Pakistan

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Aer
[aeq] Lower Sindh, Jikrio Goth near Kunri, Deh area, Hyderabad, Jamesabad. 100 (1998). Women monolingual. Ethnic population: 330 Aer in Deh area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Jamesabad Aer, Jikrio Goth Aer. Lexical similarity: 78% with Katai Meghwar and Kachi Bhil—both dialects of Kachi Koli [gjk], 75%–77% with the Rabari dialect of Kachi Koli [gjk], 76% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Unusual interrogative word suggests possible historical connection with Western Rajasthani group. Speakers in Pakistan running out of marriage possibilities and may have to move to India. The Indian group is most influential. Other Aer people in Nawabshah, Sindh reportedly speak a different language, dress differently, and do not intermarry with this group. Hindu.

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Badeshi
[bdz] Bishigram valley upper reaches, east of Madyan, Swat Kohistan; small groups in Swat, Tirat and Pooran Chakesar valleys; Alai. No known L1 speakers. No known speakers for three or more generations. Ethnic population: 2,830 (2000). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Badakhshi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Unclassified Comments: Only dominant area languages now used: Torwali [trw], Pashto or Ushojo [ush]. Muslim (Sunni).

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Bagri
[bgq] Sindh Province; Punjab. 200,000 in Pakistan. 100,000 in Sindh Province (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Bahgri, Baorias, Bawri Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: Distinct from Vaghri [vgr]. Nomadic.

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Balochi, Eastern
[bgp] Northeast Balochistan Province, northwest Sindh, southwest Punjab. 1,800,000 in Pakistan (1998). 5,000,000 including L2 users of all Balochi languages. Population total all countries: 1,800,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Eastern Hill Balochi Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. A major language in Pakistan. Distinct from Western Balochi [bgn] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. A small body of literature. Muslim (Sunni).

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Balochi, Southern
[bcc] South Balochistan, south Sindh, Karachi. 2,770,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 3,405,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Makrani Dialects: Coastal Balochi, Kechi (Keci), Makrani (Lotuni). Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and fairly distinct from Western Balochi [bgn]. A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Zikri).

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] Northwest Baluchistan Province. 1,116,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 1,799,840. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci Dialects: Lashari, Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Strongly influenced by Farsi, but not intelligible with Farsi [prs]. A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. A small body of literature. Muslim (Sunni).

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Balti
[bft] Primarily northeast Pakistan, Baltistan district, Skardu, Rondu, Shigar, Khapalu, Kharmang, and Gultari valleys. 270,000 in Pakistan (1992). Population total all countries: 290,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baltistani, Bhotia of Baltistan, Sbalti Dialects: Chorbat is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 87%–100% among dialects, 78%–85% with Purik [prx]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western Comments: Muslim (Shi’a).

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Baluchi
[bal] Population total all languages: 7,005,640. Comments: Includes: Eastern Balochi [bgp], Southern Balochi [bcc], Western Balochi [bgn].

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Bateri
[btv] Extreme south, Kohistan district, Indus River east bank, some north of Besham; Batera area. 28,300 in Pakistan (2000). Population total all countries: 29,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batera Kohistani, Baterawal, Baterawal Kohistani, Bateri Kohistani Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Indus Kohistani [mvy] than to Kohistani Shina [plk], but distinct from both. Lexical similarity: 58%–61% with Indus Kohistani, 60% with Gowro [gwf], 54% with Chilisso [clh], 29% with Kohistani Shina [plk] and Torwali [trw], 27% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani

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Bhaya
[bhe] Lower Sindh Province, Kapri Goth near Samaro, Khipro area, Jamesabad, Mirke goth, Mirpurkhas, Phuladia, and a few in Hyderabad. Possibly in India. 70 (1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Similarity of key morphemes: The possessive postposition with, g-, contrasts with all other languages in the area. Gender endings match Marwari [mve]. May be the same as Bhoyari dialect of Malvi [mup] in India. May be in Western Hindi group. Lexical similarity: 84% with Marwari [mve], 75% with Malhi dialect of Dhatki [mki], 73% with Bhat, 72%–73% with Goaria [gig], 70%–73% with Sindhi Meghwar dialect of Sindhi Bhil [sbn], 63%–72% with Mogi, 63%–71% with Sindhi Bhil [sbn], 70% with Urdu [urd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified

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Brahui
[brh] South central, Quetta and Kalat region, east Baluchistan and Sind provinces. 4,000,000 in Pakistan (2011). Population total all countries: 4,220,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birahui, Brahuidi, Brahuigi, Kur Galli Dialects: Jharawan, Kalat, Sarawan. Kalat is standard dialect, Jharawan is lowland. Low percentage of lexical similarity with surrounding languages. Classification: Dravidian, Northern Comments: Muslim.

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Burushaski
[bsk] North Gilgit district areas, Hunza-Nagar and Yasin areas; scattered in Gilgit, Kashmir, and various cities. 87,000 in Pakistan (2000), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biltum, Brushaski, Burucaki, Burucaski, Burushaki, Burushki, Khajuna, Kunjut Dialects: Hunza, Nagar (Nagir), Yasin (Werchikwar). Yasin is geographically separated from other dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–94% between Nagar and Hunza dialects, 67%–72% between Yasin and Hunza, 66%–71% between Yasin and Nagar. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Muslim (Shi’a), Muslim (Sunni).

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Chilisso
[clh] Indus river east bank, Indus Kohistan, Koli, Palas area. 1,000 (1992 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiliss, Galos Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Indus Kohistani [mvy], 65%–68% with Gowro [gwf], 54% with Bateri [btv], 48%–56% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 26% with Torwali [trw], 25% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani

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Dameli
[dml] Kunar river east side, south Chitral district, south of Drosh, Damel valley. 4 main and several smaller villages. 5,000 (Cacopardo and Cacopardo 2001), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Damedi, Damel, Damia, Damiabaasha, Gidoji, Gudoji Dialects: 2 groups: Shinteri-Dondideri and Swati-Aspar, but no significant dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 44% with Gawar-Bati [gwt], Savi [sdg], and Palula [phl]; 33% with Kamviri [xvi]; 29% with Kati [bsh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar Comments: Speakers probably of mixed origin. Language influenced by Nuristani languages. Muslim (Sunni).

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Dari
[prs] Southeast Chitral, Shishi Koh Valley, Madaglasht village; Peshawar, Rawalpindi, Lahore, Karachi, and other large cities. 1,000,000 in Pakistan. 2,000–3,000 in Madaglasht (Chitral), and many Afghan refugees (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Afghan Persian, Badakhshi, Madaglashti, Tajik Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Madaglasht community in Chitral came from Badakhshan, Afghanistan 200 years ago. Other communities in Pakistan are primarily refugees or settlers from Afghanistan. Muslim.

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Dehwari
[deh] Central Balochistan, Kalat, and Mastung. 13,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Deghwari Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Influenced by Brahui [brh].

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Dhatki
[mki] Lower Sindh, Tharparkar, and Sanghar districts. 132,000 in Pakistan (2000). 100,000 in Sind (1987). Population total all countries: 148,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhati Dialects: Barage, Central Dhatki, Eastern Dhatki, Malhi, Southern Dhatki. Varies considerably from northern Marwari [mve], though they claim to understand one another. Lexical similarity: 80%–83% with Marwari [mve] dialects, 88% with Dhatki of Rajasthan and Dhatki of Thar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Domaaki
[dmk] Gilgit district, areas north, mainly Hunza valley, Mominabad village; Big Nagar, Punyal; Shishkat; Gilgit, Shishkat; Oshkandas east of Gilgit, and Bakor village. 340 (Matthias 2011), decreasing. Concentrated mostly in one village (Van Driem 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Doma, Dumaki Dialects: None known. Loanwords from Shina [scl] and Burushaski [bsk], but not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Gilgit Shina [scl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone Comments: Ethnonyms: Bericho, Dom, or Doma. Not all Doms speak Domaaki; most speakers concentrated in Mominabad and Hunza. Muslim.

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English
[eng] L2 users: 17,000,000 in Pakistan (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Gawar-Bati
[gwt] South Chitral, Arandu; along Kunar river south of Arandu. 1,500 in Pakistan (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arandui, Gowar-Bati, Gowari, Narisati, Narsati, Satre Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kunar Comments: Refer to themselves as Kohistani, as do other ethnolinguistic groups in the region. Muslim (Sunni).

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Ghera
[ghr] Hyderabad, 1 colony, between main bus stop and railway station. Speakers say more than 90% remained in Surat and Ahmedabad, India. 10,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bara, Sindhi Ghera Dialects: None known. Quite different grammatically from Gurgula [ggg]; reportedly similar to Urdu [urd]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Gurgula [ggg], 70% with Urdu [urd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Unclassified Comments: Almost totally urbanized. Hindu.

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Goaria
[gig] Widespread in Sindh Province (except Karachi), Larkana, Sukkur, Moro, Badin, and Umerkot. 25,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Maybe the same as Sadri (Gawari) [sck] in India. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% with Jogi, 76%–80% with Marwari [mve] sweeper caste, 72%–78% with Marwari (Meghwar dialect) [mve], 70%–78% with Loarki [lrk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Hindu.

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Gowro
[gwf] Indus Kohistan east bank, Kolai area, Mahrin village. 200 (1990), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gabar Khel, Gabaro Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65%–68% with Chilisso [clh], 62% with Indus Kohistani [mvy], 60% with Bateri [btv], 40%–43% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 25% with Torwali [trw], 24% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani Comments: Ancestral language of the Gabar Khel, a clan residing primarily in Mahrin (Indus Kohistan). Different from Gawri, an alternate name for Kalami [gwc].

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Gujarati
[guj] Lower Punjab, Sindh. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati

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Gujari
[gju] Widespread in the north, east Hazara district, NWFP, Kaghan valley, Azad Kashmir; scattered in south Chitral, Swat Kohistan; Dir Kohistan, NWFP; Gilgit. 300,000 in Pakistan (1992). 2,910 in Chitral (1969), 20,000 in Swat Kohistan (1987), 200,000–700,000 in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gogri, Gojari, Gojri, Gujer, Gujjari, Gujuri, Gujuri Rajasthani, Kashmir Gujuri Dialects: Eastern Gujari, Western Gujari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: Some move seasonally with herds. Muslim.

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Gurgula
[ggg] Sindh Province, Bhens colony, Karachi; smaller urban centers of Mirpur Khas, Shahdadpur, Panj, Moro, Sabura and Tando Allahyar. 35,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marwari Ghera Dialects: None known. Ghera [ghr] is quite different grammatically. Lexical similarity: 87% with Ghera [ghr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Unclassified Comments: Hindu.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Baluchistan, Qunduz area, Quetta, Karachi and Islamabad, some villages in rural Sindh. 157,000 in Pakistan (2000). Many recent refugees from Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Azargi, Hazara, Hezareh Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian Comments: Alternate names listed refer to the people. Group or regional names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad, Kabul. Muslim (Imami Shi’a).

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Hindko, Northern
[hno] Hazara division, Mansehra and Abbotabad districts, Indus and Kaghan valleys and Indus valley tributaries, NWFP. 1,880,000 (1981 census). Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,000,000 (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hazara Hindko, Hindki, Kagani, Kaghani Dialects: Also related to Panjabi [pnb], Seraiki [skr], and Pahari-Potwari [phr]; which have all been called Greater Panjabi, forming part of Lahnda [lah]. Lexical similaritiy: 82%–92% with Northern Hindko dialects, 67%–82% with Northern and Southern Hindko [hnd] varieties. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Hindko, Southern
[hnd] Punjab Province, Attock district, to south Hazara division, NWFP; Kohat and Peshawar districts, NWFP. 625,000 (1981 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Attock Hindko (Attock-Haripur Hindko), Kohat Hindko (Kohati), Peshawar Hindko (Peshawari), Rural Peshawar Hindko. The dialect in Dera Ismail Khan, sometimes called, Hindko, is reportedly more similar to Seraiki [skr]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Jadgali
[jdg] Southeast Balochistan Province, southwest Sind. 100,000 in Pakistan (1998). Population total all countries: 110,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Different from Jakati [jat] of Afghanistan and Ukraine. Muslim.

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Jandavra
[jnd] South Sindh Province, Hyderabad to east of Mirpur Khas. Reportedly also in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. 5,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jhandoria Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Bagri [bgq] and the Katai Meghwar dialect of Kachi Koli [gjk], 68% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Hindu.

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Kabutra
[kbu] Sindh, Umerkot, Kunri, and Nara Dhoro areas. Speakers say 90% of the people remain in Zal area of Marwar, India. 1,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nat, Natra Dialects: Reported inherent intelligibility with Sansi [ssi] and the Sochi dialect of Sansi, and use Kabutra when speaking to them. Lexical similarity: 74% with the Sochi [ssi] language variety. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi Comments: Hindu.

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Kachchi
[kfr] Karachi. 50,000 in Pakistan (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuchi, Cutch, Kachchhi, Kachi, Katch, Katchi, Kautchy, Kutchchi, Kutchie Dialects: Jadeji. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi

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Kalami
[gwc] Upper Swat Kohistan, between Peshmal and Kalam north to Kalam area upper valleys; Dir Kohistan in Thal, Lamuti, Biar, and Rajkot villages. 100,000 (Baart and Sagar 2004), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bashgharik, Bashkarik, Baskarik, Dir Kohistani, Diri, Dirwali, Gaawro, Garwa, Garwi, Gawri, Gowri, Kalami Kohistani, Kohistana, Kohistani Dialects: Dashwa, Kalam, Lamuti (Lamti), Rajkoti (Patrak), Thal, Ushu. Dialect differences do not hinder communication, except speakers of other dialects have difficulty with Rajkot. Lexical similarity: 90%–93% among main dialects; Rajkoti has 75% with Kalami; Dashwa has 77% with Kalami [gwc], and 74% with Rajkoti. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani Comments: Most widely understood indigenous language in north Swat and Dir Kohistan. Muslim.

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Kalasha
[kls] South Chitral district. Southern Kalasha dialect: Urtsun valley; Northern Kalasha: Rumbur, Bumboret, and Birir valleys. 5,000 (Heegård Petersen 2006). 3,200 in Northern Kalasha area; unknown and decreasing number in Southern Kalasha area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalash, Kalashamon Dialects: Northern Kalasha (Birir, Bumboret, Rumbur), Southern Kalasha (Urtsun). Very little contact between northern and southern dialects of Kalasha, so there are difficulties in communication now. Lexical similarity: 75% southern dialect with northern dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral Comments: Originally Kalasha was the language of most of the southern Chitral district. Now Khowar [khw] is the predominant language, with earlier languages just used in villages of the side valleys. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kalkoti
[xka] Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Dir Kohistan, Kalkot village. 6,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kalami [gwc], 59% with Palula [phl], 60% with Savi [sdg]. Kalkoti, Palula and Savi form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Muslim.

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Kamviri
[xvi] South Chitral district, Langorbat, Lamerot, Badrugal, and Urtsun valley. 2,000 in Pakistan (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamdeshi, Kamik, Lamertiviri, Shekhani Dialects: Kamviri, Shekhani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani

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Kashmiri
[kas] Azad Kashmir, south of Shina. 105,000 in Pakistan (1993). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cashmeeree, Cashmiri, Kacmiri, Kaschemiri, Keshuri Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kashmiri

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Kati
[bsh] Eastern Kativiri dialect: Chitral district, Gobar in Lutkuh valley, Kunisht in Rumbur valley, Shekhanan Deh in Bumboret valley and Urtsun valley. 3,700 in Pakistan (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bashgali, Kativiri, Nuristani Dialects: Eastern Kativiri (Shekhani), Mumviri, Western Kativiri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Nuristani Comments: Eastern Kativiri dialect often called Shekhani in Pakistan, but different from Kamviri [xvi] dialect also called Shekhani in Southern Chitral.

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Khetrani
[xhe] Northeast Balochistan Province. 4000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Siraiki [skr]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Influenced by Balochi. Muslim.

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Khowar
[khw] Chitral; Ghizr valley, Shandur pass to Gupis; Gilgit district, Yasin and Ishkhoman valleys, north Swat valley, Ushu; Peshawar and Rawalpindi. 223,000 in Pakistan (1992). Population total all countries: 242,200. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arniya, Chitrali, Chitrari, Citrali, Kashkari, Khawar, Patu, Qashqari Dialects: East Khowar, North Khowar, South Khowar, Swat Khowar. Northern dialect considered more pure. Related to Kalasha [kls] but different. Lexical similarity: 86%–98% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Chitral Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Ismaili).

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Kohistani, Indus
[mvy] Indus Kohistan district, west bank Indus river. 200,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khili, Kohistani, Kohiste, Mair, Maiyã, Maiyon, Shuthun Dialects: Duber-Kandia (Khili, Manzari), Indus (Jijal, Mani, Pattan, Seo). A separate language from nearby varieties: Bateri [btv], Chilisso [clh]. Lexical similarity: 88%–92% between dialects, 69%–71% with Chilisso [clh], 61%–63%% with Gowro [gwf], 58%–61% with Bateri [btv], 36%–41% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 26%–28% with Kalami [gwc] and Torwali [trw]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani Comments: Mani and Manzari are not used for dialects, but are said to refer to brothers whose descendants settled in the 2 dialect areas.

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Koli, Kachi
[gjk] Lower Sindh, an area bordered by Sakrand and Nawabshah north, Matli south, and east beyond Mirpur Khas and Jamesabad, Tando Allahyar, and Tando Adam town areas. 170,000 in Pakistan (1998). 80,000–100,000 Kachi Koli, 5,000–6,000 Rabari, 10,000 Kachi Bhil, 50,000 Vagri, 10,000 Katai Meghwar, 1,000 Zalavaria Koli. Population total all countries: 570,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kachi, Kachi Gujarati, Katchi, Kohli, Kolhi, Koli, Kori, Kuchi, Vagari, Vagaria Dialects: Kachi, Kachi Bhil, Katai Meghwar, Rabari (Rahabari), Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Zalavaria Koli. Becoming more like Sindhi [snd]. Lexical similarity: Kachi dialect; 89% with Kachi and Rabari, 96% with Kachi Bhil, 86% with Vagri, 92% with Katai Meghwar, 88% with Zalavaria Koli, 78% with Gujarati [guj], 76% with Wadiyara Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: People with basically the same language are socially quite distinct. Hindu.

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Koli, Parkari
[kvx] Sindh, southeast tip bordering India, Tharparkar District, Nagar Parkar. Most lower Thar Desert, west as far as Indus River, bordered north and west by Hyderabad, to south and west of Badin. 250,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Parkari Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77%–83% with Marwari Bhil [mve], 83% with Wadiyara Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Hindu.

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Koli, Wadiyara
[kxp] Sindh, bounded by Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar and Mirpur Khas north, Matli and Jamesabad south. 175,000 in Pakistan (1998). 75,000 Wadiyara, 5,000 Mewasi and Nairya, 30,000 Tharadari, 45,000 Hasoria, 20,000 Rardro. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wadaria, Wadhiara Dialects: Hasoria Bhil, Hasoria Koli, Mewasi (Mayvasi Koli), Nairya Koli, Rardro Bhil, Tharadari Bhil, Tharadari Koli, Wadiyara Koli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Some strict caste rules about intermarriage and interdining are changing; possibly ‘lower’ groups wishing to move up, and barriers in closed castes breaking down.

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Kundal Shahi
[shd] Azad Kashmir, Neelam district, Kundal Shahi village, 72 km from Muzaffarabad. 700 (Rehman and Baart 2005). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Rawri” (pej.) Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Shina [scl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: The language is spoken by the Qureshi ethnic group.

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Lahnda
[lah] Population total all languages: 82,630,000. Comments: Includes: Khetrani [xhe], Mirpur Panjabi [pmu] (India), Northern Hindko [hno], Pahari-Potwari [phr], Seraiki [skr], Southern Hindko [hnd], Western Panjabi [pnb].

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Lasi
[lss] Southeast Balochistan Province, Las Bela district, north-northwest of Karachi. 15,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lassi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Influenced by Balochi. Muslim.

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Loarki
[lrk] Sindh Province, rural. 20,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Probably the same as Gade Lohar [gda] in Rajasthan, India, a Rajasthani language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Jogi, 80% with Marwari [mve]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: Alternate people names are: Loar, Lohar, Gadlia, Gadolia Rajput, Gadolia Rajput Loar, Karia, Sisudia Rajput, Sisudia Loar. Hindu.

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Marwari
[mve] Northern Marwari dialect: south Punjab and north Sindh, north of Dadu and Nawabshah; Southern Marwari: Sindh and south Punjab provinces, between Tando Mohammed Khan and Tando Ghulam Ali south, Dadu and Nawabshab north. 220,000. 100,000 Northern Marwari, 120,000 or more Southern Marwari (1998). The latter 100,000 Marwari Bhil, 10,000 Marwari Meghwar, 12,000 to 13,000 Marwari Bhat. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jaiselmer, Marawar, Marwari Bhil, Marwari Meghwar, Merwari, Rajasthani Dialects: Marwari Bhat, Marwari Bhil, Marwari Meghwar, Northern Marwari, Southern Marwari. Northern and Southern Marwari mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 79%–83% with Dhatki [mki], 87% between Southern and Northern Marwari, 78% with Marwari Meghwar and Marwari Bhat dialects. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Rajasthani, Marwari Comments: ‘Rajasthani’ is a linguistic cover term for a group of languages. Speakers tend to be urban and educated. Northern Bhil tribes: Marwari-Thori, Gulguli, Shikari, Jogi, Sochi. Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Memoni
[mby] Karachi. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sindhi [snd] and Gujarati [guj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified Comments: Reportedly 500–600 years ago Memoni speakers moved from a Sindhi-speaking area to a Gujarati-speaking area. Muslim.

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Od
[odk] Widespread in Sindh; a few in south Punjab. Possibly in Rajasthan, India. 50,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oad, Odki Dialects: Resembles Marathi [mar] with Gujarati [guj] features and borrowings from Marwari [mve] and Panjabi. Lexical similarity: 86%–88% among dialects in Dadu, Shikarpur, and Pithoro, 70%–78% with Marwari [mve], Dhatki [mki] and Bagri [bgq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified

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Ormuri
[oru] Kaniguram, a pocket in Mahsud Pashto area northwest of Dera Ismail Khan, Wazirstan. 6,000 in Pakistan (2004 R. Burki). Population total all countries: 6,050. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baraki, Baraks, Bargista, Ormui, Ormur, Urmuri Dialects: Kanigurami, Logar. Lexical similarity: 27% with Waneci [wne], 25%–33% with Pashto dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi

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Pahari-Potwari
[phr] Pahari: Rawalpindi, Murree Hills, and east in Azad Kashmir (Poonchi (Punchhi) and Chibhali); north in the lower half of the Neelum Valley. Potwari: Pothwar Plateau, from Rawalpindi to Gujar Khan and south to Jhelum. Mirpuri: southern Azad Kashmir. 2,500,000 (Lothers and Lothers 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chibhali, Dhundi-Kairali, Pothohari, Potohari, Potwari Dialects: Chibhali, Mirpuri, Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Punchhi (Poonchi). ’Pahari’, hill language; Potwari is the language of the Pothwar Plateau. A chain of related varieties with Punjabi [pnb], Hindko [hno] [hnd], and Saraiki [skr], also called Greater Panjabi. Degree of similarity to Western Pahari varieties in India unknown. Lexical similarity: 76%–84% among varieties called, Pahari, Potwari, and some called Hindko in Mansehra, Muzzaffarabad, and Mirpuri in Jammu. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Muslim.

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Pakistan Sign Language
[pks] Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Isharon Ki Zubann Dialects: Some regional variation in vocabulary. Related to Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]; may be identical to Indian Sign Language [ins]. Classification: Deaf sign language

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Palula
[phl] Lower east Chitral river, Ashret and Biori, 12 villages; some in main valley, Kalkatak, and Shishi Koh valley, Purigal; reportedly some in Dir Kohistan. Ashreti dialect: Ashret Valley; Northern Palula dialect: Biori Valley, Kalkatak, and Purigal. 10,000 (Liljegren 2008). Population of Ashret and Biori Valleys is almost completely monolingual (Liljegren 2008). L2 users: Used and understood by many other-tongue speakers in Badrugal and Kalkatak. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biyori, Dangarikwar, Palola, Phalulo, Phalura Dialects: Ashreti, Northern Palula. No, or limited, intelligibility of Kalkoti [xka] and Savi [sdg]. Lexical similarity: 92% with Ashreti and Northern Palula dialects, 56%–58% with Savi [sdg] in Afghanistan, 38%–42% with Kohistani Shina [plk]. Palula, Kalkoti [xka] (spoken in Dir Kohistan) and Savi [sdg] (spoken in Afghanistan) form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group (Liljegren 2008). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Panjabi, Western
[pnb] Mainly in Punjab. 60,600,000 in Pakistan (2000). Population total all countries: 62,613,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lahanda, Lahnda, Lahndi, Lahori, Majhi, Western Punjabi Dialects: A continuum of related varieties between Eastern Panjabi [pan] in India and Western Panjabi, and ‘Lahnda’. Lahnda (originally called Western Panjabi by Grierson) is a label for the dialect continuum between Hindko [hno] [hnd], Pahari-Potwari [phr], and Saraiki [skr]; Lahnda varieties are 70%–85% lexically similar to Punjabi [pan]. Lexical similarity: 70%–85% with Punjabi [pan]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Christian.

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Pashto, Central
[pst] Wazirstan, Bannu, Karak, southern ethnic group territories and adjacent areas. 6,520,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahsudi, Waziri Dialects: Bannuchi (Bannochi, Bannu), Waciri (Waziri). Lexical comparison and interviews indicate this is distinct from Northern Pashto [pbu] and Southern Pashto [pbt]. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Pashto, Northern
[pbu] Afghanistan border, most of NWFP, Yusufzai, and Peshawar. 18,700,000 in Pakistan (2013 SIL). Population total all countries: 20,540,000. Ethnic population: Possibly 49,600,000 Pashto in all countries. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pakhto, Pashtu, Pushto, Yousafzai Pashto, Yusufzai Pashto Dialects: Eastern Afghan Pashto, Ningraharian Pashto, Northeastern Pashto. Much similarity with Northwestern Pashto in Afghanistan. Subdialects of Northeastern Pashto are Kohat (Khatak), Yusufzai (Peshawar), Afridi, Shinwari, Mohmand, Shilmani. Lexical similarity: 80% between Northeastern and Southwestern Pashto. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Balochistan, Quetta area. 4,580,000 in Pakistan (2013 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pashtu, Pushto, Pushtu, Quetta-Kandahar Pashto Dialects: Quetta Pashto, Southeastern Pashto. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Muslim.

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Pushto
[pus] Population total all languages: 37,870,100. Comments: Includes: Central Pashto [pst], Northern Pashto [pbu], Southern Pashto [pbt] (Afghanistan).

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Sansi
[ssi] North Sindh Province, Karachi. Sochi dialect: throughout Sindh Province. 16,200 in Pakistan (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhilki Dialects: Sochi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi Comments: Bhils by caste. Immigrated from India in 1947. Hindu, Muslim.

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Savi
[sdg] Sau, Kunar valley; Dir, many in refugee camps near Timargarha; Chitral, near Drosh; a few in Jalalabad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sau, Sauji, Sawi Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Muslim.

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Seraiki
[skr] South Punjab and north Sind, Indus river valley, Jampur area. Derawali dialect: Dera Ismail Khan, Tank, Bannu, and Dera Ghazi Khan; Jangli dialect: Sahiwal area. 13,900,000 in Pakistan (1998 census). Population total all countries: 13,968,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bahawalpuri, Multani, Riasiti, Saraiki, Siraiki, Southern Panjabi Dialects: Bahawalpuri (Reasati, Riasati), Derawali, Jangli, Jatki, Multani (Khatki). Dialects blend together into Panjabi east and Sindhi [snd] south. Until recently it was considered a dialect of Panjabi. 80% intelligibility of Dogri [dgo]. Lexical similarity: 85% with Sindhi [snd]; 68% with Dhatki [mki], Od [odk], and Sansi [ssi]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Lahnda Comments: Muslim, Hindu.

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Shina
[scl] North, Gilgit District, scattered villages in Yasin and Ishkoman valleys, Punial, Gilgit, Haramosh, lower Hunza Valley; Diamer district, Chilas area, Darel and Tangir valleys, Astor Valley; scattered in Baltistan district, Satpara, Kharmang, Kachura, and other small valleys; NWFP, east Kohistan district, Sazin, Harban. 337,000 in Pakistan (1998 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 371,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokpa, Shinaki, Sina Dialects: Astori (Astor, Dras, Gurezi, Kharmangi, Satpara), Chilasi Kohistani (Chilas, Darel, Harban, Sazin, Tangir), Gilgiti (Bagrote, Bunji, Gilgit, Haramosh, Hunza-Nagar, Punial, Rondu). Gilgit functions as the language standard. Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% within Gilgiti (Northern) dialect subgroup, 81%–96% with Astori (Eastern) subgroup, 84%–98% with Chilas (Diamer) subgroup. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Ethnonym: Brokpa in Baltistan and Ladakh. Glossonym: Brokskat, name also used semiofficially in India to refer to a highly divergent variety of Shina spoken by Buddhists. Muslim (Sunni), Muslim (Shi’a).

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Shina, Kohistani
[plk] Kohistan district, NWFP, east bank Indus river, Jalkot, Palas, and Kolai valley areas. 200,000 (1981 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kohistani, Kohistyo, Palasi-Kohistani Dialects: Jalkoti, Kolai, Palasi. A somewhat divergent variety of Shina linguistically and socially. Reportedly similar to Shina [scl] of Chilas, but more distant from Gilgit [scl] dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Sindhi
[snd] Sindh. Possibly also United Arab Emirates. 18,500,000 in Pakistan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 20,270,500. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Sindh. Dialects: Dukslinu (Hindu Sindhi), Kachchi, Katiawari Kachi, Lari, Lasi, Macharia, Shikari Bhil, Sindhi Musalmani (Muslim Sindhi), Thareli, Vicholo (Central Sindhi, Viccholi, Vicholi). Some southern Bhil groups speak dialects of Sindhi. 100,000 in rural Sindh originally from Kathiawar Peninsula in India are Muslims, exhibit widespread bilingualism in Sindh, and are almost completely assimilated with the Sindhi people. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Shikari (hunter) Bhils are a nomadic group of 2,000 to 3,000 who live in south Sindh Province, centered around Badin, and have adopted the Sindhi language. Muslim, Hindu.

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Sindhi Bhil
[sbn] Sindh Province, Mohrano, Badin-Matli-Thatta, and Ghorabari (on west). Sindhi Meghwar scattered from Badin-Matli to Tando Allahyar area. 56,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Badin, Mohrano, Sindhi Bhil, Sindhi Meghwar. Badin dialect is reportedly similar to Sindhi [snd]. Lexical similarity: 82% between the Mohrani dialect and Sindhi; 89% between Sindhi Bhil [sbn] and Sindhi Meghwar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Sindhi Comments: Sindhi or Dhatki orthographies are acceptable. Hindu, Muslim.

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Torwali
[trw] Bahrain dialect: Upper Swat district, both sides of Swat river, from just north of Madyan up to Asret (located between Mankjal and Peshmal); Chail dialect: Primarily 2 villages in the Chail valley, 5–8 km east of Madyan. 80,000 (Lunsford 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Torwalak, Torwali Kohistani, Turvali Dialects: Bahrain, Chail. Lexical similarity: 44% with Kalkoti [xka] and Kalami [gwc], 89% with Bahrain and Chail dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Kohistani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Urdu
[urd] Widespread. 10,000,000 in Pakistan (1998 census). Population total all countries: 63,948,800. L2 users: 94,000,000 in Pakistan (1999). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(1)). Alternate Names: Bihari Dialects: Intelligible with Hindi, but formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian. Dakhini dialect of Urdu [urd] in India has fewer Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu. Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Western Hindi, Hindustani Comments: Muslim (Sunni).

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Ushojo
[ush] Swat Kohistan, upper reaches of Bishigram valley, east of Madyan. 12 villages. 2,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ushuji Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Kolai Shina [plk], 48% with Palas Shina [plk], 42% with Gilgiti Shina [scl], 35% with Chail Torwali [trw], 31% with Palula [phl], 27% with Bateri [btv], 23% with Kalami [gwc], 22% with Kalkoti [xka]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Northwestern zone, Dardic, Shina Comments: Not known by linguists until 1989. Reportedly came from Kolai, Indus Kohistan several hundred years ago via Ushu, Swat, hence the name Ushojo. Muslim (Sunni).

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Vaghri
[vgr] Sindh, in Sukkur, Karachi, Nawabshah, Sakrand, Hala, Sanghar, Tando Adam, Tando Mohammed Khan, Badin, Matli, Tando Ghulam Ali, Digri, Noakot, Jang Sai, Mirpur Khas, and Tando Allahyar. Possibly 90,000 in India. 10,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bavri, Salavta, Vaghri Koli Dialects: None known. Reportedly related to Kukar people’s language who live near Chanesar Halt, Mehmoodabad in Karachi. Lexical similarity: 78% with Wadiyari Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Urbanized. Hindu.

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Wakhi
[wbl] Northeasternmost Chitral, Baroghil area, in glacier area. Gojal dialect: upper Hunza valley, Gulmit to Chinese and Afghanistan borders, Shimshal and Chupursan valleys, upper Yarkhun valley of Chitral, and upper Ishkoman valley. 20,000 in Pakistan (2008), increasing. 4,500–6,000 Gojal, 2,000 Ishkoman, 200 Yasin, 900 Yarkhun (1992), plus refugees. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khikwar, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi Dialects: Gojal, Ishkoman, Yarkhun, Yasin. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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Waneci
[wne] Northeastern Balochistan Province, Harnai area. 95,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chalgari, Tarino, Vanechi, Wanechi, Wanetsi Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71%–75% with Southern Pashto [pbt], 63%–72% with other Pashto varieties, 27% with Ormuri [oru]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto Comments: Muslim.

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Yidgha
[ydg] Chitral, Upper Lutkuh valley, west of Garam Chishma. 6,150 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lutkuhwar, Yidga, Yudga, Yudgha Dialects: No significant dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 56%–80% with Munji [mnj] in Afghanistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir Comments: Muslim (Ismaili).

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