Sudan

Print
Acheron
[acz] Janub Kurdufan state: Saraf Aj-Jaamous area, east of Moro hills. 20,000 (2006 R. Norton). 9,830 speakers in home area (2006 R. Norton). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aceron, Achurun, Asheron. Autonym: Garme. Dialects: Gandok (Eastern Acheron), Gathuk (Western Acheron), Garong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

More Information

Afitti
[aft] Shamal Kurdufan state: east Jebel ed Dair, main center is Sidra. 4,000 (de Voogt 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Affitti, Dinik, Ditti, Unietti. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59% with Ama [nyi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nyimang.

More Information

Aka
[soh] An Nil al Azraq state: Jebel Silak, southwest of Ingessana hills. 300 (Bender 1983a). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fa-C-Aka, Jebel Silak, Jebels Sillok, Sillok. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo. Comments: Heavily Arabicized and influenced by Berta [wti]. A remnant group (Bender 1983b).

More Information

Ama
[nyi] Janub Kurdufan state: Al Fous, Fuony, Hajar Sultan, Kakara, Kalara, Koromiti, Nitil, Salara, Tundia, and other villages in Jebel Mandal range, Nyimang hills. 142,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Elderly and young children are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Inyimang, Nyima, Nyiman, Nyimang, Nyuwing. Autonym: Ámá. Dialects: Ama, Mandal (Male). 80% similarity between Ama and Mandal dialects. Lexical similarity: 59% with Afitti [aft]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nyimang. Comments: Called Nyuwing by some Hill Nubian languages; people on the Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling [dil], but now only speak Ama.

More Information

Andaandi
[dgl] Ash Shamaliyah state: Dongola district; north boundary is Burgeg. 70,000 (2014 M. Jaeger). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Danaagla, Danaqla, Dongola, Dongola Nubian, Dongolawi, Dongolawi Nubian, Dongolese. Autonym: Andaandi. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mattokki dialect of Kenzi [xnz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Dongolawi. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Arabic, Standard
[arb] 26,900,000 in Sudan (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Sudanese Spoken Arabic [apd] or Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. 29,400,000 (2015). Total users in all countries: 31,854,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as an L2 by all other language groups in Sudan. Alternate Names: Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic. Autonym: Arabi. Dialects: Khartoum, Western Sudanese, North Kordofan Arabic, Ja’ali, Shukri. Western Sudan Spoken Arabic and Khartoum Arabic dialects have little compatibility (Kaye 1988). A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Written form rarely used; Standard Arabic [arb] used instead.

More Information

Baygo
[byg] Janub Darfur state: southeast of Nyala, east Kube hills, Jebel Beygo. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 850 (1978 GRN). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baigo, Bego, Beigo, Beko, Beygo, Béogé. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju. Comments: May have been the same as Njalgulgule [njl].

More Information

Bedawiyet
[bej] Al Bahr al Ahmar state; Al Qadarif, Kassala, and Nahr an Nil states, southeast river Nile. 2,140,000 (2015). Total users in all countries: 3,364,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedauye, Bedawi, Bedawiye, Bedja, Beja, Tu-Bedawie. Autonym: Bedàwie, Tu Bdhaawi. Dialects: Hadendoa (Hadendiwa, Hadendowa), Hadareb (Hadaareb), Bisharin (Bisariab), Beni-Amir. Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North. Comments: Beja is the Arabic name. Not related to Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [ayl] or Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic (Bedawi) [avl].

More Information

Berta
[wti] An Nil al Azraq state: Geissan, Kurmuk, and south Roseires district, Ethiopia border area. 180,000 (Osman 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barta, Burta, Gwami, Rotana, Wetawit, “Beni Shangul” (pej.). Dialects: Shuru, Bake, Undu, Mayu, Fadashi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites.

More Information

Berti
[byt] Shamal Darfur state: Tagabo hills. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern.

More Information

Birked
[brk] Shamal Darfur state: between Jebel Harayt and Rizaykat (Arab) country, north of Nyala; Shamal Kurdufan: south of El Obeid. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Birgid, Birguid, Birkit, Birqed, Kajjara, Murgi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kadaru [kdu], 51% with Midob [mei]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Birked.

More Information

Burun
[bdi] An Nil al Azraq state: north Kurmuk district. 41,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Borun, Cai, Lange. Dialects: Ragreig, Abuldugu (Bogon, Mugo-Mborkoina), Maiak, Mufwa (Mopo), Mughaja (Mugaja, Mumughadja). Some southern dialects intelligible with Mabaan [mfz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Burun. Comments: 3 cultural sections: Northern, comprising Cerkom (Serkum), Morkuny (Baldugu), Mayica (Magaja); Eastern, comprising Gengar (Kurmuk), Jorak (Jorok), Redwak (Regareg); South-West, comprising Mayak, Mofo (Mufu).

More Information

Dagik
[dec] Janub Kurdufan state: Mesakin hills, Buram, Kamlela, Reikha, Taballa, and Tosari villages. 55,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dagig, Dharuwa, Duwa, Masakin Dagig, Ruwa, Thakik, “Masakin” (pej.), “Masakin Gusar” (pej.). Autonym: Dhaduwa. Dialects: Arreme, Adobu, Tosari. Lexical similarity: 74% with Ngile [jle] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu.

More Information

Dair
[drb] Shamal Kurdufan state: west and south of Jebel Dair. 1,000 (1978 GRN). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dabab, Daier, Thaminyi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

More Information

Daju, Dar Fur
[daj] Gharb Darfur state: Geneina district; Janub Darfur state: Daju hills 40 km northeast of Nyala; Janub Kurdufan state: Dar el Kabira, Jebel Miheila, Lagawa, Nyukri, Silecce, Tamanyik, and Warina area villages (Lagowa dialect). 80,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beke, Dagu, Daju Ferne, Fininga, Nyala-Lagowa. Autonym: Bekke. Dialects: Nyala, Lagowa (Lagawa). Lexical similarity: 83% with Nyala and Lagowa dialects, 74% with Daju Dar Sila [dau], 62% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Logorik [liu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

More Information

Daju, Dar Sila
[dau] Gharb Darfur state: Habilla district. 7,000 (2009 T. Alaki). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bokor, Bokorike, Bokoruge, Mongo-Sila, Sila, Sula. Dialects: Mongo, Sila. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju.

More Information

Dilling
[dil] Janub Kurdufan state: Dilling town and surrounding hills, including Kudur. 11,000 (2012 J. Leclerc), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Delen, Warkimbe. Autonym: Warki. Dialects: Dilling, Debri. Lexical similarity: 94% with Dilling and Debri dialects; 93% with Kadaru [kdu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified. Comments: The Dilling people call themselves Warki; those of Kudur call themselves Kwashe. People of Mandal Hills (Sobay (Sud), Adlan, Bade, Kule, Wulal) used to speak the Kudur dialect of Dilling, but now speak Ama [nyi] and only use Dilling for ceremonies.

More Information

El Hugeirat
[elh] Janub Kurdufan and Shamal Kurdufan states: Baboy, Bija, Sija, and Shenshin villages in El Hugeirat hills, divided by border. 50 (2007 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: El Hagarat. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

More Information

English
[eng] Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Interim Constitution, Article 8(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] An Nil al Azraq, Al Qadarif, Janub Darfur, and Sinnar states: Blue Nile river towns; possibly Janub Kurdufan and Shamal Kurdufan states, scattered. 90,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fellata. Dialects: Gombe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Migration originally from Sokoto, Adamawa, and Gombe in Nigeria, Maasina in Mali, Liptaako and Jelgooji in Burkina Faso, also the Wodaabe lineage, and from Cameroon. Influenced by Arabic.

More Information

Fur
[fvr] Gharb Darfur, Janub Darfur, and Shamal Darfur states; some villages in east Sudan. 744,000 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 900,000 (2014 SIL). Total users in all countries: 745,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dala, For, Fora, Fordunga, Forok, Forta, Furakang, Furawi, Kadirgi, Konjara, Korra, Kungara, Kurka, Lali, Onage, Yerge, bèle fòòr, fòòraŋ bèle. Autonym: Poor’íŋ Belé’ŋ. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Fur. Comments: Called Furawi by Arabs; Forta by Masalit; Yerge by Daju Dar Sila; Onage by Daju Dar Fur; Forok by Tama; Korra by Zaghawa; Kadirgi by Birgid; Kurka by Meidob; Dala by Kara; Lali by Gula.

More Information

Gaam
[tbi] An Nil al Azraq state: Baw district, Jebel Tabi and outlying hills. 93,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingassana, Ingessana, Kamanidi, Mamedja, Mamidza, Metabi, Muntabi, Tabi. Autonym: Gaahmg. Dialects: Soda (Tao), Kukur (Gor), Kulang (Bau, Kulelek), Buwahg (Buek). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Gaam. Comments: Called Ingassana, Ingessana by Arabs. Clan groups: Agadi, Bagis, Beek, Bulmut, Kilgu, Kukuli, Mugum, Sidak.

More Information

Ganza
[gza] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, Dahmoh, Darsoma, Korbum, Tugubele, and Yeshkab villages between Daga and Yabus rivers. 2,600 (2007 A. Krell). Total users in all countries: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ganzo, Gwami, Koma, Koma-Ganza. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Omotic, North, Mao.

More Information

Gbaya
[krs] Janub Darfur state: Radom district, Kafia Kingi and south. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh.

More Information

Ghulfan
[ghl] Janub Kurdufan state: Dabri, Karkandi, Katang, Kurgul, Namang, Ninya, Moring, Ota, Shigda, and Tarda villages in Ghulfan Kurgul and Ghulfan Morung hills south of Dilling. 33,000 (2012 J. Leclerc), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gulfan, Uncu, Uncunwee, Wunci, Wuncimbe. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Kadaru [kdu] (Jabal Sitta), then to Dilling [dil] and Wali [wll]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan.

More Information

Gula
[kcm] Janub Darfur state: Kafia Kingi. 200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kara, Kara of Sudan, Yamegi. Dialects: Gula (Goula), Nguru (Bubu, Koyo). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Comments: Different from Kara [kah] of Central African Republic, Kare [kbn] of Chad, or Gula [glu] of Chad.

More Information

Gule
[gly] An Nil al Azraq state: Damazin district, Jebel Gule, San and Roro hills. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (Bender 1983a). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Anej, Fecakomodiyo, Hamej. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

More Information

Gumuz
[guk] An Nil al Azraq state: east Er Roseires district, Famaka and Fazoglo areas on the Blue Nile; Sinnar state: Dinder district, north along Ethiopia border. 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Debatsa, Deguba, Dehenda, Gombo, Gumis, Kadallu, Mendeya, Shankillinya, Shanqilla. Dialects: Disoha (Desua), Dakunza (Degoja, Dugunza, Dukuna, Dukunza, Ganza, Gunza), Sai, Sese (Saysay), Dekoka, Dewiya, Kukwaya, Gombo, Jemhwa, Modea. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, B’aga. Comments: A section in Sudan call themselves Kadallu.

More Information

Hausa
[hau] Al Khartum and An Nil al Azraq states; scattered in Khartoum, along Blue Nile river; Kordofan. 80,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Heiban
[hbn] Janub Kurdufan state: Abul and Heiban towns. 4,410 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Abul, Ebang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Laro [lro]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru.

More Information

Jumjum
[jum] An Nil al Azraq state: west Kurmuk district, Jebels Tunga, Terta, and Wadega areas on South Sudan border. 70,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega, Wadkai. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

More Information

Kadaru
[kdu] Janub Kurdufan state: Jibaal as Sitta hills between Delami and Dilling. 25,000 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kadaro, Kadero, Kaderu, Kodhin, Kodhinniai, Kodoro, Tamya. Dialects: Kadaru (Kodur), Kururu (Tagle), Kafir (Ka’e), Kurtala (Ngokra), Dabatna (Kaaral), Kuldaji (Kendal). Dialects spoken by six clan groups living on six separate hills. Western form used by the Berko people at Habila (southwest of Jebel Sitta, neighboring the Ghulfan) may be another dialect or a separate language. Lexical similarity: 93% with Dilling [dil], 92%–87% with Debri [dil], 60% with Birked [brk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Kadaru-Ghulfan.

More Information

Kanga
[kcp] Janub Kurdufan state: Miri hills, west and southwest of Kadugli; Kufa village cluster southeast of Miri, northeast of Lima, and north of Kanga. Bilenya, Dologi, Lenyaguyox, Lima, Kilag, Kufa, Mashaish, and Toole (center) villages (Kufa-Lima dialect). 14,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Abu Sinun, Chiroro-Kursi, Kanga, Kufa-Lima, Krongo Abdalla. Lexical similarity: 85% with the Tumma dialect of Katcha-Kadugli-Miri [xtc] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

More Information

Kanuri, Central
[knc] Scattered, in Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, and Janub Kurdufan states and other regions. 312,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bornouans, Bornu, Kanouri, Kanoury, Kanuri, Kole, Sirata, Yerwa Kanuri, “Beriberi” (pej.). Dialects: Dagara, Kaga (Kagama), Sugurti, Lare, Kwayam, Njesko, Kabari (Kuvuri), Ngazar, Guvja, Mao, Temageri, Fadawa, Maiduguri. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Western, Kanuri. Comments: Non-indigenous. Known as Bornu in Sudan.

More Information

Karko
[kko] Janub Kurdufan state: Karko hills, 35 km west of Dilling, includes Dulman. 7,000 (2004 A. Farah). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Garko, Kaak, Karme, Kithonirishe. Autonym: Kakenbi. Dialects: Karko, Kasha, Shifir. Varieties spoken by the Ilaki on Abu Junuk to the west (1,000) and by the Tamang at El Tabaq southwest of Katla (800) may be dialects or separate languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

More Information

Katcha-Kadugli-Miri
[xtc] Janub Kurdufan state. Belanya, Dabakaya, Farouq, Kafina, Katcha, and Tuna villages (Katcha dialect); ’Daalimo, Kadugli, Kulba, Murta, Takko, and Thappare villages (Kadugli dialect); Hayar al-Nimr, Kadoda, Kasari, Kuduru, Kya, Luba, Miri Bara, Miri Guwa, Nyimodu, Sogolle, Tulluk, and Umduiu villages (Miri dialect). 75,000 (2004 SIL). 30,000 Katcha and Kadugli (2004), 4,000 Miri. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Katcha (Dholubi, Tolubi), Kadugli (Dakalla, Dhalla, Kudugli, Morta, Talla, Toma Ma Dalla), Miri, Damba, Tumma. Stevenson (1984) treats them as dialects of one language. Ruhlen (1987) and Schadeberg (1989) treat them as separate. Samir Bulus says that Tumma is dialect of Katcha. Lexical similarity: 85% among Katcha, Kadugli, and Miri dialects, 88% between Kadugli and Damba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

More Information

Katla
[kcr] Janub Kurdufan state: Katla hills southwest of Dilling. Kabog, Kabog North, Kabosh, Kambai, Karkando, Karkarya, Kary, Kimndang, Kitanngo, Kolbi, Koto Kork, Octiang, Rumber, Sabba, Tolot, (Julud dialect); Bombori, Karoka, Kateik, Kiddu, Kirkpong, and Koldrong (Katla dialect). 25,000 (2009). Population for Julud. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Akalak, Kalak. Dialects: Katla, Julud. Julud speakers understand almost everything spoken in Katla, and some Tima [tms]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla.

More Information

Keiga
[kec] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Demik, northwest of Kadugli; Ambong area, Ambong, Ambongadi, Arungekkaadi, Bila Ndulang, Kandang, Kuluwaring, Lakkadi, Roofik, Saadhing, Taffor, and Tingiragadi villages; Lubung area, Kuwaik, Miya Ndumuru, Miya Ntaarang, Miya Ntaluwa, Semalili, and Tungunungunu villages; Tumuro area, Jughuba, Kayide, Koolo, and Tumuro villages. 6,070 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kayigang, Keiga-Al-Kheil, Keiga-Timero, Yega. Dialects: Demik (Rofik), Keiga (Aigang). Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Kadugli languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

More Information

Kelo
[xel] An Nil al Azraq state: Geissan district, Beni Sheko and Keeli villages. 200. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kelo-Beni Sheko, Ndu-Faa-Keelo, Tornasi. Dialects: Beni Sheko, Kelo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo.

More Information

Ko
[fuj] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 2,680 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fungor, Fungur, Kau. Dialects: Kau (Ko), Nyaro. Nyaro and Kau may be the same dialect. Lexical similarity: 67% with Warnang [wrn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern.

More Information

Koalib
[kib] Janub Kurdufan state: Delami area. Hadra, Nyukwur, and Umm Heitan (Nginyukwur dialect); Abri area villages scattered on the plain (Ngirere dialect); Koalib hills area (Ngunduna dialect); Turum and Umm Berumbita (Nguqwurang dialect). 100,000 (Quint 2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abri, Kandiza Kethi Koalib, Kawaaliib, Kawalib, Kowalib, Lgalige, Nirere, Rere. Autonym: Kwɐ̀ɐlîp. Dialects: Nguqwurang, Ngunduna, Nginyukwur, Ngirere, Ngemere. Lexical similarity: 75% with most similar Heiban languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Rere.

More Information

Komo
[xom] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers area. 10,000 (1979 W. James). Total users in all countries: 11,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Koma, Como, Gokwom, Hayahaya, Koma of Daga, Madiin. Autonym: Tta Komo. Dialects: Beilla, Chali. Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 52% with Uduk [udu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman. Comments: Called Aru in Uduk [udu].

More Information

Krongo
[kgo] Janub Kurdufan state: Angolo, Tabanya, and Toroji in Krongo hills; Buram, Damaguto, Dar, Dimadragu, and Dimodongo. 21,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimodongo, Kadumodi, Korongo, Kurungu, Tabanya. Autonym: Niino mo-di. Dialects: Fama-Teis-Kua. Lexical similarity: 85% with Tumtum [tbr]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

More Information

Lafofa
[laf] Janub Kurdufan state: central Eliri hills. 5,140 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kidie Lafofa. Dialects: Jebel El Amira (El Amira), Jebel Tekeim (Jebel, Tegem, Tekeim), Lafofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Tegem.

More Information

Laro
[lro] Janub Kurdufan state: Oya, Rodong (Hajar Medani), Hajar Baco, Gunisaia, Serif, Tondly, Reli, Lagau (Serfinila), Getaw (Hajar Tiya), Orme (Ando) villages in Alleira hills north of Heiban town. 40,000 (Kuku 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Al-Leira, Leera, Liira, Ngwullaro, Yillaro. Autonym: Laru. Dialects: Yilaru, Yidundili-Yigoromany. Lexical similarity: 90% with Heiban [hbn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Ebang-Laru. Comments: Laru is the locally preferred name. Al-Leira is the Arabic name.

More Information

Logol
[lof] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lukha. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Otoro [otr] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Logol.

More Information

Logorik
[liu] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Liguri and hills 15 km northeast of Kadugli. 2,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Liguri. Dialects: Saburi, Tallau (Talau, Talo, Tilow), Liguri. Lexical similarity: 64% with Shatt [shj], 56% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 57% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Eastern Daju.

More Information

Lumun
[lmd] Janub Kurdufan state: Canya’ru, Toromathan, and To’ri villages in Limon hills. 15,000 (2014 SIL). Home area population 9,500 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuku-Lumun, Lomon. Autonym: Lumun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

More Information

Masalit
[mls] Gharb Darfur state: Geneina and Habila districts; Janub Darfur state: scattered. North and east of Geneina (Northern Masalit dialect). 350,000 (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 440,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Massalit, Mesalit. Autonym: Kana Masaraka. Dialects: Dialect in West Darfur differs from that in South Darfur. Lexical similarity: 36% with Karanga [kth], 42% with Maba [mfz], 45% with Marfa [mvu]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Masalit. Comments: Many fled to Chad due to war in Darfur (2011).

More Information

Midob
[mei] Al Khartum state: scattered throughout, and Omdurman district, Gezirat Aba island; An Nil al Abyad state ; Shamal Darfur state: Mellit district, Malha area. 76,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Meidob, Meidob Nubian, Midobi, Tid, Tid-N-Aal, Tidda. Dialects: Shelkota (Shalkota), Kaageddi, Urrti (Uurti). Lexical similarity: 51% with Birgid [brk] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Western.

More Information

Molo
[zmo] An Nil al Azraq state: Jebel Malkan. 100 (1988 M. Bender), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Malkan, Tura-Ka-Molo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Eastern Jebel, Aka-Kelo-Molo.

More Information

Moro
[mor] Janub Kurdufan state: Moro hills. 30,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Autonym: Dhimorong. Dialects: Umm Dorein (Longorban), Umm Gabralla (Toberelda), Nderre, Laiyen, Nubwa, Ulba, Werria, Thetogovela. Lexical similarity: 75% with Tira [tic] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western. Comments: Schools may not exist due to the war.

More Information

Nding
[eli] Janub Kurdufan state: East Nuba hills, south Eliri range. 400 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eliri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: was 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Nding.

More Information

Ngile
[jle] Janub Kurdufan state: Mesakin hills. Masakin and Togosilu villages (Masakin Tuwal dialect); Daloka and El Aheimar villages (Daloka dialect). 11,700 (Stevenson 1984). Including Dagik [dec] speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Angire, Arra, Daloka, Darra, Masakin, Mesakin, Taloka. Dialects: Daloka (Taloka), Masakin Tuwal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Ngile-Dengebu. Comments: Masakin Tuwal call their language Arra; Dagik [dec] call it Agosilu; Daloka called Angire by Masakin Tuwal.

More Information

Nobiin
[fia] Ash Shamaliyah state: Wadi Halfa district, Burgeg to Wadi Halfa; possibly east of Khartoum city, New Halfa area. 295,000 (1996). Total users in all countries: 669,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Fiadidja-Mahas, Mahas-Fiadidja, Mahas-Fiyadikkya. Dialects: Mahas (Mahasi, Mahass). Lexical similarity: 67% with Kenzi [xnz], but not intelligible of it. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Northern.

More Information

Otoro
[otr] Janub Kurdufan state: Otoro hills south of Heiban town. 10,000 (2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhitoro, Kawama, Kawarma, Litoro, Utoro. Autonym: Ḏuṯuɽu. Dialects: Dugujur, Dukwara, Dorobe, Dogoridi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Central, Ebang-Logol, Utoro.

More Information

Shatt
[shj] Janub Kurdufan state: Shatt Daman, Shatt Safia, and Shatt Tebeldia; Abu Hashim and Abu Sinam areas. 30,000 (2014 T. Stirtz). Status: 6b (Threatened). Autonym: Caning. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Liguri [liu], 62% with Dar Fur Daju [daj] (Nyala and Lagowa), 60% with Dar Sila Daju [dau]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Eastern Daju. Comments: Distinct from Thuri (Shatt) [thu] in the Lwo group.

More Information

Shwai
[shw] Janub Kurdufan state: 20 km west of Heiban town. 3,500 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ludumor, Shirumba, Shuway. Autonym: Cwaya. Dialects: Shabun, Cerumba (Shirumba), Ndano. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Shirumba.

More Information

Tagoi
[tag] Janub Kurdufan state: Moreb, Tagoi, Tukum, Tuling, Tumale, Turjok, and Turum. 13,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tagoy. Dialects: Moreb, Tumale, Tagoi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad.

More Information

Talodi
[tlo] Janub Kurdufan state: Talodi town, Tasomi and Tata villages. 1,500 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajomang, Gajomang, Jomang. Dialects: Dialects nearly identical. Lexical similarity: 70% with most similar Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Jomang.

More Information

Tama
[tma] Gharb Darfur state. Sirba area, Abu Shadra, Abu Suruj, Agar, Bir Dagig, Budiflo, Gezin, Giilint, Goboron, Immed Marloga, Kengrem, Kondobe, Kuma Mardok, Matinoor, Muburung, Rigilmur, Saraf Jidad, Shitkol, Tord, and Zere (Erenga dialect:); Jabal Muun area, Salia town (Mileere dialect); Janub Darfur state: west of Nyala. 5,000 (1970). Population known for Mileere only. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Tama, Erenga, Murase, Mileere (Milerinka). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Tama, Tama-Sungor. Comments: In Arabic, Mileere dialect is called Jabaal, speakers called Misiriya aj-Jabal.

More Information

Tegali
[ras] Janub Kurdufan state: Tegali and Rashad hills and Rashad town. 35,700 (Stevenson 1984). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Orig, Tagale, Tegele, Tekele, Togole, Turjok. Dialects: Rashad (Kom, Kome, Ngakom), Tegali, Tingal (Kajaja, Kajakja). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Rashad. Comments: Tegali and Rashad dialects are nearly identical.

More Information

Temein
[teq] Janub Kurdufan state: Farik, Kuris, Kwiye, Nekring, Tokoing, Tukur, and Tulu villages between Jebels Ghulfan Morung and Julud. 13,000 (2006). 6,000 in home area villages; 7,000 in other towns in Sudan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rone, Ronge, Temainian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Tese [keg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Temein.

More Information

Tese
[keg] Janub Kurdufan state: Keiga Jirru, and 6 villages northeast of Kadugli. 1,400 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keiga Girru, Keiga Jirru, Teis-Umm-Danab. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Temein [teq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Temein.

More Information

Tigré
[tig] Al Bahr al Ahmar state: Tokar and Garora regions; Al Qadarif and Kassala states. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North.

More Information

Tima
[tms] Janub Kurdufan state: Jebel Tima village, 15 km southwest of Katla, north of Lagawa. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Domurik, Lomorik, Lomuriki, Tamanik, Yibwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Katla. Comments: Though classified as a Kordofanian language (Greenberg 1963), Tima appears to constitute a linguistic isolate together with Katla [kcr] (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007).

More Information

Tira
[tic] Janub Kurdufan state: hills between Kauda and Talodi. 40,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lithiro, Littiro, Thiro, Tiro. Autonym: Zittiro. Dialects: Kinderma (Kanderma), Tira El Akhdar (Tira Dagig), Tira Lumum (Luman), Tira Mandi. Slight variations among dialects. Lexical similarity: 75% with Moro [mor] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, West-Central, Western. Comments: Schools may not exist due to the war.

More Information

Tocho
[taz] Janub Kurdufan state: 15 villages near Saraf aj Jamus, and Delabaya. 2,650 (2013 T. Alaki and R. Norton). Home area population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tacho, Toicho. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with closest Talodi languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

More Information

Torona
[tqr] Janub Kurdufan state: Limon hills. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Talodi, Talodi Proper, Tocho.

More Information

Tulishi
[tey] Janub Kurdufan state: Lagawa and northeast at Aabiisa, Aliyooro Manadaha, Jebels Tulishi, Kamdang, Kirakaati, Laati, Lawwa, Nattilongke, Ntukungnge, and Thudhi villages. 25km southwest of Lagawa (Dar el Kabira dialect). 2,500 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kuntulishi, Thulishi, Tulesh. Dialects: Tulishi, Kamda (Kamdang), Dar El Kabira (Logoke, Minjimmina, Truj, Turuj). Dar el Kabira and Kamdang dialects are reportedly similar. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

More Information

Tumtum
[tbr] Janub Kurdufan state: Kurondi south of Eliri Hills. North Eliri hills (Talassa dialect); west Talodi hills (Tumtum dialect). 7,300. 6,000 in Karondi, 1,300 in Tumtum. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Karondi (Korindi, Kurondi), Talassa (Talasa), Tumtum. Lexical similarity: 85% with Krongo [kgo] (most similar). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Kadugli-Krongo.

More Information

Uduk
[udu] An Nil al Azraq state: Kurmuk district, from Belila north, south to Yabus river. 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the two not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan. Autonym: Twampa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

More Information

Wali
[wll] Janub Kurdufan state: 12 km northeast of Katla. 9,000 (2007 SIL). Many monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Walari, Walarishe, Wele. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Northern (k languages), Nubian, Central, Hill, Unclassified.

More Information

Warnang
[wrn] Janub Kurdufan state: isolated hills between Talodi and the White Nile. 1,100 (1956 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Werni. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 67% with Ko [fuj] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Kordofanian, Heiban, Eastern.

More Information

Yulu
[yul] Janub Darfur state: Habbaniya area. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

More Information

Zaghawa
[zag] Shamal Darfur and Gharb Darfur states, scattered. 180,000 (Osman 2006). Total users in all countries: 315,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Beri-Aa, Berri, Bideyat, Kebadi, Kuyuk, Merida, Soghaua, Zagaoua, Zagawa, Zauge, Zeggaoua, Zeghawa, Zorhaua. Autonym: Beria. Dialects: Wagi (Tuer-Gala, Twer), Kube, Tuba (Bideyat). Wagi is the main dialect in Sudan. Ethnic subgroups are Kobe, Dor, and Anka, with slight dialect differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Saharan, Eastern.

More Information

Page Views Left: