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Abaza
[abq] Karachayevo-Cherkesiya and Stavropol’skiy Kray. 37,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 43,300 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 49,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abazin, Abazintsy, Ashuwa. Dialects: Tapanta, Ashkaraua (Ashkar, Ashxar), Bezshagh. Some dialects partially intelligible of Abkhaz [abk]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Abkhaz-Abazin. Comments: Muslim.

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Adyghe
[ady] Adygeya Republic, Kransnodarskiy Kray, Karachayevo-Cherkesiya, and Stavropol’skiy Kray. 117,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). No monolinguals (Ministry of Education, Adygea Republic). Ethnic population: 129,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 585,500. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Adyghea (1995, Constitution, Adyghea Republic, Article 2). Alternate Names: Adygei, Adygey, Circassian, Kiakh, Kjax, Lower Circassian, West Circassian. Dialects: Shapsug (Sapsug), Xakuchi, Bezhedukh (Bzedux, Bzhedug, Chemgui, Temirgoj), Abadzex (Abadzakh, Abadzeg), Natuzaj (Natukhai). Reportedly similar to Kabardian [kbd]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Some literature. Muslim.

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Aghul
[agx] Dagestan Republic: Agulsky and Kurakhsky districts; Moscow; Stavropol region. 29,300 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 34,200 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aghul-ch’al, Agiul Shui, Agul. Dialects: Agul, Koshan (Q’ushan), Keren, Gequn (Burkikhan), Tsirkhe, Fit’e. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic. Comments: Muslim.

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Akhvakh
[akv] Dagestan Republic: Akhvakhsky district, 6 villages; Kakhib county. 3 villages. 210 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,930 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: ’Aqwalazul, Ashvado, Axvax, Ghahvalal. Dialects: Kaxib, Northern Akhvakh, Southern Akhvakh (Tlyanub, Tsegob). Diverse dialects. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Aleut
[ale] Kamchatka district: Komandor Islands, Bering island, Nikolskoye settlement. 5 in Russian Federation (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 200 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Unangam tunnu, Unangan, Unangany, Unanghan. Dialects: Beringov (Atkan, Bering). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut. Comments: Non-indigenous. From 1820 to 1840 dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Komandor Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s-1980s children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Aleut, Mednyj
[mud] Kamchatka district: Komandor Islands, Copper island. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Aleut [ale]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Attuan, Copper, Copper Island Aleut, Copper Island Attuan, Creolized Attuan, Medny. Classification: Mixed language, Russian-Aleut. Comments: From 1820–1840, dozens of Aleut families were brought from other islands to Commander Islands. Until 1960s, 2 villages on Bering and Medny islands. 1950s–1980s, children sent to boarding schools by the state. Christian.

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Altai, Northern
[atv] Altay, Altayskiy Kray, and Khakasiya; Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, along Mongolia and China border. 57,400 (2010 census). 2,000 Tuba, several thousand Kumandy, 2,000 Chalkan (Salminen 2007). Census includes Southern Altai [alt]. Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Southern Altai [alt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Telengit, Telengut, Teleut. Dialects: Tuba, Kumandy, Chalkan. No comprehension of Southern Altai [alt]. Considered a separate language. Teleut may be a separate language. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Altai, Southern
[alt] Altay, Gorno-Altai Ao mountains, along Mongolia and China border. 57,400 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 74,200 (2010 census). Includes Northern Altai [atv]. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Altai Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Altai, Oirot, Oyrot. Dialects: Altai Proper (Altai-Kizhi, Altaj Kizi, Maina-Kizhi, Southern Altai), Talangit (Chuy, Talangit-Tolos, Telengit), Teleut. No intelligiblility of Northern Altai [atv]. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Different from Oirat [xal] (Kalmyk-Oirat), a Mongolian language. Traditional religion.

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Alutor
[alr] Kamchatka district: northeast Kamchatka peninsula, Vyvenka and Khailino villages; Rekinniki; Tilichiki and Tymlat; some scattered. 25 (2010 census), decreasing. Some monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aliutor, Alyutor, Olyutor. Dialects: Alutorskij (Alutor Proper). Considered a dialect of Koryak [kpy] until recently. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor. Comments: In 1950s–1970s, children were sent to boarding schools.

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Andi
[ani] Dagestan Republic: Botlikhsky district. 9 villages. 5,800 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,800 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andii, Andiy, Khivannal, Qandisel, Qwannab. Dialects: Munin, Rikvani, Kvanxidatl, Gagatl, Upper Andi/North Andi (Andi, Ashali, Chanho, Gagtl, Gunho, Rikvani, Zilo), Lower Andi/South Andi. Dialects appear quite divergent. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Archi
[aqc] Dagestan Republic: Arsha community, upper Risor river. 8 villages. 970 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Archib, Archin, Archintsy, Archsel, Arshashdib. Dialects: None known. One of the most divergent Lezgian (Lezgic) languages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Archi. Comments: Muslim.

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Avar
[ava] Dagestan Republic: Terek and Sulak river areas; some in Chechnya Republic. 715,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 912,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 766,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Avar is used in many areas of Dagestan as a lingua franca among different ethnic groups.. Alternate Names: Avaro, Bolmac, Khundzuri, Maarul Dagestani. Dialects: North Avar (Andian Avar, Bolmats, Khunzakh, Salatav, Unkratl), South-West Avar (Batlukh, Hid Kaxib, Hid Keleb), South-East Avar (Andalal, Andalal Shulanin, Andalal Untib), Antsukh (Ancux), Qarakh (Bacadin, Karakh), Qusur, Zaqatal (Char). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Avar. Comments: Muslim.

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Azerbaijani, North
[azj] Dagestan Republic: south Caucasus mountains, Caspian coast. 473,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 603,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bagvalal
[kva] Dagestan Republic: Tsumadinsky district, Khushtada, Tlondoda, Kvanada, and Gimerso; Akhvakhsky district, Tlissi and Tlibisho; a few other communities. 1,450 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagulal, Bagvalin, Bagwalal, Barbalin, Kvanada, Kvanadin. Dialects: Kvanada-Himerso, Tlondoda-Khushtada, Tlissi-Tlibisho. Reportedly similar to Tindin [tin]. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Bashkort
[bak] Bashkortostan Republic: Chelyabinskaya Oblast’, Kurganskaya Oblast’, and Sverdlovskaya Oblast’; between Volga river and Ural mountains; beyond the Urals. 1,150,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,590,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,245,990. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bashkortostan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bashkir, Bashqort, Basquort. Dialects: Kuvakan (Mountain Bashkir), Yurmaty (Steppe Bashkir), Burzhan (Western Bashkir). Reportedly similar to Tatar [tat]. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Muslim.

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Bezhta
[kap] Dagestan Republic: Tsuntinsky district, Bezhta, Tlyadal, and Khasharkhota villages. 6,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 6,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bazht’, Bazht’al, Bechitin, Bexita, Bezheta, Bezhita, Bezhituri, Bezht’alas mits, Bezhti, Kapuch, Kapucha, Kapuchin, Kapuchin-Gunzib, Kapuchuri, Khvanal, Kiburabi, Kupuca. Dialects: Bezhta proper, Tlyadaly, Khocharkhotin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic. Comments: Khvanal is Avar [ava] name for both Bezhta and Hunzib [huz]. Muslim.

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Bohtan Neo-Aramaic
[bhn] Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Originally in Anatolia, Ottoman Empire, east of Tigris River (present-day southeastern Turkey). Fled to Russia during World War I. Christian.

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Botlikh
[bph] Dagestan Republic: Botlikh and Miarsu villages. 210 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 3,500 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Botlix, Buykhadi. Dialects: Botlikh, Zibirkhalin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Buriat
[bua] A macrolanguage. Buryatiya Republic: Irkutskaya Oblast’, Zabaykalsky; Siberia, east of Lake Baikal, bordering on Mongolia. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 329,100 Status: Comments: Includes: China Buriat [bxu] (China), Mongolia Buriat [bxm] (Mongolia), Russia Buriat [bxr].

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Buriat, Russia
[bxr] Republic of Buryatiya, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Zabaykalsky; Siberia, east of Lake Baikal, bordering on Mongolia. 219,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 461,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Buriat Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Northern Mongolian. Dialects: Ekhirit-Bulagat, Selengin, Unga, Ninzne-Udinsk, Barguzin, Tunka, Oka, Alar, Bohaan, Bokhan. Less influenced by Russian [rus] east of Lake Baikal; more similar to Mongolia. Literary dialect differs considerably from those in Mongolia and China, which are influenced by other languages. Khori is the main dialect in the Russian Federation. Speakers in Russian Federation appear to understand each other well. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat. Comments: Heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chamalal
[cji] Dagestan Republic: Tsumadinsky district. 8 villages; Chechnya Republic. 500 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1990 A. Kibrik). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camalal, Chamalal mitsts, Chamalin. Dialects: Gadyri (Gachitl-Kvankhi), Gakvari (Agvali-Richaganik-Tsumada-Urukh), Gigatl (Hihatl), Tsumada, Kwenkhi. Dialects quite distinct. Gigatl (Hihatl) and Chamalal proper (with Gadyri, Gakvari, Tsumada and Kwenkhi dialects) are considered to be sublanguages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Chechen
[che] Chechnya, Dagestan, and Ingushetiya Republics; Stavropol’skiy Kray; north Caucasus, most in rural areas. 1,350,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 233,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,430,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,486,300. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Chechen Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Galancho, Nokchiin Muott, Nokhchi, Nokhchiin. Dialects: Ploskost, Itumkala (Shatoi), Melkhin, Kistin, Cheberloi, Akkin (Aux). Chechen partially intelligible with Ingush [inh]. Melkhi transitional dialect to Ingush. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush. Comments: Many Russians, Ingush, Ossetins, and other peoples live among them. From 1944–1957, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia losing 25%–50% of the population, much land, economic resources, and civil rights. They have been largely removed from productive lowlands. Muslim.

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Chukchi
[ckt] Siberia, Chukchi peninsula, Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Sakha (Yakutiya), and Kamchatka. 5,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chuchee, Chukcha, Chukchee, Chukot, Luoravetlan. Dialects: Uellanskij, Pevekskij, Enmylinskij, Nunligranskij, Xatyrskij, Chaun, Enurmin, Yanrakinot. Closely related to Alutor [alr], Kerek [krk] and Koryak [kpy]. Itelmen [itl] is more distantly related. Chukchi may be mutually intelligible with some varieties of Koryak (1988 B. Comrie). Literary dialect and gender dialects also exist. Gender differences largely phonological. Women’s dialect largely ignored in language development. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Chukot. Comments: School at Anadyr. Chukchi in Magadan area are nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Chulym
[clw] Khakasiya, north of Altay mountains, Chulym river basin, Ob river tributary. 44 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 360 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chulim, Chulym Tatar, Chulym-Turkish, Melets Tatar. Dialects: Lower Chulym, Middle Chulym. Reportedly similar to Shor [cjs]; some consider them one language. The government considers them separate. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Spoken in villages. Also spoken by the Kacik (Kazik, Kuarik).

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Chuvash
[chv] Chuvashiya Republic: east of Moscow, near Volga river. About half live in towns. 1,043,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). L2 users: 200,000 in Russian Federation. Ethnic population: 1,440,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,277,200 (as L1: 1,077,200; as L2: 200,000). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Chuvash Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Bulgar. Dialects: Anatri, Viryal. The only extant language in Bolgar branch of Turkic. Classification: Turkic, Bolgar. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dargwa
[dar] Dagestan Republic. 486,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 589,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 495,590. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dargan Medz, Dargi, Dargin, Darginski, Dargintsy, Dargva, Khiurkilinskii, Uslar. Dialects: Cudaxar (Tsudakhar), Akusha (Akkhusha, Urakha-Akhush, Urkarax), Uraxa-Axusha, Kajtak (Kaitak, Kaytak, Xajdak), Kubachi (Kubachin, Kubachintsy, Ughbug), Dejbuk, Xarbuk, Muirin, Sirxin, Itsari, Chirag. Kaytak, Kubachin, Itsari, and Chirag may be separate languages from Dargwa. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Dargi. Comments: Muslim.

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Dido
[ddo] Dagestan Republic: Tsuntinsky district, several villages. 11,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,500 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cez, Didoi, Tsez, Tsezy, Tsuntin. Dialects: Sahada. Sahada most distinct. May be a separate language. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic. Comments: Muslim.

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Dolgan
[dlg] Krasnoyarskiy Kray: Dudinka and Khatange counties; perhaps in Sakha. 1,050 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,890 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Contact language on Tajmyr Peninsula spoken by Evenki [evn], Nganasan [nio], and long-term Russian residents. Different from Yakut [sah]. Traditional religion.

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Domari
[rmt] Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dom. Dialects: Karachi, Luli, Maznoug. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Enets, Forest
[enf] Krasnoyarskiy Kray: Potapovo (mostly), Dudinka, and other Taimyr settlements. 40 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Tundra Enets [enh]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bay Enets, Pe-Bae, Yenisei Samoyedic. Dialects: None known. Forest and Tundra Enets [enh] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets.

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Enets, Tundra
[enh] Krasnoyarskiy Kray: Vorontsovo and Karepovsk settlements; some nomads near Tukhard. 40 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Ethnic population: 230 (2010 census). Includes Forest Enets [enf]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Madu, Somatu, Yenisei Samoyedic. Dialects: None known. Tundra and Forest Enets [enf] barely mutually intelligible. Transitional between Nenets [yrk] and Nganasan [nio]. Formerly officially considered part of Nenets. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed, Enets.

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Erzya
[myv] Penzenskaya Oblast’, Orenburgskaya Oblast’, Samarskaya Oblast’,Ul’yanovskaya Oblast’, and Saratovskaya Oblast’. 36,700 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 57,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 114,830. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erza-Mordvin, Erzia, Erzya Mordva, Erzya Mordvin, Mordvin, Mordvin-Erzya. Dialects: None known. Quite different from Moksha [mdf]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Even
[eve] Scattered in Sakha (Yakutiya); Magadanskaya Oblast’, Khabarovski district. 5,660 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 21,800 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eben, Ewen, Ilqan, Lamut, Orich. Dialects: Arman, Indigirka, Kamchatka, Kolyma-Omolon, Okhotsk, Ola, Tompon, Upper Kolyma, Sakkyryr, Lamunkhin. Many dialects. Arman has no remaining speakers. Ola (basis for literary Even) not accepted by dialect speakers. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Even. Comments: Many dialects divided into two main groups: Western and Eastern Even. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Evenki
[evn] Siberia, most in Sakha (Yakutiya), and Krasnoyarskiy Kray; also in Irkutskaya Oblast’, Buryatiya, Zabaykalsky, and Amurskaya Oblast’; Pacific coast settlements, Magadanskaya Oblast’, Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Khabarovskiy Kray, Kamchatka, and Sakhalinskaya Oblast’. 4,800 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 38,400 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Avanki, Avankil, Chapogir, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Solon, Tungus. Dialects: Manegir, Yerbogocen, Nakanna, Ilimpeya, Tutoncana, Podkamennaya Tunguska, Cemdalsk, Vanavara, Baykit, Poligus, Uchama, Cis-Baikalia, Sym, Tokmo-Upper Lena, Nepa, Lower Nepa Tungir, Kalar, Tokko, Aldan Timpton, Tommot, Jeltulak, Uchur, Ayan-Maya, Kur-Urmi, Tuguro-Chumikan, Sakhalin, Zeya-Bureya. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Evenki. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Finnish
[fin] Leningradskaya Oblast’, Ingria region, Saint Petersburg area. 38,900 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 51,900 (2002 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Some living in the Russian Federation, originally from the area of Ingria, call themselves Ingrian Finns. They are distinct from the Ingrians (Izhor), who speak a Finnic language, Ingrian (Izhorian) [izh]. Christian.

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Ghodoberi
[gdo] Dagestan Republic: Botlikhsky district, Godoberi, Zibirkhali and Beledi. 130 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 430 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Godoberi, Godoberin, Qibdili mitstsi. Dialects: Godoberi, Zibirkhali. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Muslim.

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Gilyak
[niv] Sakhalinskaya Oblast’, Nekrasovka and Nogliki villages, Rybnoe, Moskalvo, Chir-Unvd, Viakhtu, and other villages; Khabarovskiy Kray, Amur river area, Aleyevka village. 200 (2010 census). A few hundred active users (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,650 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nivkh, Nivkhi. Dialects: Amur, East Sakhalin Gilyak, North Sakhalin Gilyak. Amur and East Sakhalin dialects have difficult inherent mutual intelligibility. North Sakhalin is between them linguistically. Classification: Language isolate.

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Hinukh
[gin] Dagestan Republic: Tsuntinsky district, Ginukh. 5 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 440 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ginukh, Ginukhtsy, Ginux, Hinuq, Hinux. Dialects: None known. Similar to Tsez (Dido) [ddo], but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic. Comments: Hinukh men marry Dido women. Hinukh women marry men from other ethnic groups. Muslim.

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Hunzib
[huz] Dagestan Republic: Tsuntinsky district, Nakhada, Gunzib and Garbutl; Kizilyurtovksy district, Stalskoe. 1,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,000. Total users in all countries: 1,420. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enzeb, Gunzib, Hontl’os myts, Khunzal, Khunzaly, Xunzal. Dialects: None known. Separate from Bezhta [kap] (1989 B. Comrie) but reportedly very similar to it. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, East Tsezic. Comments: Muslim.

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Ingrian
[izh] Leningradskaya Oblast’ and Sankt-Peterburg: Kingisepp and Lomonosov areas. 120 (2010 census). L1 speakers should not be confused with Ingrian Finns, who speak Finnish [fin]. Ethnic population: 820 (1989 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ingermanlandian, Inkeroisen, Izhor, Izhorian. Dialects: Soykin, Khava, Lower Luzh, Oredezh (Upper Luzh). Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl]. Oredezh dialect is extinct. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Christian.

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Ingush
[inh] Ingushetiya Republic, Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya, Kabardino-Balkariya, and Chechnya Republic. 306,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 445,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 322,900. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Ingushetia (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Galgay, Ghalghay, Ingus, Kisti, Kistin. Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with Chechen [che], more so with contact. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Nakh, Chechen-Ingush. Comments: In 1944–1957, they were deported to Kazakhstan and Siberia, losing 25% to 50% of the population. Lost much land, economic resources, and civil rights. Removed from Vladikavkaz in late 1992, but many returned. Muslim.

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Itelmen
[itl] Kamchatka: west coast, Tigil region, Kamchatka district, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskij. 80 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,200 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Itelymem, Kamchadal, Kamchatka, Western Itelmen. Dialects: Sedanka, Xajrjuzovo. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Southern. Comments: 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Traditional religion.

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Judeo-Tat
[jdt] Dagestan Republic: Makhachkala, Majalis, Derbent, Buinaksk, and Kizlyar, south of Pyatigorsk; North Ossetia-Alania, Mozdok; Kabardino-Balkariya Republic, Nalchyk; Chechnya Republic, Grozniy. 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Tat [ttt]. Total users in all countries: 80,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bik, Dzhuhuric, Hebrew Tat, Jewish Tat, Judeo-Tatic, Juhuri, Juwri, Lahji, Mountain Jewish, Tati. Dialects: South Tat, North Tat. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat. Comments: Tat is not an ethnic name. It is a Turkic term for nomads. Tradition says they lived in the Caucasus since 722 A.D. Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Jewish.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Kabardino-Balkariya Republic, Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya, and Stavropol’skiy Kray. 516,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 36,700 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 590,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,628,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Beslenei, East Circassian, Kabard, Kabardino-Cherkes, Kabardo-Cherkess, Kabardo-Cherkessian, Upper Circassian. Dialects: Greater Kabardian, Baksan, Lesser Kabardian, Malka, Mozdok, Kuban, Cherkes, Beslenei (Beslenej). Reportedly similar to Adygey [ady]. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Muslim.

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Kalmyk-Oirat
[xal] Kalmykia Republic, Astrakhanskaya Oblast’, and Stavropol’skiy Kray; Volga-Don steppes northwest of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus; Dörböt dialect: mostly west Kalmykia; Torgut dialect: mostly east, lower Volga region,Province. 80,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 183,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 360,800. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Republic of Kalmykia (1999, Law on the Languages of the Republic of Kalmykia, Article 3), Co-official with Russian. Alternate Names: European Oirat, Kalmack, Kalmuck, Kalmuk, Kalmytskii Jazyk, Khalli, Oirat, Qalmaq, Volga Oirat, Western Mongolian. Dialects: Buzawa, Oirat (Oyrat), Torgut (Torghoud, Torghud, Torguud, Torguut), Dörböt (Derbet, Dörbet, Dörböd), Sart Qalmaq. Diverged from other Mongolian languages. Called Kalmyk in the Russian Federation; Oirat in China and Mongolia; in the United States, Kalmyk not heavily influenced by Russian [rus]. Different from other varieties in China called Oirat [xal], which are sometimes called Asiatic Oirat. In Mongolia, some scholars consider Oirat to be a dialect of Halh Mongolian [khk]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat. Comments: The modern literary language is mainly based on the Torgut dialect, though it incorporates a large number of concessions to Dörböt. Buddhist.

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Kamas
[xas] Krasnoyarskiy Kray: Sayan mountains, Abalakovo village. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1989 (Salminen 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kamassian. Dialects: Kamassian, Koibal (Khoibal). Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed. Comments: Originally in Siberia. Different from the Kamassian dialect of Khakas [kjh].

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Karachay-Balkar
[krc] Karachayevo-Cherkesiya and Kabardino-Balkariya Republic. 305,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 314,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 311,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balkarian, Balqar, Karacaylar, Karachai, Karachaitsy, Karachay, Karachayla, Malqartil, Qarachaytil, Taulu til. Dialects: Balkar, Karachay-Baksan-Chegem. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Balkar and Karachay almost identical. Muslim.

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Karagas
[kim] Siberia, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Nizhneudinsk district, Alygdzher, Nerkha, and Verkhnyaya Gutara villages. 93 (2010 census). Less than 40 fluent speakers, same number of passive speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 760 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kamas, Karagass, Sayan Samoyed, Tofa, Tofalar. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Karata
[kpt] Dagestan Republic: Akhvakhsky district. 9 villages. 260 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,790 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karatai, Karatay, Karatin, Kirdi, Kk’irtli micc’i. Dialects: Tokita (Tokitin), Karata proper (Anchix, Archo, Chabakaroi, Enkhelo, Ratsitl). Karatin and Tokitin dialects are quite different. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Karelian
[krl] Kareliya Republic, Murmanskaya Oblast’, and Leningradskaya Oblast’; some in Tverskaya Oblast’, mainly Tolmachi area, Maksatikha and Ves’yegonsk. 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Ludian [lud]. Ethnic population: 60,800 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 35,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karelian Proper, Karel’skiy Jazyk, Karely, Severno-Karel’skij, Sobstvenno-Karel’skij-Jazyk. Dialects: Northern Karelian, Southern Karelian, Novgorod, Tver (Kalinin). Ludian [lud] and Livvi-Karelian [olo] are separate languages. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Two language nests started in 1999 and 2002 in northwestern county center of Kalevala (Salminen 2007).

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Kerek
[krk] Kamchatskaya Oblast’, Cape Navarin, Chukchi villages. No known L1 speakers (Salminen 2007). 3 elderly speakers in 1991 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4 (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Mainypilgino (Majna-Pil’ginskij), Khatyrka (Xatyrskij). Formerly considered a dialect of Chukchi [ckt]. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor.

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Ket
[ket] Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Turukhansk, and Baikitsk regions; Upper Yenisei valley; Sulomai, Bakhta, Verkhneimbatsk, Kellog, Kangatovo, Surgutikha, Vereshchagino, Baklanikha, Farkovo, Goroshikha, and Maduyka villages; eastern Siberia, east of Khanti [kca] and Mansi [mns] language areas. 210 (2010 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,220 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Imbatski-Ket, Yenisei Ostyak, Yenisey Ostiak, Yenisey Ostyak. Classification: Yeniseian. Comments: Traditional way of life has changed. Traditional religion.

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Khakas
[kjh] Khakasiya Republic: north of Altai mountains; Krasnoyarskiy Kray, north; Kemerovskaya Oblast’; scattered throughout Russia. 42,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Spoken by about 10% of the population of Khakasia (Salminen 2007). 1,500 monolinguals (2002 census). Ethnic population: 73,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 42,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Khakassia Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Abakan Tatar, Hakass, Khakhass, Xakas, Yenisei, Yennisej Tatar. Dialects: Sagai (Sagaj, Saghai), Kyzyl (Khyzyzl, Xyzyl), Koibal (Xoibal), Kamass (Kamassian), Kachin (Kaca, Khaas, Xaas), Shor, Beltir. Kamass dialect is extinct (Salminen 2007). Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Fewer young people speak Khakas than previous generations, but more children study it in school than 20 years ago. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khanty
[kca] Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, and Tomskaya Oblast’; east past the Mansi [mns] language area, along Ob river. 9,580 (2010 census). Mostly speakers of Northern Khanty, 2,000 speakers of Eastern Khanty and probably no speakers left in Southern Khanty (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 30,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hanty, Khant, Khanti, Ostjak, Ostyak, Xanty. Dialects: Northern Khanti, Eastern Khanti, Southern Khanti, Vach (Vasyugan). Intelligibility difficult between geographically distant dialects. 3 dialect groups; ‘Vach’, archaic. Dialect used in writing rejected by many speakers. Classification: Uralic. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khvarshi
[khv] Dagestan Republic: Tsumadinsky district, Khvarshi, Inkhokvari, Santlada, Kvantlada, and Khonokh villages. 1,740 (2010 census). 1,000 Inxokvari speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,870 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atl’ilqo, Khvarsh, Khvarshin, Xvarshi, Xvarshik. Dialects: Xvarshi proper, Inxokvari (Inkhokvari). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Tsezic, West Tsezic. Comments: Traditional territory and way of life. Sometimes Xvarshi and Inxokvari are treated as two separate languages. Muslim.

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Komi
[kom] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 219,100 Status: Comments: Includes: Komi-Permyak [koi], Komi-Zyrian [kpv].

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Komi-Permyak
[koi] Permskiy Kray, west of central Ural mountains, south of Komi-Zyrian area. 63,100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 94,500 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kama Permyak, Komi-Perm, Komi-Permyat, Permian, Permyak. Dialects: Zyudin, North Permyak (Kochin-Kam), South Permyak (Inyven). Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Zyrian [kpv] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi. Comments: Some literature available. Ancient literary and cultural traditions. More densely populated and mixed, higher education, and more assimilated to national culture than Komi-Zyrian. Christian, traditional religion.

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Komi-Zyrian
[kpv] Komi Republic, Arkhangel’skaya Oblast’, and Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug; near the Arctic sea; south of Yurak [yrk], west of Vogul (Mansi) [mns] language areas. 156,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 228,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Komi Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Komi, Komi-Zyryan, Zyrian. Dialects: Yazva. Lexical similarity: 80% with Komi-Permyak [koi] and Udmurt [udm]. A member of macrolanguage Komi [kom]. Classification: Uralic, Permian, Komi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Korean
[kor] 42,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Koreanic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Koryak
[kpy] Kamchatka, north half of peninsula, south of the Chukchi [ckt] language area; also in Magadanskaya Oblast’. 1,670 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 7,950 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chavchuven, Nymylan. Dialects: Apokinskij (Apukin), Cavcuvenskij (Chavchuven), Gin, Itkan, Kamenskij (Kamen), Palan, Paren, Xatyrskij. Koryak and Alutor [alr] border not yet been defined. Chachuve (Northern Koryak) and Alutor now separated. Alutor formerly considered a dialect of Koryak. Classification of other dialects unclear. Chavchuven, Palan, and Kamen dialects apparently not inherently intelligible. Classification: Chukotko-Kamchatkan, Northern, Koryak-Alyutor. Comments: Chavchuven used by reindeer herding tribes, all others use Nymylan. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kumyk
[kum] Dagestan Republic, north and east plain. 426,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 503,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 427,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kumuk, Kumuklar, Kumyki. Dialects: Khasavyurt, Buinaksk, Khaitag, Podgorniy, Terek. Dialects quite divergent. Classification: Turkic, Western, Ponto-Caspian. Comments: Different from Kumux dialect of Lak [lbe]. Muslim.

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Lak
[lbe] Dagestan Republic. 146,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 179,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 153,390. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kazikumukhtsy, Laki. Dialects: Kumux (Kumkh), Vicxin (Vitskhin), Ashtikulin, Balxar-Calakan (Balkar-Tsalakan), Vixlin (Vikhlin), Shali, Arakul, Shandi, Kayalin-Mashikin, Pervotsovkrin. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lak. Comments: Muslim.

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Lezgi
[lez] Dagestan Republic: west of Caspian sea coast; central Caucasus. 402,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 474,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 616,760. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kiurinsty, Lezghi, Lezgian, Lezgin. Dialects: Kiuri (Gelkhen, Giliar, Güne, Qurah, Yarki), Samur (Akhty, Dashagyl-Filfil, Doquzpara, Fiy, Jaba, Qurush), Quba (Kuba). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic. Comments: Muslim.

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Livvi-Karelian
[olo] Kareliya Republic: Olonetsky, western Pryazhinsky, and southwest Kondopozhsky districts; also in Leningradskaya Oblast’. 25,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Karelian[krl] and Ludian [lud]. Ethnic population: 65,000. Total users in all countries: 30,770. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karelian, Livvi, Livvikovian, Livvikovskij Jazyk, Livvin kieli, Olonets, Southern Olonetsian. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karelian [krl] and Finnish [fin]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Ludian [lud] is transitional between Livvi-Karelian and Veps [vep]. Distinct from Karelian and Ludian.

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Ludian
[lud] Kareliya Republic: central Kondopozhsky and eastern Pryazhinsky districts; Olonetsky district, Mikhaylovskoye region; also in Leningradskaya Oblast’. 3,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ludic, Lüüdi, Lüüdikiel, Lyudic, Lyudikovian. Dialects: None known. Ludian is transitional between Livvi-Karelian [olo] and Veps [vep]. Separate from Karelian [krl] and Livvi-Karelian [olo]. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Mansi
[mns] Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug and Sverdlovskaya Oblast’; between Ural and Ob rivers. 940 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,300 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mansiy, Vogul, Vogulich, Voguly. Dialects: Northern Vogul (Northern Mansi, Ob’, Sos’va, Sosyvin, Sygva, Upper Lozyvin), Western Vogul (Lower Lozyvin, Middle Lozyvin, Pelym, Vagily, Western Mansi), Eastern Vogul (Eastern Mansi, Kondin). Mostly Northern Vogul speakers; probably only a handful of elderly speakers of Eastern Vogul; Western Vogul is probably extinct; Southern Vogul was extinct before 1950 (Salminen 2007). Reportedly most similar to Hungarian [hun]. Classification: Uralic. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mari
[chm] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 512,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Hill Mari [mrj], Meadow Mari [mhr].

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Mari, Hill
[mrj] Mariy-El Republic: Nizhegorodskaya Oblast’; south of the Volga. 30,000 (2012 T. Salminen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Gorno-Mariy, High Mari, Mari-Hills, Western Mari. Dialects: Kozymodemyan, Yaran. Lexical, phonological, and morphological differences with Meadow Mari [mhr]. A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mari, Meadow
[mhr] Mariy-El Republic: Bashkortostan, Sverdlovskaya Oblast’, Kirovskaya Oblast’, and Permskiy Kray; east of the Volga. 470,000 in Russian Federation (2012 T. Salminen). Ethnic population: 548,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 482,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cheremis, Eastern Mari, Low Mari, Lugovo Mari, Mari, Mari-Woods. Dialects: Grassland Mari (Meadow Mari, Sernur-Morkin, Volga, Yoshkar-Olin). A member of macrolanguage Mari [chm]. Classification: Uralic, Mari. Comments: In many publications the term, Eastern Mari, is reserved for the diaspora groups outside the Republic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moksha
[mdf] Mordoviya Republic, Nizhegorodskaya Oblast’, and Penzenskaya Oblast’. 2,030 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 4,770 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moksha Mordvin, Mokshan, Mordoff, Mordov, Mordvin-Moksha. Dialects: None known. Very different from Erzya [myv]. Classification: Uralic, Mordvin. Comments: There are Moksha villages where people speak hardly any other language except Moksha. Christian.

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Mongolian, Halh
[khk] Buryatiya Republic. 8,830 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 11,500 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol. Dialects: Khalkha (Halh), Dariganga, Urat, Ujumuchin. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper. Comments: Halh is basis for literary Mongolian. Buddhist.

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Nanai
[gld] Khabarovskiy Kray: extreme far east, confluence of Amur and Ussuri rivers, scattered in Ussuri valley, Sikhote-Alin, centered in Amur valley below. 1,350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 1,390. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gold, Goldi, Heche, Hezhe, Hezhen, Nanaj. Dialects: Sunggari, Torgon, Kuro-Urmi, Ussuri, Akani, Birar, Kila, Samagir. Quite distinct dialects. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Negidal
[neg] Khabarovskiy Kray: Kamenka and Im; Paulina Osipenko region, lower reaches of Amur river. 74 (2010 census). Only a few fully fluent (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 510 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: El’kan Beye, Elkembey, Ilkan Beye, Neghidal, Negidaly. Dialects: Nizovsk, Verkhovsk. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Negidal. Comments: From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding schools. Contacts and intermarriage with the Ulch, Nanai, and Nivkh in the Amur area. Traditional religion.

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Nenets
[yrk] Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, and Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug; also in Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Komi, and Arkhangel’skaya Oblast’; northwest Siberia, north Dvina river mouth tundra area to Yenisei river delta, scattered in Kola peninsula;. 21,900 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 44,600 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nenec, Nenetsy, Nentse, Yurak, Yurak Samoyed. Dialects: Forest Yurak, Tundra Yurak. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed. Comments: Mainly nomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nganasan
[nio] Siberia, Taimyr peninsula, Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Duinka region, Ust-Avam and Volochanka villages; Khatang region, Novaya village; northernmost people in Russia, near Yakut [sah], Dolgan [dlg], Nenets [yrk], and (Tundra) Enets [enh] language areas. 130 (2010 census). A group of about 100 lead a semi-nomadic life in Dudypta river region near Ust’-Avam (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 860 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nya, Tavgi Samoyed. Dialects: Avam (West Nganasan), Khatang. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Northern Samoyed. Comments: 2 ethnic groups: Avam and Vadeyev. From 1960s–1980s resettled in villages formerly used as winter quarters or trading posts along migratory routes in 1940s. Previous intermittent contact with Tundra Enets and Nenets, and formerly officially were considered part of them. Resettlement brought close contact with Russian, Ukrainian [ukr], Belarusian [bel], and Tatar [tat]. Traditional religion.

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Nogai
[nog] Karachay-Cherkessia Republic; Dagestan Republic, Nogay, Tarumovka, Kizlyar, and Babayurt districts; Chechnya Republic, Shelkovskaya district; Stavropol District, Neftekumsk, Mineral’nyye Vody, and Kochubeyevskoye counties; northern Caucasus. 87,100 in Russian Federation (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 104,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 87,260. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karanogai, Kubanogai, Nogaitsy, Nogalar, Nogay, Noghai, Noghay, Noghaylar. Dialects: White Nogai (Kuba), Black Nogai (Kara), Central Nogai. Slight dialect differences. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Muslim.

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Oroch
[oac] Khabarovskiy Kray: along rivers that empty into Tatar channel; Amur river near Komsomolsk-na-Amure; Vanino region, Datta and Uska-Orochskaya settlements; some among Nanai [gld] language speakers. 8 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 600 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Orochi. Dialects: Orichen, Tez (Tazy). Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe. Comments: Russians, Ukrainians, and Evenki live among them. Formerly officially considered part of Udihe. Different from Orok [oaa]. Traditional religion.

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Orok
[oaa] Sakhalinskaya Oblast’: Poronajsk district, Poronajsk town, Gastello and Vakhrushev settlements; Nogliki district, Val village, Nogliki settlement. 47 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 300 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Oroc, Uilta, Ujlta, Ulta. Dialects: Poronaisk (Southern Orok), Val-Nogliki (Nogliki-Val, Northern Orok). Significant dialect differences. Formerly officially considered part of Nanai [gld]. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Comments: Scattered. Relinquished traditional way of life. Different from Oroch [oac]. Prevalent intermarriage with Russians, Nivkh, Nanai, Evenksi, Negidal, and Korean people.

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Ossetic
[oss] Severnaya Osetiya-Alaniya and Kabardino-Balkariya; north of Ossetic in Georgia. 451,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 529,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 608,460. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Ossetia-Alania (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Osetin, Ossetian. Dialects: Digor, Iron. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 128,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes all gypsy languages. Ethnic population: 205,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalderash, Rom. Dialects: Central Vlax Romani, Kalderash. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Vlax speakers from Russia are called Rusurja. Ethnic groups: Sárvi (left-bank Ukraine), Volóxuja (right-bank Ukraine), Chache (Moldavia), Kalderari (Moldavia, Ukraine, Odessa, Transcarpathia), Lovári (Ukraine). About 300,000 Gypsies from the former Soviet Union speak a variety of Romani, Lomavren, or Domari as L1 or L2 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Christian.

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Russian
[rus] 137,000,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 201,373,900 (as L1: 171,428,900; as L2: 29,945,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 68(1)). Alternate Names: Russki. Dialects: North Russian, South Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Christian.

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Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Scattered. Moscow and Saint Petersburg are major centers. 121,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). 715,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Russkij Âzyk Žestov” (pej.), Russkij Žestovyj Âzyk. Dialects: Reported historical connections to sign languages in Austria and France, but not obvious from extensive wordlist comparison (Bickford 2005). Higher lexical similarity to sign languages in Ukraine and Moldova (Bickford 2005). Significant dialect variation. Classification: Sign language. Comments: First school for the deaf opened at Pavlovsk near St. Petersburg in 1806. Reported to also be used in Federal Republics such as Chechnya; in countries formerly part of the Soviet Union, such as Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kygryzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. In some of these locations, other sign languages are also reported to be used; but it is not known to what extent these are separate distinct sign languages, related sign languages or dialects of RSL. Christian.

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Rutul
[rut] Dagestan Republic. 30,400 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 35,200 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 36,400. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chal, Mukhad, Myhynnynydy-ch’el, Rutal, Rutultsy, Rutuly. Dialects: North Rutul (Asar-Kala, Ixrek, Luchek, Muxrek, Rutul, Shinaz, Vrush), South Rutul (Borch, Khnov). Dialects not sharply defined. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic. Comments: Dialect groups may be treated as separate languages (Koryakov 2006). Muslim.

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Saami, Akkala
[sia] Murmanskaya Oblast’: southwest Kola peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 2003. Ethnic population: 100 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ahkkil, Babino, Babinsk. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Skolt Saami [sms]. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern.

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Saami, Kildin
[sjd] Murmanskaya Oblast’: central Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Skolt Saami [sms] and Ter Saami [sjt]. Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). Number includes all Saami. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Kildin Lappish” (pej.), “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Saami. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern. Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Saami, Skolt
[sms] Murmanskaya Oblast’: north and west Kola peninsula, Petsamo area. 350 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Ter Saami [sjt]. 20 speakers (1995 M. Krauss). Ethnic population: 400 (1995 M. Krauss). 1,770 including all Saami (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kolta, “Lapp” (pej.), Lopar, “Russian Lapp” (pej.), Saam, Skolt, “Skolt Lappish” (pej.). Dialects: Notozer, Yokan. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern. Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami. Christian.

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Saami, Ter
[sjt] Murmanskaya Oblast’: eastern Kola peninsula. 350 (2010 census). Census includes Kildin Saami [sjd] and Skolt Saami [sms]. 6 elderly speakers in the early 1990s (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,770 (2010 census). 1,770 includes all Saami. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Lapp” (pej.), Saam, “Ter Lappish” (pej.). Classification: Uralic, Sami, Eastern. Comments: Preferred ethnic autonym: Saami.

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Selkup
[sel] Tomskaya Oblast’, Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Krasnoyarskiy Kray; northern dialect: Krasnoselkup region, Ratta, Krasnoselkupskaya Tolka, and Krasnoselkup villages; Purovsk region, Tolka Purovskaya village; Krasnoyarsk District, Farkovo; Turukhan river basin; Baikha; southern dialect: north Tomskaya Oblast’ area villages. 1,020 (2010 census). Central Selkup: 200 speakers, Northern Selkup: 1,000 to 1,500 speakers, Southern Selkup: less than 100 speakers (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 3,900 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Selkups, Chumyl’ Khumyt, Northern Selkups, Ostyak Samoyed, Shöl Khumyt, Shösh Gulla, Syusugulla. Dialects: Taz (Northern Sel’kup, Tazov-Baishyan), Tym (Kety), Narym (Central Selkup), Srednyaya Ob-Ket (Southern Sel’kup). Dialect continuum with difficult or impossible intelligibility between extremes. Southern speakers separated geographically from others. Northern Selkup literature not usable by Southern and Central. Classification: Uralic, Samoyed, Southern Samoyed. Comments: Formerly lingua franca for Ket, Evenki, Nenets, and Khanty. Traditional religion.

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Serbian
[srp] 11,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Bosnian [bos] and Croatian [hrv]. Ethnic population: 9,670 Serbo-Croatian (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Muslim.

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Shor
[cjs] Kemerovskaya Oblast’; scattered throughout Russian Federation. 2,840 (2010 census). 50 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,900 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aba, Kondoma Tatar, Kuznets Tatar, Mras Tatar, Shortsy, Tom-Kuznets Tatar. Dialects: Mrassa (Mrasu), Kondoma. Some sources combine Shor and Chulym [clw]. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Different from Shor dialect of Khakas [kjh]. Study of Shor revived; language association formed; chair of Shor created at Pedagogical University in Novokuznetsk (1996 I. Nevskaya). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Slavonic, Old Church
[chu] No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Tabassaran
[tab] Dagestan Republic. 126,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 146,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 127,190. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ghumghum, Tabasaran, Tabasarantsky. Dialects: South Tabasaran, North Tabasaran (Khanag). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic. Comments: Muslim.

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Dagestan Republic; community in Moscow. 2,010 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Census includes Judeo-Tat [jdt]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati, Musulman Tats. Dialects: Northern Tats. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat.

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Tatar
[tat] Tatarstan and Bashkortostan republics; Saint Petersburg and Moscow to eastern Siberia. 4,280,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Population may include L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,310,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 5,184,610. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Tatarstan Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Kazan Tatar, Tartar. Dialects: Middle Tatar (Kazan), Western Tatar (Misher). Tobol-Irtysh is divided into 5: Tyumen, Tobol, Zabolotny, Tevriz, and Tara (Tumasheva). Mixed dialects are: Astrakhan, Kasimov, Tepter, and Ural (Poppe). 43,000 Astrakhan (L1 speakers) have shifted to the Middle dialect. Kasim (5,000 L1 speakers) is between Middle and Western Tatar. Tepter (300,000 L1 speakers) is reportedly between the Tatar and Bashkort [bak] languages. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Different from Crimean Tatar (Crimean Turkish [crh]) and Siberian Tatar [sty]. Muslim, Christian.

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Tatar, Siberian
[sty] Tyumenskaya Oblast’, Omskaya Oblast’, and Novosibirskaya Oblast’. 101,000 (2012 M. Sagidullin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Tatar. Dialects: Tobol-Irtysh, Baraba, Tom. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Different from Tatar [tat].

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Tindi
[tin] Dagestan Republic: Tsumadinsky district, Tindi, Angida, Aknada, Echeda, and Tissi villages. 2,150 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tindal, Tindin. Dialects: Tindin-Echendin, Angidin-Aknadin. Bagvalal [kva] closely related, but probably not inherently intelligible. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Andic. Comments: Muslim.

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Tsakhur
[tkr] Dagestan Republic: Rutulsky district. 13 villages. 10,600 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 12,800 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caxur, Tsakhury, Ts’axna Miz, Tsaxur, Yedna Miz, Yikbi, Yiqny Miz. Dialects: Tsakh (Jinagh, Mishkesh, Mukhakh-Sabunchi, Muslakh, Suvagil, Tsakh-Qum, Tsakhur), Gelmets-Mikik (Gelmets, Gelmets-kurdul, Kirmico-Lek, Mikik). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic. Comments: Most widely scattered smaller ethnic group. Muslim.

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Tuva
[tyv] Tyva Republic and Krasnoyarskiy Kray; southern Siberia near Mongolia border;. 254,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 268,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 283,400. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Tuva Republic. Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tofa, Tokha, Tuba, Tuvan, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tyva, Uriankhai, Uriankhai-Monchak, Uryankhai. Dialects: Central Tuvin, Western Tuvin, Northeastern Tuvin (Todzhin), Southeastern Tuvin, Tuba-Kizhi. Sharp dialect differences. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Until 1944 Tuva was an independent state. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Udihe
[ude] Khabarovskiy Kray: Lazo area, Gvasiugi settlement, Arsenievo settlement; Primorskiy Kray: Pozharsky area, Krasny Yar, Olon, and Sobolinyi settlements; Ternei area, Agzu settlement; Krasnoarmeisky area, Roschino, Dalniy Kut, and Melnichnoye settlements; Siberia far east. 100 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2010 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kiakala, Tazy, Ude, Udegeis, Udeghe, Udehe. Dialects: Khungari, Khor, Aniuy, Samarga, Bikin, Iman, Kur-Urmi. Dialect differences not great. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Udihe. Comments: Resettled in artificial villages in Russian-speaking [rus] region with Ukrainian and Nanai people. Children sent to boarding schools. Hezhe, in China may refer to this. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Udmurt
[udm] Udmurtiya and Tatarstan; near Ural Mountains, 1,000 km northeast of Moscow, bounded by Kama and Cheptsa rivers. 324,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Ethnic population: 554,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 339,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Votiak, Votyak. Dialects: North Udmurt (Besermyan, Udmurt), South Udmurt (Southwestern Udmurt). Classification: Uralic, Permian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ulch
[ulc] Khabarovskiy Kray, Ulch county, Amur river and tributaries, Tatar channel coast; Bulava, Dudi, Kalinovka, Mariinskoe, Nizhnaya Gavan, Savinskoe, Mongol, Solontsy, Kolchom, Sofiyskoe, Tur, and Ukhta; Bogorodskove is capital. 150 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 2,770 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hoche, Hol-Chih, Olch, Olcha, Olchis, Ulcha, Ulchi, Ulych. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Comments: Close contact with Russian [rus], Ukrainian [ukr], Nanai [gld], Nivkh [niv] (Gilyak), Negidal [neg], and others.

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Veps
[vep] Leningradskaya Oblast’ and Vologodskaya Oblast’;intermixed with Russian speakers, boundary area, Kareliya. 1,640 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 5,940 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Chudy” (pej.), “Chuhari” (pej.), “Chukhari” (pej.), Vepsian. Dialects: Southern Veps, Central Veps, Prionezh (North Veps). Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Christian.

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Vod
[vot] Leningradskaya Oblast’: Saint Petersburg area, Kingisepp. 68 (2010 census). Last speakers of East Vod dialect died in the 1960s. Ethnic population: 73. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vodian, Vote, Votian, Votic, Votish. Dialects: East Vod, West Vod. Intelligible with Standard Estonian [ekk] of the northeast coast. Classification: Uralic, Finnic.

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Yakut
[sah] Near Arctic Sea, middle Lena river, Aldan and Kolyma rivers, 3,220 km; Sakha (Yakutiya), Magadanskaya Oblast’, Irkutskaya Oblast’, Khabarovskiy Kray, and Krasnoyarskiy Kray. 450,000 (2010 census). Ethnic population: 478,000 (2010 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sakha Republic (1993, Constitution, Article 68(2)). Alternate Names: Sakha, Yakut-Sakha. Dialects: Middlekolymskyi, Olemkinskyi, Vilyiskyi, Dolgan. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] 7,500 in Russian Federation (2010 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yug
[yug] Krasnoyarskiy Kray, Turukhan area, Vorogovo settlement. 1 (2010 census). Listed in census under Ket [ket]. Ethnic population: 19 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sym-Ket, Yugh. Classification: Yeniseian.

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Yukaghir, Northern
[ykg] Sakha (Yakutiya), lower Kolyma county, Andryushkino and Kolymskoye. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Ethnic population: 1,600 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jukagir, Northern Yukagir, Odul, Tundra, Tundre, Wadul, Yukagir. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Southern Yukaghir (Kolyma) [yux]. Classification: Yukaghir. Comments: In 19th century their territory shrank due to merging clans, military clashes, assimilation with the Even [eve], and later, collectivization. From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding school. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yukaghir, Southern
[yux] Magadanskaya Oblast’, upper Kolyma county, Nelemnoye and Zyryanka. 370 (2010 census). Census includes Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Ethnic population: 1,600. Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Forest Yukagir, Jukagir, Kolym, Kolyma, Odul, Southern Yukagir, Yukagir. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Classification: Yukaghir. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Bering Sea coast, Wrangel island; Providenie region, Chaplino, Novoe Chaplino, Provideniya, and Sireniki villages. 200 in Russian Federation (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 1,200 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Asiatic Yupik, Bering Strait, Eskimo, Siberian Yupik, Yoit, Yuit, Yuk, Yupik. Dialects: Aiwanat, Noohalit (Peekit), Wooteelit, Chaplino. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik. Comments: School at Anadyr. Sirenik [ysr] is a separate, but now extinct, language. Traditional religion.

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Yupik, Naukan
[ynk] Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Nunyamo, Uelen, and Lavrentiya villages. 60 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 450 (Dorais 2010). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Naukan, Naukanski, Nevuqaq. Dialects: 60%–70% intelligibility of the Chaplino dialect of Central Siberian Yupik [ess]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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Yupik, Sirenik
[ysr] Chukotskiy Avtonomnyy Okrug, Chukot peninsula, Sireniki village. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1997 (Dorais 2010). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Old Sirenik, Sirenik, Sirenikski, Vuteen. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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