Paraguay

Print
Aché
[guq] Alto Paraná department: Narranja and Iruno districts; Caaguazú, Guairá, and Paraguarí departments: Colonel Oviedo to Colonel Villaricca, Lake Del Rio Yguazu area; dialects: Chupa Pou, Kontuwy, Kontuwywe, Arroyo Bandera, Cerro Moroti, Puerto Barra, Ypetimi. Population: 910 (Crevels 2012). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,240 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Ache-Guayaki, Aché-Guayaki, Axé, “Guaiaqui” (pej.), “Guayakí” (pej.), “Guoyagui” (pej.). Autonym: Aché. Dialects: Ache gatu, Ache wa, Ñacunday River Ache (“Ache irollä” (pej.)), Ache purä. 3 dialects remaining, Ache purä is dormant. High intelligibility between Ache gatu and Ache wa, only Ñancunday River Ache’s intelligibility is low for the other two dialects. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní.

More Information

Angaité
[aqt] Presidente Hayes department: La Patria. Population: 1,030 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 3,690 (2002 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Enenlhet, Kovalhvok, Koyaqteves. Classification: Mascoyan.

More Information

Ayoreo
[ayo] Alto Paraguay department: Arocojnadi, Cucaani, Guidaichai, and Isla Alta; Boquerón department: Campo Loro, Ebetogue, Jesudi, and Tunocojai. Population: 1,760 in Paraguay (Crevels 2012), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals (2012). Ethnic population: 2,100 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 3,160. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Ayoré, Coroino, Garaygosode, Guarañoca, Guidaigosode, Koroino, Moro, Poturero, Pyeta Yovai, Pyta Jovai, Samococio, Takrat, Totobiegosode, Yanaigua. Autonym: Morotoco. Dialects: Tsiracua (Sirákua, Tsirákua). Lexical similarity: 30% with Chamacoco [ceg]. Classification: Zamucoan.

More Information

Chamacoco
[ceg] Alto Paraguay department: (Tomárãho) Pitiantuta and Puerto María Elena, (Ybytoso) Inihta, Karchabalut, Misión Santa Teresita, Puerto Caballo, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza. Population: 2,000 (Ciucci and Bertinetto 2015). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Ishir, Ishiro, Jeywo. Dialects: Tomarãho (Chamacoco Bravo, Tomaraho, Tomaraxo, Tomárãho), Chamacoco Ebitoso (Chamacoco Manso, Ebitoso, Ybytoso, Yshyr Ybytoso). Lexical similarity: 30% with Ayoreo [ayo]. Classification: Zamucoan.

More Information

Enlhet
[enl] Alto Paraguay department; Boquerón department: Filadelfia; Presidente Hayes department: Paratodo and north. Population: 6,440 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 7,220 (2002 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Eenlhit, Enlhet Norte, Enlhet-Lengua, Enslet, Enthlit, Lengua, Lengua Norte, Powok, Vowak. Classification: Mascoyan.

More Information

Enxet
[enx] Presidente Hayes department: Lolita and east to the Paraguay river. Population: 3,840 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 5,840 (2002 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Enxet Sur, Lengua Sur. Classification: Mascoyan.

More Information

German, Standard
[deu] Alto Paraná, Boquerón, and Guairá departments; some settlements in the Chaco area. Population: 58,000 in Paraguay (2015). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Alemán, Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

More Information

Guana
[gva] Alto Paraguay department: Riacho Mosquito; Concepción department: San Lázaro district, Valle Mi on Apa river banks. Population: 28 (Crevels 2007). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 260 (Crevels 2012). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Cashquiha, Kaskihá, Vana. Dialects: Layana (Niguecactemigi), Echoaldi (Chararana, Echonoana). Reportedly similar to Sanapaná [spn] and Angaité [aqt]. Classification: Mascoyan.

More Information

Guarani
[grn] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 6,162,840. Includes: Ava Guaraní [nhd], Eastern Bolivian Guaraní [gui] (Bolivia), Mbyá Guaraní [gun] (Brazil), Paraguayan Guaraní [gug], Western Bolivian Guaraní [gnw] (Bolivia).

More Information

Guaraní, Ava
[nhd] Alto Paraná, Caaguazú, Caazapá, Canindeyú, and San Pedro departments. Population: 6,310 in Paraguay (Crevels 2012), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,900 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 16,350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava, Ava-Chiripá, Ava-katu-ete, Chiripá, Chiripá-Guaraní, Tsiripá, Txiripá. Autonym: Ava Guaraní. Dialects: Apapocuva. Reportedly similar to Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

More Information

Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Widespread, east, central, and south. Population: 10,000 in Paraguay (Crevels 2012), decreasing. Ethnic population: 14,300 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Ka’yngua, Mbua, Mbya, Mbya-apytere, Mbyá. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

More Information

Guaraní, Paraguayan
[gug] Widespread. Population: 5,850,000 in Paraguay (2015), decreasing. 2,500,000 monolinguals (2002 census). Total users in all countries: 6,050,000. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, No. 4251, Language Law, Article 3). Alternate Names: Guaraní. Autonym: Avañe’ẽ. Dialects: Jopará (Yopará). One Chiripá speaker [nhd] indicated it was bilingualism rather than linguistic closeness that made Paraguayan Guaraní intelligible to him. Jopará is the colloquial form mixed with Spanish [spa] loanwords, used by 90% of the population in Asunción area. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chiriguano [gui], 75% with Mbyá [gun]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

More Information

Guarayo
[gui] Boquerón department: Barrio Guaraní, Guaraní Occidental, Macharetti, Manjui, San Agustín, Santa Teresita, Santa Teresita-Guaraní Occidental, Yvopey; Concepción department; San Pedro department: Palomita. Population: 2,530 in Paraguay (2007 R. Perik), decreasing. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Eastern Bolivian Guaraní, Guaraní Occidental, Guasurango, “Chawuncu” (pej.), “Chiriguano” (pej.). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní, Bolivian Guaraní.

More Information

Maka
[mca] Alto Paraná department: Micro Centro; Central department: Comunidad Maka (Corumba Kue); Cordillera department; possibly Itapúa department, Ita Paso; Presidente Hayes department: Villa Hayes and Kenkukek; San Pedro department; Paraguai river, northeast of Asuncion. Population: 1,040 (Crevels 2012). 400 monolinguals (2012). Ethnic population: 1,300 (Crevels 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Enimaca, Enimaga, Maca, Macá, Maká, Towolhi. Autonym: Mak’á. Classification: Matacoan.

More Information

Manjui
[crq] Boquerón department: Campo Loa, Colonia 22, Estigarribia, Filadelfia, Mcal, Neuland, Pedro P. Pena, Platanilia, Santa Rosa, Yakaquash. Population: 370 in Paraguay (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 450 (Crevels 2012). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Chorote, Choroti, I’no’, Inkijwas, Manjuy, Yojwaja. Dialects: Choroti (Chorote), Yofuáha, Yowúwa. Classification: Matacoan, Chorote.

More Information

Ñandeva
[tpj] Alto Paraguay department: northwest; Boquerón department: Toledo area; Presidente Hayes department: Barrio Obrero, Colonia 5, Laguna Negra-Belén, Laguna Negra-Canaán, Laguna Negra-Damasco, Laguna Negra-Emaús, Laguna Negra-Jerusalén, Laguna Negra-Ko Pyahu, Laguna Negra-Timoteo, Mariscal Estigarribia, Ñu Guasu, Pykasu, Santa Teresita-San Lázaro, Santa Teresita-Santa Elena, Santa Teresita-Virgen del Carmen, and Siracua. Population: 1,550 in Paraguay (Crevels 2012), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,020 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 1,759. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Guarayú, Guasurango, Guasurangue, Nandeva, Tapiete, Tirumbae, Yanaigua, Ñanagua. Dialects: None known. Linguistically between Eastern Bolivian Guarani [gui] and Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

More Information

Nivaclé
[cag] Boquerón department: southeast; Presidente Hayes department: west; Chaco region. Population: 10,100 in Paraguay (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 12,200 (Crevels 2012). Total users in all countries: 10,320. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Ashlushlay, Axluslay, Axluxlay, Nivaklé, “Choropí” (pej.), “Chulupe” (pej.), “Chulupie” (pej.), “Chulupí” (pej.), “Chunupí” (pej.), “Churupí” (pej.). Autonym: Guisnai. Dialects: Forest Nivaclé (Jotoy Lhavós), River Nivaclé (Tovoc Lhavós). Mataguayo languages are less similar than Mascoy languages in Paraguay (Fasold 1984). Classification: Matacoan.

More Information

Pai Tavytera
[pta] Amambay, Canindeyú, Concepción, and San Pedro departments. Population: 6,360 (Crevels 2012), decreasing. Ethnic population: 13,400 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Avá, Kaiova, Kaiowa, Pai, Tavytera. Autonym: Pai Tavyterã. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kaiwá [kgk] of Brazil. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

More Information

Paraguayan Sign Language
[pys] Scattered. Population: 15,000 (2009 L. Parks), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: LSPY, Lengua de Señas del Paraguay, Lengua de señas paraguaya. Classification: Sign language.

More Information

Plautdietsch
[pdt] Boquerón and Presidente Hayes departments: Filadelfia, Loma Plata, Menno Colony, and Neuland; Chaco region and east. Population: 40,000 in Paraguay (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon.

More Information

Sanapaná
[spn] Alto Paraguay and Boquerón departments; Presidente Hayes department: Anaconda north to La Palmera south. Population: 980 (2002 census). Ethnic population: 2,270 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Kasnapan, Kelya’mok, Sa’apan, Saapa’ang. Autonym: Nenlhet. Dialects: 90% or more inherent mutual intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% with Enlhet [enl]. Classification: Mascoyan.

More Information

Spanish
[spa] Asunción department: urban areas. Population: 4,616,000 in Paraguay, all users. L1 users: 386,000 in Paraguay (2016). L2 users: 4,230,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 140(2)), co-official with Paraguayan Guarani. Alternate Names: Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian.

More Information

Toba Qom
[tob] San Pedro department: Boquerón-Arasapety and Urukuy-Las Palmas; Presidente Hayes department: Cerrito-Cerriteño, Cerrito-Río Verde, Cerrito-Rosarino, Naiñec, and San José. Population: 1,180 in Paraguay (Crevels 2012). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Emok-Lik, Namqom, Qom, Qom-Lik, Qoml’ek, Takshika, Toba-Qom. Classification: Guaykuruan, Southern.

More Information

Toba-Maskoy
[tmf] Alto Paraguay department: Puerto Guarani area south; Concepción and Presidente Hayes departments: Boquerón Kue, Casanillo-Aldea Campo Rayo, Casanillo-Aldea Capiatá, Casanillo-Aldea Casanillo, Casanillo-Aldea Linda Vista, Casanillo-Campo Aroma, Casanillo-San Rafael, Castilla, Estancia Laguna Porã, Livio Fariña-Pueblito, María Auxiliadora-Km 40, Pozo Amarillo, Riacho Mosquito, San Isidro-Km 39; confluence, Apa and Paraguai rivers. Population: 1,260 (Crevels 2012), decreasing. 1,250 Toba-Enenlhet and 12 Toba-Maskoy (Crevels 2012). All women and young children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,270 (Crevels 2012). 1,510 Toba-Enenlhet and 760 Toba-Maskoy (Crevels 2012). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2). Alternate Names: Cabanatit, Enenxet, Machicui, Quilyilhrayrom, Toba of Paraguay, Toba-Enenlhet. Classification: Mascoyan, Mascoy.

More Information

Page Views Left: