Sudan

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Acheron
[acz] South Kordofan state: Saraf Aj-Jaamous area, east of Moro hills. Population: 20,000 (2006 R. Norton). 9,830 speakers in home area (2006 R. Norton). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aceron, Achurun, Asheron. Autonym: Garme. Dialects: Gandok (Eastern Acheron), Gathuk (Western Acheron), Garong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Afitti
[aft] North Kordofan state: east Jebel ed Dair, main center is Sidra. Population: 4,000 (de Voogt 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Affitti, Dinik, Ditti, Unietti. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59% with Ama [nyi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nyimang.

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Aka
[soh] Blue Nile state: Jebel Silak, southwest of Ingessana hills. Population: 300 (Bender 1983a). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fa-C-Aka, Jebel Silak, Jebels Sillok, Sillok. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo.

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Ama
[nyi] South Kordofan state: Al Fous, Fuony, Hajar Sultan, Kakara, Kalara, Koromiti, Nitil, Salara, Tundia, and other villages in Jebel Mandal range, Nyimang hills. Population: 142,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Elderly and young children are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Inyimang, Nyima, Nyiman, Nyimang, Nyuwing. Autonym: Ámá. Dialects: Ama, Mandal (Male). 80% similarity between Ama and Mandal dialects. Lexical similarity: 59% with Afitti [aft]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nyimang.

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Andaandi
[dgl] Northern state: Dongola district; north boundary is Burgeg. Population: 70,000 (2014 M. Jaeger). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Danaagla, Danaqla, Dongola, Dongola Nubian, Dongolawi, Dongolawi Nubian, Dongolese. Autonym: Andaandi. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mattokki dialect of Kenzi [xnz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Dongolawi.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Population: 26,900,000 in Sudan (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd] or Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. Population: 29,400,000 in Sudan (2015). Total users in all countries: 31,940,300. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as an L2 by all other language groups in Sudan. Alternate Names: Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic. Autonym: Arabi, سوداني‎ (sūdānī). Dialects: Khartoum, Western Sudanese, North Kordofan Arabic, Ja’ali, Shukri. Western Sudan Spoken Arabic and Khartoum Arabic dialects have little compatibility (Kaye 1988). A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Baygo
[byg] South Darfur state: southeast of Nyala, east Kube hills, Jebel Beygo. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably survived into the 1960s (Sommer 1992). Ethnic population: 850 (1978 GRN). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baigo, Bego, Beigo, Beko, Beygo, Béogé. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

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Bedawiyet
[bej] Red Sea state; Gedaref, Kassala, and River Nile states, southeast river Nile. Population: 2,140,000 in Sudan (2015). Total users in all countries: 3,364,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Beḍauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedja, Bedàwie, Beja, Biďaːwyéːt, Tibďaːwyě, To Bedawiat, To Bedawie, Tu Bdhaawi, Tu-Bedawie. Autonym: Bidhaawyeet, Tubdhaawi, بجاوية‎ (Bidhaawyeet), تُبڈاوِ‎ (Tubdhaawi). Dialects: Hadendoa (Hadendiwa, Hadendowa), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Bisharin (Bisariab), Beni-Amir. Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North.

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Berta
[wti] Blue Nile state: Geissan, Kurmuk, and south Roseires district, Ethiopia border area. Population: 180,000 in Sudan (Osman 2006). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barta, Burta, Gwami, Rotana, Wetawit, “Beni Shangul” (pej.). Dialects: Shuru, Bake, Undu, Mayu, Fadashi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites.

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Berti
[byt] North Darfur state: Tagabo hills. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers probably died or shifted to Arabic by the 1980s (Sommer 1992). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern.

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Birked
[brk] North Darfur state: between Jebel Harayt and Rizaykat (Arab) country, north of Nyala; North Kordofan: south of El Obeid. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speakers survived into the 1970s; ethnic Birked shifted to Arabic (Sommer 1992). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birgid, Birguid, Birkit, Birqed, Kajjara, Murgi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kadaru [kdu], 51% with Midob [mei]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Birked.

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Bornu
[knc] Scattered, in South Darfur, South Kordofan, West Darfur, and West Kordofan states and other regions. Population: 312,000 in Sudan (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bornouans, Central Kanuri, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kanuri, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri, “Beriberi” (pej.). Dialects: Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Maiduguri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri.

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Burun
[bdi] Blue Nile state: north Kurmuk district. Population: 41,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borun, Cai, Kurmuk, Lange. Dialects: Ragreig, Abuldugu (Bogon, Mugo-Mborkoina), Maiak, Mufwa (Mopo), Mughaja (Mugaja, Mumughadja). Some southern dialects intelligible with Mabaan [mfz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Burun.

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Dagik
[dec] South Kordofan state: Mesakin hills, Buram, Kamlela, Reikha, Taballa, and Tosari villages. Population: 55,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dagig, Dharuwa, Duwa, Masakin Dagig, Ruwa, Thakik, “Masakin” (pej.), “Masakin Gusar” (pej.). Autonym: Dhaduwa. Dialects: Arreme, Adobu, Tosari. Lexical similarity: 74% with Ngile [jle] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu.

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Dair
[drb] North Kordofan state: west and south of Jebel Dair. Population: 1,000 (1978 GRN). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dabab, Daier, Thaminyi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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Daju, Dar Fur
[daj] West Darfur state: Geneina district; South Darfur state: Daju hills 40 km northeast of Nyala; South Kordofan state: Dar el Kabira, Jebel Miheila, Lagawa, Nyukri, Silecce, Tamanyik, and Warina area villages (Lagowa dialect). Population: 80,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beke, Dagu, Daju Ferne, Fininga, Nyala-Lagowa. Autonym: Bekke. Dialects: Nyala, Lagowa (Lagawa). Lexical similarity: 83% with Nyala and Lagowa dialects, 74% with Daju Dar Sila [dau], 62% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

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Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] West Darfur state: Habilla district. Population: 7,000 in Sudan (2009 T. Alaki). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bokor, Bokorike, Bokoruge, Mongo-Sila, Sila, Sula. Dialects: Mongo, Sila. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

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Dilling
[dil] South Kordofan state: Dilling town and surrounding hills, including Kudur. Population: 11,000 (2012 J. Leclerc), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Delen, Warkimbe. Autonym: Warki. Dialects: Dilling, Debri. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dilling and Debri dialects; 93% with Kadaru [kdu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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El Hugeirat
[elh] North Kordofan and South Kordofan states: Baboy, Bija, Sija, and Shenshin villages in El Hugeirat hills, divided by border. Population: 50 (2007 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: El Hagarat. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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English
[eng] Population: Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Blue Nile, Gederef, Sennar, and South Darfur states: Blue Nile river towns; possibly North Kordofan and South Kordofan states, scattered. Population: 90,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fellata. Dialects: Gombe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern.

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Fur
[fvr] North Darfur, South Darfur, and West Darfur states; some villages in east Sudan. Population: 744,000 in Sudan (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 900,000 (2014 SIL). Total users in all countries: 745,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dala, For, Fora, Fordunga, Forok, Forta, Furakang, Furawi, Kadirgi, Konjara, Korra, Kungara, Kurka, Lali, Onage, Yerge, bèle fòòr, fòòraŋ bèle. Autonym: Poor’íŋ Belé’ŋ. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Fur.

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Gaam
[tbi] Blue Nile state: Baw district, Jebel Tabi and outlying hills. Population: 93,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingassana, Ingessana, Kamanidi, Mamedja, Mamidza, Metabi, Muntabi, Tabi. Autonym: Gaahmg. Dialects: Soda (Tao), Kukur (Gor), Kulang (Bau, Kulelek), Buwahg (Buek). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Gaam.

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Ganza
[gza] Blue Nile state: Kurmuk district, Dahmoh, Darsoma, Korbum, Tugubele, and Yeshkab villages between Daga and Yabus rivers. Population: 2,600 in Sudan (2007 A. Krell). Total users in all countries: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma, Koma-Ganza. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao.

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Gbaya
[krs] South Darfur state: Radom district, Kafia Kingi and south. Population: Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh.

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Ghulfan
[ghl] South Kordofan state: Dabri, Karkandi, Katang, Kurgul, Namang, Ninya, Moring, Ota, Shigda, and Tarda villages in Ghulfan Kurgul and Ghulfan Morung hills south of Dilling. Population: 33,000 (2012 J. Leclerc), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gulfan, Uncu, Uncunwee, Wunci, Wuncimbe. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Kadaru [kdu] (Jabal Sitta), then to Dilling [dil] and Wali [wll]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan.

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Gula
[kcm] South Darfur state: Kafia Kingi. Population: 200 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kara, Kara of Sudan, Yamegi. Dialects: Gula (Goula), Nguru (Bubu, Koyo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Gule
[gly] Blue Nile state: Damazin district, Jebel Gule, San and Roro hills. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speakers survived into the 1980s (Sommer 1992). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Anej, Fecakomodiyo, Hamej. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Gumuz
[guk] Blue Nile state: east Er Roseires district, Famaka and Fazoglo areas on the Blue Nile; Sennar state: Dinder district, north along Ethiopia border. Population: 40,000 in Sudan. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Debatsa, Deguba, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Kadallu, Mendeya, Shankillinya, Shanqilla. Dialects: Disoha (Desua), Dakunza (Degoja, Dugunza, Dukuna, Dukunza, Ganza, Gunza), Sai, Sese (Saysay), Dekoka, Dewiya, Kukwaya, Gombo, Jemhwa, Modea. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, B’aga.

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Hausa
[hau] Blue Nile and Khartoum states; scattered in Khartoum, along Blue Nile river; Kordofan. Population: 80,000 in Sudan (2007). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1.

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Heiban
[hbn] South Kordofan state: Abul and Heiban towns. Population: 4,410 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abul, Ebang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Laro [lro]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru.

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Jumjum
[jum] Blue Nile state: west Kurmuk district, Jebels Tunga, Terta, and Wadega areas on South Sudan border. Population: 70,000 in Sudan (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega, Wadkai. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Kadaru
[kdu] South Kordofan state: Jibaal as Sitta hills between Delami and Dilling. Population: 25,000 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kadaro, Kadero, Kaderu, Kodhin, Kodhinniai, Kodoro, Tamya. Dialects: Kadaru (Kodur), Kururu (Tagle), Kafir (Ka’e), Kurtala (Ngokra), Dabatna (Kaaral), Kuldaji (Kendal). Dialects spoken by six clan groups living on six separate hills. Western form used by the Berko people at Habila (southwest of Jebel Sitta, neighboring the Ghulfan) may be another dialect or a separate language. Lexical similarity: 93% with Dilling [dil], 92%–87% with Debri [dil], 60% with Birked [brk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan.

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Kanga
[kcp] South Kordofan state: Miri hills, west and southwest of Kadugli; Kufa village cluster southeast of Miri, northeast of Lima, and north of Kanga. Bilenya, Dologi, Lenyaguyox, Lima, Kilag, Kufa, Mashaish, and Toole (center) villages (Kufa-Lima dialect). Population: 14,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Abu Sinun, Chiroro-Kursi, Kanga, Kufa-Lima, Krongo Abdalla. Lexical similarity: 85% with the Tumma dialect of Katcha-Kadugli-Miri [xtc] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Karko
[kko] South Kordofan state: Karko hills, 35 km west of Dilling, includes Dulman. Population: 7,000 (2004 A. Farah). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Garko, Kaak, Karme, Kithonirishe. Autonym: Kakenbi. Dialects: Karko, Kasha, Shifir. Varieties spoken by the Ilaki on Abu Junuk to the west (1,000) and by the Tamang at El Tabaq southwest of Katla (800) may be dialects or separate languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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Katcha-Kadugli-Miri
[xtc] South Kordofan state. Belanya, Dabakaya, Farouq, Kafina, Katcha, and Tuna villages (Katcha dialect); ’Daalimo, Kadugli, Kulba, Murta, Takko, and Thappare villages (Kadugli dialect); Hayar al-Nimr, Kadoda, Kasari, Kuduru, Kya, Luba, Miri Bara, Miri Guwa, Nyimodu, Sogolle, Tulluk, and Umduiu villages (Miri dialect). Population: 75,000 (2004 SIL). 30,000 Katcha and Kadugli (2004), 4,000 Miri. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Katcha (Dholubi, Tolubi), Kadugli (Dakalla, Dhalla, Kudugli, Morta, Talla, Toma Ma Dalla), Miri, Damba, Tumma. Stevenson (1984) treats them as dialects of one language. Ruhlen (1987) and Schadeberg (1989) treat them as separate. Samir Bulus says that Tumma is dialect of Katcha. Lexical similarity: 85% among Katcha, Kadugli, and Miri dialects, 88% between Kadugli and Damba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Katla
[kcr] South Kordofan state: Katla hills southwest of Dilling. Kabog, Kabog North, Kabosh, Kambai, Karkando, Karkarya, Kary, Kimndang, Kitanngo, Kolbi, Koto Kork, Octiang, Rumber, Sabba, Tolot, (Julud dialect); Bombori, Karoka, Kateik, Kiddu, Kirkpong, and Koldrong (Katla dialect). Population: 25,000 (2009). Population for Julud. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Akalak, Kalak. Dialects: Katla, Julud. Julud speakers understand almost everything spoken in Katla, and some Tima [tms]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla.

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Keiga
[kec] South Kordofan state: Jebel Demik, northwest of Kadugli; Ambong area, Ambong, Ambongadi, Arungekkaadi, Bila Ndulang, Kandang, Kuluwaring, Lakkadi, Roofik, Saadhing, Taffor, and Tingiragadi villages; Lubung area, Kuwaik, Miya Ndumuru, Miya Ntaarang, Miya Ntaluwa, Semalili, and Tungunungunu villages; Tumuro area, Jughuba, Kayide, Koolo, and Tumuro villages. Population: 6,070 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kayigang, Keiga-Al-Kheil, Keiga-Timero, Yega. Dialects: Demik (Rofik), Keiga (Aigang). Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Kadugli languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Kelo
[xel] Blue Nile state: Geissan district, Beni Sheko and Keeli villages. Population: 200 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kelo-Beni Sheko, Ndu-Faa-Keelo, Tornasi. Dialects: Beni Sheko, Kelo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo.

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Ko
[fuj] South Kordofan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Population: 2,680 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fungor, Fungur, Kau. Dialects: Kau (Ko), Nyaro. Nyaro and Kau may be the same dialect. Lexical similarity: 67% with Warnang [wrn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern.

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Koalib
[kib] South Kordofan state: Delami area. Hadra, Nyukwur, and Umm Heitan (Nginyukwur dialect); Abri area villages scattered on the plain (Ngirere dialect); Koalib hills area (Ngunduna dialect); Turum and Umm Berumbita (Nguqwurang dialect). Population: 100,000 (Quint 2009). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Abri, Kandiza Kethi Koalib, Kawaaliib, Kawalib, Kowalib, Lgalige, Nirere, Rere. Autonym: Kwɐ̀ɐlîp. Dialects: Nguqwurang, Ngunduna, Nginyukwur, Ngirere, Ngemere. Lexical similarity: 75% with most similar Heiban languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Rere.

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Komo
[xom] Blue Nile state: Kurmuk district, Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers area. Population: 10,000 in Sudan (1979 W. James). Total users in all countries: 11,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Como, Gokwom, Hayahaya, Koma of Daga, Madiin. Autonym: Tta Komo. Dialects: Beilla, Chali. Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 52% with Uduk [udu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Krongo
[kgo] South Kordofan state: Angolo, Tabanya, and Toroji in Krongo hills; Buram, Damaguto, Dar, Dimadragu, and Dimodongo. Population: 21,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimodongo, Kadumodi, Korongo, Kurungu, Tabanya. Autonym: Niino mo-di. Dialects: Fama-Teis-Kua. Lexical similarity: 85% with Tumtum [tbr]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Lafofa
[laf] South Kordofan state: central Eliri hills. Population: 5,140 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kidie Lafofa. Dialects: Jebel El Amira (El Amira), Jebel Tekeim (Jebel, Tegem, Tekeim), Lafofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Tegem.

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Laro
[lro] South Kordofan state: Oya, Rodong (Hajar Medani), Hajar Baco, Gunisaia, Serif, Tondly, Reli, Lagau (Serfinila), Getaw (Hajar Tiya), Orme (Ando) villages in Alleira hills north of Heiban town. Population: 40,000 (Kuku 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Al-Leira, Leera, Liira, Ngwullaro, Yillaro. Autonym: Laru. Dialects: Yilaru, Yidundili-Yigoromany. Lexical similarity: 90% with Heiban [hbn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru.

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Logol
[lof] South Kordofan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Population: Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lukha. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Otoro [otr] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Logol.

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Logorik
[liu] South Kordofan state: Jebel Liguri and hills 15 km northeast of Kadugli. Population: 2,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Liguri. Dialects: Saburi, Tallau (Talau, Talo, Tilow), Liguri. Lexical similarity: 64% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 57% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Eastern Daju.

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Lumun
[lmd] South Kordofan state: Canya’ru, Toromathan, and To’ri villages in Limon hills. Population: 15,000 (2014 SIL). Home area population 9,500 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuku-Lumun, Lomon. Autonym: Lumun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Masalit
[mls] South Darfur state: scattered; West Darfur state: Geneina and Habila districts. North and east of Geneina (Northern Masalit dialect). Population: 350,000 in Sudan (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 440,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Massalit, Mesalit. Autonym: Kana Masaraka. Dialects: Dialect in West Darfur differs from that in South Darfur. Lexical similarity: 36% with Karanga [kth], 42% with Maba [mfz], 45% with Marfa [mvu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Masalit.

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Midob
[mei] Khartoum state: scattered throughout, and Omdurman district, Gezirat Aba island; White Nile state; North Darfur state: Mellit district, Malha area. Population: 76,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meidob, Meidob Nubian, Midobi, Tid, Tid-N-Aal, Tidda. Dialects: Shelkota (Shalkota), Kaageddi, Urrti (Uurti). Lexical similarity: 51% with Birgid [brk] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Western.

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Molo
[zmo] Blue Nile state: Jebel Malkan. Population: 100 (1988 M. Bender), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malkan, Tura-Ka-Molo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo.

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Moro
[mor] South Kordofan state: Moro hills. Population: 30,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Autonym: Dhimorong. Dialects: Umm Dorein (Longorban), Umm Gabralla (Toberelda), Nderre, Laiyen, Nubwa, Ulba, Werria, Thetogovela. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tira [tic] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western.

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Nding
[eli] South Kordofan state: East Nuba hills, south Eliri range. Population: 400 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eliri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: was 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Nding.

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Ngile
[jle] South Kordofan state: Mesakin hills. Masakin and Togosilu villages (Masakin Tuwal dialect); Daloka and El Aheimar villages (Daloka dialect). Population: 11,700 (Stevenson 1984). Including Dagik [dec] speakers. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Angire, Arra, Daloka, Darra, Masakin, Mesakin, Taloka. Dialects: Daloka (Taloka), Masakin Tuwal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu.

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Nobiin
[fia] Northern state: Wadi Halfa district, Burgeg to Wadi Halfa; possibly east of Khartoum city, New Halfa area. Population: 295,000 in Sudan (1996). Total users in all countries: 669,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fiadidja-Mahas, Mahas-Fiadidja, Mahas-Fiyadikkya. Dialects: Mahas (Mahasi, Mahass). Lexical similarity: 67% with Kenzi [xnz], but not intelligible of it. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Northern.

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Otoro
[otr] South Kordofan state: Otoro hills south of Heiban town. Population: 10,000 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dhitoro, Kawama, Kawarma, Litoro, Utoro. Autonym: Ḏuṯuɽu. Dialects: Dugujur, Dukwara, Dorobe, Dogoridi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Utoro.

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Shatt
[shj] South Kordofan state: Shatt Daman, Shatt Safia, and Shatt Tebeldia; Abu Hashim and Abu Sinam areas. Population: 30,000 (2014 T. Stirtz). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Autonym: Caning. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Liguri [liu], 62% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Eastern Daju.

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Shwai
[shw] South Kordofan state: 20 km west of Heiban town. Population: 3,500 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ludumor, Shirumba, Shuway. Autonym: Cwaya. Dialects: Shabun, Cerumba (Shirumba), Ndano. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Shirumba.

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Tagoi
[tag] South Kordofan state: Moreb, Tagoi, Tukum, Tuling, Tumale, Turjok, and Turum. Population: 13,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tagoy. Dialects: Moreb, Tumale, Tagoi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad.

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Talodi
[tlo] South Kordofan state: Talodi town, Tasomi and Tata villages. Population: 1,500 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajomang, Gajomang, Jomang. Dialects: Dialects nearly identical. Lexical similarity: 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Jomang.

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Tama
[tma] South Darfur state: west of Nyala; West Darfur state. Sirba area, Abu Shadra, Abu Suruj, Agar, Bir Dagig, Budiflo, Gezin, Giilint, Goboron, Immed Marloga, Kengrem, Kondobe, Kuma Mardok, Matinoor, Muburung, Rigilmur, Saraf Jidad, Shitkol, Tord, and Zere (Erenga dialect:); Jabal Muun area, Salia town (Mileere dialect). Population: 5,000 in Sudan (1970). Population known for Mileere only. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Tama, Erenga, Murase, Mileere (Milerinka). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Tama-Sungor.

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Tegali
[ras] South Kordofan state: Tegali and Rashad hills and Rashad town. Population: 35,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Orig, Tagale, Tegele, Tekele, Togole, Turjok. Dialects: Rashad (Kom, Kome, Ngakom), Tegali, Tingal (Kajaja, Kajakja). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad.

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Temein
[teq] South Kordofan state: Farik, Kuris, Kwiye, Nekring, Tokoing, Tukur, and Tulu villages between Jebels Ghulfan Morung and Julud. Population: 13,000 (2006). 6,000 in home area villages; 7,000 in other towns in Sudan. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rone, Ronge, Temainian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tese [keg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Temein.

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Tese
[keg] South Kordofan state: Keiga Jirru, and 6 villages northeast of Kadugli. Population: 1,400 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keiga Girru, Keiga Jirru, Teis-Umm-Danab. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Temein [teq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Temein.

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Tigré
[tig] Red Sea state: Tokar and Garora regions; Gedaref and Kassala states. Population: Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North.

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Tima
[tms] South Kordofan state: Jebel Tima village, 15 km southwest of Katla, north of Lagawa. Population: Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Domurik, Lomorik, Lomuriki, Tamanik, Yibwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla.

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Tira
[tic] South Kordofan state: hills between Kauda and Talodi. Population: 40,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lithiro, Littiro, Thiro, Tiro. Autonym: Zittiro. Dialects: Kinderma (Kanderma), Tira El Akhdar (Tira Dagig), Tira Lumum (Luman), Tira Mandi. Slight variations among dialects. Lexical similarity: 75% with Moro [mor] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western.

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Tocho
[taz] South Kordofan state: 15 villages near Saraf aj Jamus, and Delabaya. Population: 2,650 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Home area population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tacho, Toicho. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Torona
[tqr] South Kordofan state: Limon hills. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last known proficient speaker died in January 2014 (Norton and Alaki 2015). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

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Tulishi
[tey] South Kordofan state: Lagawa and northeast at Aabiisa, Aliyooro Manadaha, Jebels Tulishi, Kamdang, Kirakaati, Laati, Lawwa, Nattilongke, Ntukungnge, and Thudhi villages. 25km southwest of Lagawa (Dar el Kabira dialect). Population: 2,500 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kuntulishi, Thulishi, Tulesh. Dialects: Tulishi, Kamda (Kamdang), Dar El Kabira (Logoke, Minjimmina, Truj, Turuj). Dar el Kabira and Kamdang dialects are reportedly similar. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Tumtum
[tbr] South Kordofan state: Kurondi south of Eliri Hills. North Eliri hills (Talassa dialect); west Talodi hills (Tumtum dialect). Population: 7,300. 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Karondi (Korindi, Kurondi), Talassa (Talasa), Tumtum. Lexical similarity: 85% with Krongo [kgo] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

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Uduk
[udu] Blue Nile state: Kurmuk district, from Belila north, south to Yabus river. Population: 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the two not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan. Autonym: Twampa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Wali
[wll] South Kordofan state: 12 km northeast of Katla. Population: 9,000 (2007 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Walari, Walarishe, Wele. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

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Warnang
[wrn] South Kordofan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Population: 1,100 (1956 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Werni. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Ko [fuj] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern.

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Yulu
[yul] South Darfur state: Habbaniya area. Population: 3,000 in Sudan (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Zaghawa
[zag] North Darfur and West Darfur states, scattered. Population: 180,000 in Sudan (Osman 2006). Total users in all countries: 316,660. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beri-Aa, Berri, Bideyat, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua. Autonym: Beria. Dialects: Wagi (Tuer-Gala, Twer), Kube, Tuba (Bideyat). Wagi is the main dialect in Sudan. Ethnic subgroups are Kobe, Dor, and Anka, with slight dialect differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern.

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