Senegal

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Badyara
[pbp] Tambacounda region: east of Koulountou river; Kolda region: west of river, 1 village. 2,100 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Badian, Badjara, Badjaranké, Bajara, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Muslim.

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Bainouk-Gunyaamolo
[bcz] Ziguinchor and Sedhiou regions: Niamone area, in a triangle formed by Bignona, Tobor, and Niamone, including Diengue, Kassankil, Tobor, Bangaga, Diamatou, Tobor, Dierena, and Kanjumbay villages; in Dakar; in Kaolack, Tambacounda, and Kolda regions. 30,000 (2013). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Guñuun Ñuñ. Dialects: Gujaaxet, Gunyamoolo. Dialects mutually intelligible. Reportedly similar to Kobiana [kcj] and Kasanga [ccj] of Guinea-Bissau. More closely related to Tenda languages of eastern Senegal than to neighboring Diola-Fogny [dyo] and Balanta [bjt]. Gunyuño [bab] in Guinea-Bissau is distinct. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Bainouk-Samik
[bcb] Casamance river south side, mainly Samik area and villages north and east, 20 km east of Ziguinchor. 1,850 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun.

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Balanta-Ganja
[bjt] Sedhiou region: south of Casamance river, between Goudomp and Tanaff, and south. 96,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 979 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Fjaa, Fraase. Dialects: Fganja (Ganja), Fjaalib (Blip). A separate language from Balanta-Kentohe [ble] in Guinea-Bissau. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bandial
[bqj] Affiniam, Badiate-Grand, Bandial, Batinier, Brin, Elubalir, Enampor, Essil, Etama, Kamobeul, and Seleky villages on a peninsula bounded by the Casamance river north, the Komobeul Bôlon river west, Ziguinchor-Oussouye road south, and Brin-Nyassia road east. The only village north of the Casamance River is Affiniam. 13,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banjaal, Eegima, Eegimaa, Gubanjalay. Dialects: Affiniam, Bandial, Elun (Hulon, Kujireray, Kuluunaay). Lexical similarity: 74% with Bandial and Affiniam dialects, 76% with Bandial and Elun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bayot
[bda] Southwest of Ziguinchor, a cluster of villages grouped around Nyassia village. 19,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 24,610. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baiot, Baiote, Bayotte. Dialects: Essin. A dialect subgroup. Phonology and vocabulary in Senegal are considerably different from the two Bayot dialects in Guinea-Bissau. Lexical similarity: 15%–18% with other Jola varieties (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Crioulo, Upper Guinea
[pov] Ziguinchor (Bignona) and Kolda regions. 10,000 in Senegal (Biagui and Quint 2013). L2 users: 20,000 in Senegal (Biagui and Quint 2013). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as an LWC from the Lower Casamance of Senegal to the north of Guinea-Bissau. People who traveled from Guinea-Bissau as a Portuguese-based country to the Casamance of southern Senegal led to the development as an LWC. It is used in churches (interpretation and singing) and in the market, business and radio. Alternate Names: Casamançais, Créole afro-portugais de Casamance, Créole casamançais, Kriulo, Kriyol, Portuguese Creole. Dialects: Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based. Comments: Non-indigenous. Senegal variety is different from Guinea-Bissau, with some Pidgin French vocabulary. Intelligible of Guinea-Bissau Creole. Christian.

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Ejamat
[eja] Ziguinchor region: a few villages south of Oussouye, including Kahem, Efok, Youtou. 2,230 in Senegal (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ediamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat. Comments: Distinct from other Jola varieties.

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French
[fra] 47,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 3,870,000 in Senegal (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulah
[ful] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 23,657,340 Status: Comments: Includes: Adamawa Fulfulde [fub] (Cameroon), Bagirmi Fulfulde [fui] (Chad), Borgu Fulfulde [fue] (Benin), Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde [fuq] (Niger), Maasina Fulfulde [ffm] (Mali), Nigerian Fulfulde [fuv] (Nigeria), Pulaar [fuc], Pular [fuf] (Guinea), Western Niger Fulfulde [fuh] (Niger).

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Gusilay
[gsl] Ziguinchor region: Tionk Essil village, between Tendouck and Mlomp-North. 18,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gusiilaay, Gusiilay, Gusilaay, Kusiilaay, Kusilay. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay.

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Hassaniyya
[mey] Saint-Louis and Matam regions. 162,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Decree No.980 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Hasaniya, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya, Klem El Bithan. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jalunga
[yal] Kedougou region: intersection of Mali, Guinea, and Senegal borders. 10,000 in Senegal (2007 NTM), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dialonké, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonké, Jalunga xuwiina’, Jalungas, Yalunka, Yalunke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka. Comments: Muslim.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] Ziguinchor and Sedhiou regions: Casamance river area north of Senegal-Gambia border; Diouloulou-Marigot tributary west, Soungrougrou river west, Bignona area; east and southeast of Ziguinchor town. 340,000 in Senegal. 243,000 Fonyi, 96,700 Buluf. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 397,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Diola-Fogny, Dyola, Jola-Fogny, Jóola-Fóoñi, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak kati Kúfooñaak, Yola. Dialects: Buluf, Kombo, Kalounaye, Narang. Jola-Fonyi is the largest and most widely understood Jola variety. Lexical similarity: 68% with Jola-Kasa [csk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi. Comments: Distinct from Jula [dyu] (Dioula, Dyoula, Dyula) of Mali, Burkina Faso, and Côte d’Ivoire. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Jola-Kasa
[csk] Ziguinchor region: Bignona and Oussouye districts at Casamance river mouth; Hitou and Niamoun villages north of Casamance river. 45,100 in Senegal (2007), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bácuki, Casa, Diola-Kasa, Jóola-Kaasa, Jóola-Kasa. Dialects: Ayun, Esulalu (Esuulaalur, Mlomp South, Oussouye), Fluvial, Huluf, Selek, Bliss (Niomoun). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Kasa. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Karon
[krx] Ziguinchor region: north from Bliss Island, Kalisseye Inlet to Casamance river, to The Gambia border; east to Dioloulou, Kafountine area extends north to Brikama (The Gambia); Karon islands. 9,600 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. A few hundred elderly monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 15,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jola-Karone, Kaloon, Karone, Karoninka, Kouloonaay, Kulonay. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Mlomp [mlo], the most similar (Jola) language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp. Comments: Strong desire to develop the language and preserve the culture.

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Kerak
[hhr] Ziguinchor region: southwest near Guinea-Bissau border, Kabrousse village area. 15,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Her, Keerak, Keeraku. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kerak and Ejamat [eja], more recent estimates are closer to 90%. Both languages are mutually intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat.

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Kobiana
[kcj] Ziguinchor region: The Gambia border. 500 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Buy, Cobiana, Guboy, Uboi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Kuwaataay
[cwt] Ziguinchor region: Diembering, Bouyouye, Nyikine, Boukot-Diola, coastal villages south of Casamance river mouth; Dakar. 7,200 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwatay. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: 40% with most Jola languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Kwatay.

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Laalaa
[cae] Pambal area north of Thies, Mbaraglov, Dougnan; Tambacounda area. 14,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lala, Lehar, Serer. Dialects: None known. 52% intelligibility with Noon [snf]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Noon [snf], 74% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], 68% with Ndut [ndv] and Palor [fap], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin. Comments: Often identified by themselves and by the majority population as Serer, a widely used name for a cultural and linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Mandinka
[mnk] Sedhiou region: Casamance river north to The Gambia; Ziguinchor region: south of Casamance river; Kolda region: southeast border with Guinea, Oussadou area. 669,000 in Senegal (2006 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,320,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 982 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Mande, Manding, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque, Socé. Dialects: None known. Mandinka, Eastern Maninkakan [emk], and Western Maninkakan [mlq] are separate languages. Lexical similarity: 79% with Kalanke, 75% with Jahanka [jad], 70% with Xaasongaxango [kao], 59% with Western Maninkakan [mlq], 53% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk], 48% with Bambara [bam]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim.

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Mandjak
[mfv] Sedhiou region: Soukoutoto southeast to Guinea border, Casamance river, both sides; Ziguinchor region: from capitol southeast to Guinea border. 121,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 983 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Majak, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaaku, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjak, Manjaku, Ndjak. Dialects: Bok (Kabok, Sara, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam, Ubok), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund (Ulund), Yu (Pecixe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] Tambacounda and Kedougou regions: north of Gambia river; Kolda region: near easternmost point of The Gambia. 1,300,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,733,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinké, Maninga, Maninka-Western, Western Malinke. Dialects: Jahanka (Diakhanke, Diakhonké, Diakkanke, Jahanque, Jahonque, Jaxanka, Kyakanke). Lexical similarity: 59% with Mandinka [mnk]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mankanya
[knf] Sedhiou region: Casamance river area around Sedhiou city; between Casamance and Soungrougrou rivers; Ziguinchior region: south along Casamance river, east and west of Ziguinchor city; shares area with Manjak [mfv] language group. 34,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 984 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankaañ, Mankanha, Uhula. Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ménik
[tnr] Kedougou region: Gambia river headwaters and Guinea border. 2,500 (2015 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 985 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Bande, Basari du Bandemba, Bedik, Budik, Tandanke, Tenda, Tendanke. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Oniyan [bsc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Ménik is the traditional language name. Reportedly a creole with elements from Oniyan [bsc], Peul [fuc], and other languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mlomp
[mlo] Ziguinchor region: north of Casamance river, Mlomp village, on Tendouck to Tiobon road, Bignona department, surrounding villages. 6,200 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gulompaay, Mlomp North. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Karon [krx] (most similar), 42% with the next most similar Jola language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp.

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Ndut
[ndv] Thies region: between Thies town and Atlantic coast. 43,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndoute. Dialects: None known. 32% intelligibility of Palor [fap]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Palor [fap]; 68% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], Noon [snf], and Lehar [cae]; 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin. Comments: Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer, a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] Widespread. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Mixed language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Noon
[snf] Thies region: Thies town area. 32,900 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 986 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Non, None, Serer, Serer-Noon. Dialects: Padee, Cangin, Saawii. Noon is very different from Serer-Sine [srr]. 68% intelligibility of Lehar [cae]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Lehar [cae], 74% with Safen [sav], 68% with Ndut [ndv] and Palor [fap], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin. Comments: Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer, which is a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Christian, Muslim.

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Oniyan
[bsc] Upper Casamance, Edun area; border areas, Kedougou, Tambacounda. 15,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 24,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 987 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Bassari, Biyan, Onëyan, Onian, Tenda Basari, Wo. Dialects: Ane, Këd, Oxalac. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Often identified by the majority population as Bassari. Tenda is a cover term for Oniyan [bsc], Badyara [pbp], Wamey [cou], and Ménik [tnr]. High mortality rate. Women intermarry with men from Fulbe and other groups; children become part of the other group. Trading is carried on with the Fulbe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Palor
[fap] Thies region: northwest of Thies town. 12,000 (2015 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Falor, Palar, Serer, Siili, Siili-Mantine, Siili-Siili, Waro. Dialects: Kajor, Ba’ol. 55% intelligibility of Ndut [ndv], 27% of Saafi-Saafi [sav]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ndut [ndv], 74% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], 68% with Noon [snf] and Lehar [cae], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin. Comments: Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer which is a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Siili is the Palor word for Serer. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Widespread. 3,450,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 4,449,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Toucouleur (Fulbe Jeeri, Haalpulaar, Pulaar, Tokilor, Tukolor, Tukulor), Fulacunda (Fulakunda, Fulkunda). A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Pular
[fuf] Dakar; Sedhiou region: Casamance area. Seasonal work migrants from Guinea and elsewhere. 150,000 in Senegal (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Fouta Dyalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Many from Guinea settled or work seasonally in Casamance, eastern Senegal, and Dakar. Muslim.

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Saafi-Saafi
[sav] Thies region: between Nguekikh, Popenguine, and Thies; Dakar region: airport area; 60 villages: 43 are over 80% Saafi, 8 are under 50%. 200,000 (2012), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 989 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Saafi, Safen, Safi, Safi-Safi, Sereer Saafen, Serere-Saafen, Serer-Safen. Dialects: Boukhou, Sebikotane, Sindia, Hasab, Diobass. Dialects named after villages and a zone (Diobass). Lexical similarity: 74% with Noon [snf], Lehar [cae], and Palor [fap]; 68% with Ndut [ndv]; 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin. Comments: Families in Dakar may lose L1; the next generation will no longer consider itself Saafi. Often identified by themselves and the majority population as Serer, which is a widely used name for a cultural or linguistic group which includes the Serer-Sine language and the 5 Cangin languages. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Serer-Sine
[srr] Fatick, Kaolack, Thies, Kaffrine, and Diourbel regions: Sine and Saloum river valleys; Saint-Louis region: some south of Senegal river, Thile-Boubacar area. 1,380,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,410,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Seereer, Seex, Sereer, Serer, Sérère-Sine, Serer-Sin, Serrer, Sine-Saloum, Sine-Sine. Dialects: Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Sine, Dyegueme (Gyegem), Niominka. Niominka and Serere-Sine dialects are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Soninke
[snk] Tambacounda region: (Kinxenna dialect), along Senegal river south bank, Koudi area; Matam region: Kanel district; Kolda region: north of Velingara. 42 villages, Bakel, Ouaoundé, Moudéri, and Yaféra are principal towns. 281,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Sarangkolle, Saraxuli, Serahule, Soninkanxanne. Dialects: Kinxenna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke. Comments: Kolda region Soninke trace their origins back to the eastern dialect area of Mali (Kinbakka); northeastern Senegal group is part of the western Mali group (Kinxenna). Thus, significant differences exist between dialects of the 2 geographical groups in Senegal. Extensive interaction between Soninke of The Gambia and those of southern Senegal, Kolda region. Kolda region speakers are geographically isolated from those in northeastern Senegal. Muslim.

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Wamey
[cou] Kedougou region; a few in Tambacounda region; scattered along Guinea border. 21,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Total users in all countries: 26,270. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Conhague, Coniagui, Koniagui, Konyagi, Wamay, Wamei. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: All other ethnic groups consider Wamey too difficult to learn. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wolof
[wol] Widespread. 5,210,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 5,260,600. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Ouolof, Volof, Walaf, Waro-Waro, Yallof. Dialects: Baol, Cayor, Dyolof (Djolof, Jolof), Lebou (Lebu), Jander. Different from Gambian Wolof [wof]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Wolof. Comments: Muslim.

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Xasonga
[kao] Tambacounda region. 10,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Xaasonga, Xaasongaxango, Xasongo, Xasonke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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