Paraguay

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Aché
[guq] Alto Parana department: Narranja and Iruno districts; Caaguazú, Guairá, and Paraguari departments: Colonel Oviedo to Colonel Villaricca, Lake Del Rio Yguazu area; dialects: Chupa Pou, Kontuwy, Kontuwywe, Arroyo Bandera, Cerro Moroti, Puerto Barra, Ypetimi. 1,000 (2006 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,420. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ache-Guayaki, Axe, “Guaiaqui” (pej.), “Guayakí” (pej.), “Guoyagui” (pej.). Dialects: Ache gatu, Ache wa, Ñacunday River Ache (“Ache irollä” (pej.)), Ache purä. 3 dialects remaining, Ache purä is dormant. High intelligibility between Ache gatu and Ache wa, only Ñancunday River Ache’s intelligibility is low for the other two dialects. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Angaité
[aqt] Presidente Hayes department: La Patria. 1,030 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 3,690 (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Enenlhet, Kovalhvok, Koyaqteves. Classification: Mascoyan.

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Ayoreo
[ayo] Alto Paraguay department: Arocojnadi, Cucaani, Guidaichai, and Isla Alta; Boqueron department: Campo Loro, Ebetogue, Jesudi, and Tunocojai. 2,600 in Paraguay (2009 Universidad Nacional de Asunción), increasing. 1,500 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 4,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayoré, Garaygosode, Guarañoca, Guidaigosode, Koroino, Moro, Morotoco, Poturero, Pyeta Yovai, Samococio, Sirákua, Takrat, Totobiegosode, Yanaigua. Dialects: Tsiracua. Classification: Zamucoan. Comments: Partially nomadic. Christian.

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Chamacoco
[ceg] Alto Paraguay department: (Tomárãho) Pitiantuta and Puerto María Elena, (Ybytoso) Inihta, Karchabalut, Misión Santa Teresita, Puerto Caballo, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza. 1,600 (Fabre 2007). Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ishiro, Jeywo, Yshyr Ybytoso, Yshyro. Dialects: Chamacoco Bravo, Tomaraho. Classification: Zamucoan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Enlhet
[enl] Alto Paraguay department; Boquerón department: Filadelfia; Presidente Hayes department: Paratodo and north. 6,440 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 7,220 (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eenlhit, Lengua Norte, Powok, Vowak. Classification: Mascoyan. Comments: Christian.

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Enxet
[enx] Presidente Hayes department: Lolita and east to the Paraguay river. 3,840 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 5,840 (2002 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua Sur. Classification: Mascoyan.

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German, Standard
[deu] Alto Paraná, Boquerón, and Guairá departments; some settlements in the Chaco area. 166,000 in Paraguay. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Guana
[gva] Alto Paraguay department: Riacho Mosquito; Concepción department: San Lázaro district, Valle Mi on Apa river banks. 28 (Crevels 2007). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 84 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cashquiha, Kaskihá, Vana. Dialects: Layana (Niguecactemigi), Echoaldi (Chararana, Echonoana). Reportedly similar to Sanapaná [spn] and Angaité [aqt]. Classification: Mascoyan. Comments: Guana, like Nhandeva [nhd], is a catch-all name and this group should not be confused with Guanas of other countries.

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Guarani
[grn] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 4,957,480 Status: Comments: Includes: Ava Guaraní [nhd], Eastern Bolivian Guaraní [gui] (Bolivia), Mbyá Guaraní [gun] (Brazil), Paraguayan Guaraní [gug], Western Bolivian Guaraní [gnw] (Bolivia).

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Guaraní, Ava
[nhd] Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, and San Pedro departments. 2,060 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 6,920 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 15,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava, Ava Guaraní, Chiripá, Tsiripá, Txiripá. Dialects: Apapocuva. Reportedly similar to Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Most are from Apapocuva group, described by ethnographers. Fewer Spanish loanwords than Guaraní [gug]. Ñandeva is used in the Chaco to refer to Tapiete [tpj], a different but related language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Widespread, east, central, and south. 5,000 in Paraguay (2008 CTI), decreasing. Ethnic population: 14,300 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ka’yngua, Mbua, Mbya, Mbyá, Mbya-apytere. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Some Chiripá may live among them. Special vocabulary, ‘ayvu porã’, used for ritual purposes. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guaraní, Paraguayan
[gug] Widespread. 4,650,000 in Paraguay (1995), decreasing. 2,500,000 monolinguals (2002 census). Total users in all countries: 4,850,000. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, No. 4251, Language Law, Article 3). Alternate Names: Avañe’e, Guaraní. Dialects: Jopará (Yopará). One Chiripá speaker [nhd] indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him. Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish [spa] loanwords, used by 90% of the population in Asunción area. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chiriguano [gui], 75% with Mbyá [gun]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Christian.

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Guarayo
[gui] Boquerón department: Barrio Guaraní, Guaraní Occidental, Macharetti, Manjui, San Agustín, Santa Teresita, Santa Teresita-Guaraní Occidental, Yvopey; Concepción department; San Pedro department: Palomita. 2,530 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.), Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, Guaraní Occidental, Guasurango. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Guarayo [gyr] of Bolivia or Huarayo (Ese Ejja) [ese] of Peru and Bolivia.

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Maka
[mca] Alto Paraná department: Micro Centro; Central department: Comunidad Maka (Corumba Kue); Cordillera department; possibly Itapúa department, Ita Paso; Presidente Hayes department: Villa Hayes and Kenkukek; San Pedro department; Paraguai river, northeast of Asuncion. 1,500 (2000 A. Chemhey). 600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Enimaca, Enimaga, Maca, Macá, Maká, Mak’á, Towolhi. Classification: Matacoan. Comments: Christian.

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Manjui
[crq] Boquerón department: Campo Loa, Colonia 22, Estigarribia, Filadelfia, Mcal, Neuland, Pedro P. Pena, Platanilia, Santa Rosa, Yakaquash. 650 in Paraguay (2011 J. Hunt). 480 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chorote, Choroti, Inkijwas, I’no’, Manjuy, Yojwaja. Dialects: Choroti (Chorote), Yofuáha, Yowúwa. Classification: Matacoan, Chorote. Comments: Paraguayan speakers do not recognize the Argentinian name Iyo’wujwa Chorote. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ñandeva
[tpj] Alto Paraguay department: northwest; Boquerón department: Toledo area; Presidente Hayes department: Barrio Obrero, Colonia 5, Laguna Negra-Belén, Laguna Negra-Canaán, Laguna Negra-Damasco, Laguna Negra-Emaús, Laguna Negra-Jerusalén, Laguna Negra-Ko Pyahu, Laguna Negra-Timoteo, Mariscal Estigarribia, Ñu Guasu, Pykasu, Santa Teresita-San Lázaro, Santa Teresita-Santa Elena, Santa Teresita-Virgen del Carmen, and Siracua. 110 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,830 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 360. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guasurango, Guasurangue, Ñanagua, Nandeva, Tapiete, Tirumbae, Yanaigua. Dialects: None known. Linguistically between Eastern Bolivian Guarani [gui] and Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nivaclé
[cag] Boquerón department: southeast; Presidente Hayes department: west; Chaco region. 13,700 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik). Total users in all countries: 13,920. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, Axluslay, Axluxlay, “Choropí” (pej.), “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupí” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Chunupí” (pej.), “Churupí” (pej.), Guisnai, Nivaklé. Dialects: Forest Nivaclé, River Nivaclé. Mataguayo languages are less similar than Mascoy languages in Paraguay (Fasold 1984). Classification: Matacoan.

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Pai Tavytera
[pta] Amambay, Canindeyú, Concepción, and San Pedro departments. 600 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,030 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ava, Pai, Pai Tavyterã, Tavytera. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kaiwá [kgk] of Brazil. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Paraguayan Sign Language
[pys] Scattered. 15,000 (2009 L. Parks), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de Señas del Paraguay, Lengua de señas paraguaya, LSPY. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Local deaf people indicate that early roots of LSPY were influenced by Uruguayan Sign Language. Deaf generally acquire LSPY from friends during school (outside of the classroom), in deaf associations, or religious meetings.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Boquerón and Presidente Hayes departments: Filadelfia, Loma Plata, Menno Colony, and Neuland; Chaco region and east. 40,000 in Paraguay (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Sanapaná
[spn] Alto Paraguay and Boquerón departments; Presidente Hayes department: Anaconda north to La Palmera south. 980 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 2,270 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kelya’mok, Nenlhet, Saapa’ang. Dialects: 90% or more inherent mutual intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% with Enlhet [enl]. Classification: Mascoyan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] Asunción department: urban areas. 387,000 in Paraguay (2013). L2 users: 4,250,000 in Paraguay (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 140(2)), co-official with Paraguayan Guarani. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Toba Qom
[tob] San Pedro department: Boquerón-Arasapety and Urukuy-Las Palmas; Presidente Hayes department: Cerrito-Cerriteño, Cerrito-Río Verde, Cerrito-Rosarino, Naiñec, and San José. 760 in Paraguay (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 780 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emok-Lik, Namqom, Qom, Qoml’ek, Takshika, Toba-Qom. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern. Comments: Different from Toba-Maskoy [tmf] and Toba-Pilagá [plg].

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Toba-Maskoy
[tmf] Alto Paraguay department: Puerto Guarani area south; Concepción and Presidente Hayes departments: Boquerón Kue, Casanillo-Aldea Campo Rayo, Casanillo-Aldea Capiatá, Casanillo-Aldea Casanillo, Casanillo-Aldea Linda Vista, Casanillo-Campo Aroma, Casanillo-San Rafael, Castilla, Estancia Laguna Porã, Livio Fariña-Pueblito, María Auxiliadora-Km 40, Pozo Amarillo, Riacho Mosquito, San Isidro-Km 39; confluence, Apa and Paraguai rivers. 1,680 (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. All women and young children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,060 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cabanatit, Enenxet, Machicui, Quilyilhrayrom, Toba of Paraguay. Classification: Mascoyan, Mascoy. Comments: Different from Toba Qom [tob], Toba-Pilagá [plg] of Argentina.

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