006), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Population total all countries: 486,000. L2 users: 46,600 L2 speakers for all Tharu languages (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Dialects: 96%–99% intelligibility among dialects, 90% of Kathariya [tkt], 51%–88% reported of Dangaura [thl]. Differences with dialects in India. Reportedly similar to Awadhi (Avadhi) [awa]. Lexical similarity: 83%–97% among dialects, 73%–79% with Buksa, 74%–79% with Kathariya [tkt], 70%–73% with Sonha [soi], 63%–71% with Dangaura [thl], 56%–60% with Chitwania [the], 68%–72% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Eastern zone, Unclassified Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Thudam
[thw] Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Chepuwa VDC, Thudam village. 1,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Thudam. Alternate Names: “Thudam Bhote” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Similar to Walungge [ola] in Nepal and to the varieties spoken in the villages of Kudo and Sar in Tibet (von Furer-Haimendorf 1975). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified Comments: Culturally akin to the Walungs. Buddhist, Christian.

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Thulung
[tdh] Sagarmatha Zone, southeast Solukhumbu district, Deusa, Lokhim, Mukli, Jubu, Tingla, Salyan, Panchan, and Necha VDCs; Khotang district, Salle, Jaleswori, and Maheswori VDCs; Okhaldhunga district, Tuintar VDC, 6 or 7 villages; Koshi Zone, Bhojpur district, 1 village; west of the slopes’ highest ridges to Dudhkosi, north of Nechedanda and Halesidanda ranges, east of upper Solu river, and south of the Kakukhola and the confluence of Ingkhukhola and Dudhkosi. 20,700 in Nepal (2011 census). Thulung communities also in Bhojpur and Sankhuwasabha districts, scattered in Udayapur, Morang, Panchthar, and Ilam districts. Migrants may not speak Thulung as L1. A few elderly monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Tholong Lo, Thulu Luwa, Thululoa, Thulung Jemu, Thulung La, Thulunge Rai, Toaku Lwa Dialects: Central Thulung (Mukli Lwa), Eastern Thulung (Jubu Lwa, Lokhim Lwa), Northern Thulung (Deusa Lwa), Southern Thulung (Necha Lwa). Many cognates with Khaling [klr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Interest in development among cultural associations (Thulung Rai Society). Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Tibetan
[bod] Mainly Kathmandu and Pokhara. Sagarmatha Zone, two small areas in Solukhumbu district. Scattered refugee communities along China border. 4,450 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational).Spoken as a trade language among Bodish groups in Nepal. Alternate Names: Bhotia, Bod Skad, Central Tibetan, Phoke, Poke, Zang Wen Dialects: Diaspora Tibetan, Utsang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central Comments: Buddhist (Lamaist), Christian.

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Tichurong
[tcn] Karnali Zone, Dolpa district, Thuli Bheri river basin. 2,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ticherong Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dolpo [dre]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Culturally distinct from Dolpo. Buddhist.

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Tilung
[tij] Sagarmatha Zone, southern Khotang district, Chyasmitar VDC, on Halesi Range last ridge, on Sunkosi river bank. 1,420 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Tiling, Tilling, Tilung Blama Dialects: Choskule, Dorunkecha. Choskule and Dorungkecha dialects may be related languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Geographically isolated community. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tsum
[ttz] Gandaki Zone, north Gorkha district, Tsum valley, the region drained by the Shiar Khola north of Ganesh Himal. Chekampar (Chokong) is prestige village. 4,790 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Siyar. Alternate Names: Tsumge Dialects: None known. 71%–78% intelligibility of Nubri [kte], 66% of Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 60%–66% of Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 22%–25% of Northern Ghale [ghh], 14%–22% of Southern Ghale [ghe], 23%–27% of Kuke [ght]; 6% of Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 14% of Western Gurung [gvr], 15% of Banspur Tamang. Divided into upper region, Yarba, and lower region, Ushug. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang Comments: Ethnonym: Tsumba, Glossonym: Tsumge by Tibetans in Kathmandu. Buddhist (Lamaist).

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Urdu
[urd] Southeast districts: Jhapa, Morang, Sunsari, Saptari, Siraha, Dhanusa, Mahottari, Sarlahi, and Rautahat, on India border; some in Banke district west. 692,000 in Nepal (2011 census). L2 users: 22,900 in Nepal (1991 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Muslim.

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Waling
[wly] Kosi zone, Bhojpur district, Khairang panchayat. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Walung, Walüng Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern

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Walungge
[ola] Mechi Zone, Taplejung district, upper Tamar and Gunsa valleys. Small area in Kosi Zone. 1,500 in Nepal (2001 census), decreasing. 1,200 in the original language area. High language loss among those who have left the language area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Walung, Topkegola. Alternate Names: Halung, Halungge, Walongchung Gola, Walung, Walungchung Gola, Walunggi Keccya Dialects: Ghunsa River, Olangchung Gola (Upper Tamar River), Topke Gola (Mewa River). High intelligibility of Thudam [thw]. Reportedly similar to Tibetan dialect in Tingay District of Tibet. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 68% with Dolpo [dre], Loke [loy], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 66% with Lhomi [lhm] and Helambu Sherpa [scp], 64% with Nubri [kte], 57% with Jirel [jul], 55% with Sherpa [xsr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified Comments: Cut off from the Lhomi, with more links to Tibet. Some intermarriage with Lhomi and Tibetan. The people call themselves Sherpa. They do not have a specific language name which groups all varieties of the language together and distinguishes the language from other Tibetan languages. The word “Walungge” comes from a name of one of the main villages in the language area. Buddhist.

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Wambule
[wme] Sagarmatha Zone, south Okhaldhunga district, Wamdyal dialect: Rikdum, Lukuvapani, Wamdyal (Ubu), Huku, Sikapu, Tarkomdada, Salle, Dhepti, Dhaircaur, Khayapu, Lorphe, Thulacaur, Moli, Vaksa, Leva, Sinju, Gairigau, Dhemdalu, Kopsepu, Phasku, and Serankhu; Hilepane dialect: Pipale, Bhadare, Hilepani, Thakle, Mandhare, Sokma Tar, Dundunma, Jakma, Jerun, Ricuva, and Lambole; Udayapur dialect: Udayapur, Phedigau, Barasi, Ghiramdi, Simkaku, and Peku; west Khotang district, Jhappali dialect: Kurleghat, Majhkhani, Byanditar, Rupatar, Kharka, Cuvabot, Jhapa, Lurkhudada, Vaitar, Balui, Thumka, Pakauci, Goviar, Gurdum, Jayaram Gha, Bahuni Dada, Todke, Limlun, Damli, Vetagau, and Temtuku; Sagarmatha Zone, north Udaypur district and Janakpur Zone, northeast Sindhuli district, Hilepane dialect: Lekhani, Ghurmi, Salle, Sorun, Salleni, Pallo Salleni, Sindure, Majhkhani, Bhirpani, Kusumtar, and Jortighat. 13,500 (2011 census). A few elderly monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Ambule, Caurasia, Chaurasia, Chaurasya, Chourase, Chourasia, Ombule, Tsaurasya, Umbule, Vambucauras Raduyor, Vambule Dialects: Bonu, Hilepane, Jhappali, Udaipure, Wamdyal. Dialects appear adequately mutually inherently intelligible. Jerung [jee] and Wambule are mutually intelligible (Opgenort 2004). Lexical similarity: 93% with Jerung [jee] (Opgenort 2005). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Wayu
[vay] Janakpur Zone, Ramechhap district, Mudajor and Sukajor villages; Sindhuli district, Manedihi village. Sun Koshi valley across Mahabharat range south. 1,520 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800 (2001 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Hayu. Alternate Names: Bayu, Hayu, Vayu, Wayo Dialects: Marin Khola, Sindhuli. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western Comments: Strong Nepali [npi] influences in phonology, lexicon, and grammar (Matisoff 1991). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Yakkha
[ybh] Kosi Zone, south Sankhuwasabha and east Dhankuta districts, east to Arun river between Hinuwankhola north and Leguwakhola south. Northern Yakkha dialect: south Sankhuwasabha district and adjoining extreme north Dhankuta district; Southern Yakkha dialect: Dhankuta district. 19,600 in Nepal (2011 census), decreasing. Population total all countries: 20,410. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 17,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Yakkha. Alternate Names: Dewansala, Yakha, Yakkhaba, Yakkhaba Cea, Yakkhaba Sala, Yakthomba Dialects: Eastern Yakkha (Ilam, Panchthar), Northern Yakkha (Sankhuwasabha), Southern Yakkha (Dhankuta). Dialects have minimal diversity. Lexical similarity: with Athpariya [aph], Limbu [lif], and Yamphu [ybi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Considered by many a distinct group of Kirati not fitting neatly into either Rai or Limbu groups (Bista 1996:39); in terms of mythology and people’s own judgment, they seem closer to Limbu than to Rai groups. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Yamphu
[ybi] Kosi Zone, Sankhuwasabha district, Hedangna, Num, Seduwa, Peppuwa, Mangsimma, Karmarang, Tungkhaling, Uwa, Ala, Uling, and Walung villages. Eastern hills, upper Arun valley, Matsayapokhari VDC, extreme north Lorung area, directly southwest of Jaljale Mountains; Kosi Zone, Bhojpur district. 9,210 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Yamphe, Yamphu Kha, Yamphu Rai Dialects: The Yamphu Rai are most closely related to Lohorung [lbr] and Mewahang. 61% intelligibility of Lohorung [lbr]. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% between dialects, 74%–84% with Southern Yamphu [lrr], 64%–67% with Lohorung [lbr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Yamphu, Southern
[lrr] Kosi Zone, Dhankuta district, Bodhe, Mounabudhuk, Bhedetar, and Rajarani; north Sankhuwasabha district, Devitar and Matsya Pokhari. South of the Tamorkhola, between the Jaruwakhola east and the Raghuwkhola west. 2,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Lohorong, Lohrung, Lohrung Khap, Lohrung Khate, Southern Lohorung, Southern Lorung, Yakkhaba Lorung, Yamphu Dialects: Gessa, Yamphe (Newahang Yamphe, Yakkhaba, Yakkhaba Khap, Yamphe Kha). 61% intelligibility of Lohorung [lbr], 43%–58% (depending on site) intelligibility of Yamphu [ybi]. A Rai group, most closely related to Yamphu [ybi], but distinct in grammar and phonology (Hansson 1991). Lexical similarity: 84%–89% between Southern Yamphu varieties, 74%–83% with Yamphu [ybi], 65%–68% with Lohorung [lbr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern Comments: Speakers of the language identify themselves ethnically as ‘Yamphu’. Hansson (1991) described this group as two separate languages, “Yamphu” and “Southern Lorung” (cf. Ethnologue, 16th edition and earlier). Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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