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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Jablanica, Pcinja, and Toplica districts; Kosovo region. 10,000 (2013 UNSD). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1998 Los Angeles Times). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bjanovac, 2 other municipalities (2009, Constitution, Article 10(2)). De facto provincial language in Kosovo. Alternate Names: Geg, Shqip, Shqyp. Dialects: Northwest Gheg, Northeast Gheg. There is a transitional dialect zone which is neither Gheg Albanian nor Tosk Albanian [als]. It is spoken in a few towns and villages around the Shkumbin River such as Shpat and Sulovë. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Aromanian
[rup] Belgrade City, Nis, and scattered urban communities in Vojvodine and Kosovo. 13,000 (2009 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Armani, Macedo Romania. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bosnian
[bos] Raska district: Novi Pazar and Tutin municipalities. 139,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bujanovac, Medveda, Presevo (1991, Official Language Use Law No. 45, Article 3). Alternate Names: Serbo-Croatian. Dialects: Ijekavían, Ikavian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Influences from Turkish [tur] and Arabic [arb].

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Bulgarian
[bul] Pirot district: Dmitrovgrad; Pcinja district: Bosiljgrad. 13,300 (2013 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Novi Pazar, Sjenica, Tutin (1991, Official Language Use Law No. 45, Article 3). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Croatian
[hrv] North Backa district: Bela Crkva municipality. 19,200 (2013 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Czech
[ces] North Banat district. 37,000 (2009 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Češki, Čeština, Český jazyk. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hungarian
[hun] Central Banat, North Backa, North Banat, South Backa, and West Backa districts; Vojvodina area. 243,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vojvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vojvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Mađarski, Magyar. Classification: Uralic.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Kosovo: scattered. 101,000 (2013 UNSD). 100,000 Arlija. Total users in all countries: 763,670 (as L1: 563,670; as L2: 200,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Roma, Romani. Dialects: Arli (Arlije, Kosovan Arli), Prizren (Kosovan Romani), Tinners Romani, Bugurdži Romani (Arabadži, Kovački, Rabadži), Pazardžik Kalajdži. Arlija dialect (252,000–367,000 total) understood by Greek Romani and Dzambazi. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Ethnic group: Jerlídes (Macedonia, southern Serbia). Muslim.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Belgrade City; southern Serbia, Jablanica, Nis, Pcinja, and Pirot districts; scattered in Kosovo. 31,000. 30,000 Serbian, 1,000 Manouche. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sasítka Romá, Sinte, Sinti. Dialects: Abbruzzesi, Slovenian-Croatian Romani, Serbian Romani. Mutual intelligibility between Croatian Romani, Slovenian Romani, and Serbian Romani. Possibly quite distinct from German [deu] varieties. Sinte is characterized by German influence. Not intelligible of Vlax Romani [rmy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Widespread. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Lovari, Kalderash (Serbian Kalderash), Gurbet (Dzambazi, Gurbetsky). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Romanian
[ron] South Backa district: Timoc valley. 29,100 (2013 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Daco-Rumanian, Română, Rumanian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Romano-Serbian
[rsb] Sremska Mitrovica district. 78,000 (2009 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tent Gypsy. Dialects: None known. Related to Serbian [srp] with influences from Romani. Classification: Mixed language, Serbian-Romani.

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Rusyn
[rue] South Backa district: Ruski Krstur town, Vojvodine. 11,300 (2013 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Carpathian, Carpatho-Rusyn, Rusynski, Ruthenian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Serbian
[srp] 6,340,000 (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 8,485,306. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2006, Constitution, Article 10(1)). Alternate Names: Montenegrin, Serbo-Croatian. Autonym: српски‎ (Srpski), црногорски‎ (Crnogorski). Dialects: Shtokavski (Stokavian), Torlakian. A member of macrolanguage Serbo-Croatian [hbs]. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Previously considered a Serbo-Croat language. Torlakian spoken in south and east. Influence from Bulgarian [bul]. Some linguists consider it transitional between Shtokavski and Macedonian [mkd]. Christian.

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Serbo-Croatian
[hbs] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 15,260,456 Status: Comments: Includes: Bosnian [bos] (Bosnia and Herzegovina), Croatian [hrv] (Croatia), Serbian [srp].

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Slovak
[slk] South Backa district: Vojvodine. 49,800 (2013 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Autonomous Province Vodjvodina (2009, Autonomous Province Vodjvodina Statute, Article 26). Alternate Names: Slovenčina, Slovenský Jazyk. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yugoslavian Sign Language
[ysl] Scattered. 10,000 (2014 EUD). 10,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 30,000 signers (2014 European Forum of Sign Language Interpreters). 30,000 deaf and 90,000 hard of hearing (2013 Association of the Deaf and Hard Hearing). 47,500 (2014 IMB). Total users in all countries: 11,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Serbian Sign Language (Srpski Znakovni Jezik), Kosovar Sign Language (KosSL). Origin from deaf schools in Austria and Hungary. Regional variants, but adequate comprehension. Efforts to standardize since 1979. Since the breakup of Yugoslavia, each area has tended to distinguish its variety from the others, with its own name. The ISO 639-3 standard has not yet been adjusted to reflect these changes, treating all sign languages in the former Yugoslavia (with the exception of Croatian Sign Language [csq]) as dialects of Yugoslavian Sign Language [ysl]. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Serbian Telecom employees learning Serbian Sign Language as an L2. Interpreters furnished in court. About 100 sign language interpreters (2014 European Forum of Sign Language Interpreters). 40 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian.

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