Singapore

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Bengali
[ben] North East district (No. 19), especially Hougang and Sengkang areas; scattered elsewhere. Population: 1,820 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 80,000 (2006 People’s Daily). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Scattered. Population: 233,000 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hokka, Ke, Kechia, Kehia, Kek, Khek. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Population: 2,840,000 in Singapore, all users. L1 users: 1,960,000 in Singapore (2016 census). L2 users: 880,000. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Min Bei
[mnp] Districts 23 and 24, Bukit Batok area northwest; scattered elsewhere. Population: 15,200 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 16,600 (2010 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Min Pei. Dialects: Hokchia (Hockchew). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Scattered. Population: 34,200 in Singapore (2000). Ethnic population: 54,200 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow, Guxhou). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Mostly Telok Ayer area. Population: 625,000 in Singapore (2015 World Factbook). Includes 448,000 Hokkien and 177,000 Teochew. Ethnic population: 1,860,000 (2010 census). Includes 1,120,000 Hokkien, 562,000 Teochew, 178,000 Hainanese. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Banlamgi, Min Nam, Southern Min. Dialects: Hokkien (Amoy, Fujian, Fukienese, Xiamen), Teochew (Chaochow, Chaozhou, Taechew), Hainanese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] Scattered. Population: 23,300 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 25,600 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: Henghua (Hinghua, Xinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Scattered. Population: 227,000 in Singapore (2015 World Factbook). Ethnic population: 409,000 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cantonese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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English
[eng] Population: 4,070,000 in Singapore, all users. L1 users: 2,070,000 in Singapore (2016 census). L2 users: 2,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Dialects: Singlish. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Gujarati
[guj] Scattered. Population: 4,120 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gujerathi, Gujerati. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati.

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Hindi
[hin] Scattered. Population: 50,000 in Singapore (2017 The Straits Times), all users. L1 users: 13,100 (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani.

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Javanese
[jav] Scattered. Population: 35,500 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 88,600 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djawa, Jawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese.

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Madura
[mad] Scattered. Population: 900 in Singapore (1985). Ethnic population: 19,900 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese. Dialects: Bawean (Boyanese). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese.

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Malay
[zlm] Population: 602,000 in Singapore (2016 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution, Article 153A(2)), not dominant despite status. Alternate Names: Colloquial Malay, Local Malay, Malayu. Dialects: Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malay, Baba
[mbf] Mainly Kallang district, near city center; Geylang and Jao Chiat districts. Population: 10,000 in Singapore (Pakir 1986). Ethnic population: 250,000 (1986). Total users in all countries: 12,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baba, Chinese Malay, Low Malay, Peranakan, Straits Malay. Dialects: None known. It developed after 15th century from Low Malay with many Min Nan Chinese [nan] borrowings. Regional variants between Malacca and Singapore. Partially intelligible with Standard Malay [zsm]. It is generally believed that Baba of Malaysia is more refined, and that of Singapore more rough. Most learn Standard Malay and English in school. Distinct from Peranakan Indonesian [pea]. Baba in Melaka, Malaysia speak a Hokkien-influenced Malay creole; those in Penang, Malaysia speak a localized version of Hokkien [nan] (2006 Tan Chee Beng). Classification: Creole, Malay based.

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Widespread. Population: Few L1 speakers. L2 speakers include ethnic Malays and some others, particularly the older generation. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malaysia, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malayalam
[mal] Scattered. Population: 26,300 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alealum, Malayal, Malayalani, Malean, Maliyad, Mallealle, Mopla. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam.

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Orang Seletar
[ors] North-Eastern Islands district, Johor strait area; scattered elsewhere. Population: 790 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Punjabi, Eastern
[pan] Scattered. Population: 5,670 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 14,000 (1993). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Panjabi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi.

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Sindhi
[snd] Scattered. Population: 3,970 in Singapore (2010 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Sindhi.

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Singapore Sign Language
[sls] Scattered. Population: 3,000 (2007 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: SGSL, SgSL. Dialects: None known. Strong influence from sign language in Shanghai, American Sign Language (ASL) [ase] and systems of signed English, with some locally-developed signs. Classification: Sign language.

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Sinhala
[sin] Scattered. Population: 3,140 in Singapore (2010 census). Ethnic population: 15,300 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chingalese, Singhalese, Sinhalese. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Sinhalese-Maldivian.

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Tamil
[tam] Population: 186,000 in Singapore (2016 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil.

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Telugu
[tel] Scattered. Population: 540 in Singapore (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu.

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