Senegal

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Badyara
[pbp] Kolda region: 1 village west of Koulountou river; Tambacounda region: east of the river. Population: 2,100 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Badian, Badjara, Badjaranké, Bajara, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda.

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Bainouk-Gunyaamolo
[bcz] Sédhiou and Ziguinchor regions: Niamone area, Bangaga, Diamatou, Diengue, Dierena, Kanjumbay, Kassankil, and Tobor villages; Dakar; Kaolack, Kolda, and Tambacounda regions. Population: 30,000 (2013). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Guñuun Ñuñ. Dialects: Gujaaxet, Gunyamoolo. Dialects mutually intelligible. Reportedly similar to Kobiana [kcj] and Kasanga [ccj] of Guinea-Bissau. More closely related to Tenda languages of eastern Senegal than to neighboring Diola-Fogny [dyo] and Balanta [bjt]. Gunyuño [bab] in Guinea-Bissau is distinct. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun.

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Bainouk-Samik
[bcb] Casamance river south side, mainly Samik area and villages north and east, 20 km east of Ziguinchor. Population: 1,850 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun.

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Balanta-Ganja
[bjt] Sédhiou region: south of Casamance river, between Goudomp and Tanaff, and south. Population: 96,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 979 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Fjaa, Fraase. Dialects: Fganja (Ganja), Fjaalib (Blip). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja.

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Bandial
[bqj] Ziguinchor region: Bignona department, Affiniam, Badiate-Grand, Bandial, Batinier, Brin, Elubalir, Enampor, Essil, Etama, Kamobeul, and Seleky villages on a peninsula bounded by the Casamance river north, the Komobeul Bôlon river west, Ziguinchor-Oussouye road south, and Brin-Nyassia road east. The only village north of the Casamance River is Affiniam. Population: 13,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banjaal, Eegima, Eegimaa, Endungo, Jóola Banjal. Autonym: Gubanjalay. Dialects: Affiniam, Bandial, Elun (Hulon, Kujireray, Kuluunaay). Lexical similarity: 74% with Bandial and Affiniam dialects, 76% with Bandial and Elun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay.

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Bayot
[bda] Ziguinchor region: villages grouped around Nyassia village. Population: 19,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 24,610. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baiot, Baiote, Bayotte. Dialects: Essin. A dialect subgroup. Phonology and vocabulary in Senegal are considerably different from the two Bayot dialects in Guinea-Bissau. Lexical similarity: 15%–18% with other Jola varieties (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot.

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Crioulo, Upper Guinea
[pov] Ziguinchor region: Bignona; Kolda region. Population: 30,000 in Senegal, all users. L1 users: 10,000 in Senegal (Biagui and Quint 2013). L2 users: 20,000 (Biagui and Quint 2013). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as an LWC from the Lower Casamance of Senegal to the north of Guinea-Bissau. People who traveled from Guinea-Bissau as a Portuguese-based country to the Casamance of southern Senegal led to the development as an LWC. It is used in churches (interpretation and singing) and in the market, business and radio. Alternate Names: Casamançais, Créole afro-portugais de Casamance, Créole casamançais, Kriulo, Kriyol, Portuguese Creole. Dialects: Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Ejamat
[eja] Ziguinchor region: a few villages south of Oussouye, including Kahem, Efok, Youtou. Population: 2,230 in Senegal (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ediamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat.

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French
[fra] Population: 4,297,000 in Senegal, all users. L1 users: 47,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 4,250,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Fulah
[ful] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 29,803,840. Includes: Adamawa Fulfulde [fub] (Cameroon), Bagirmi Fulfulde [fui] (Chad), Borgu Fulfulde [fue] (Benin), Central-Eastern Niger Fulfulde [fuq] (Niger), Maasina Fulfulde [ffm] (Mali), Nigerian Fulfulde [fuv] (Nigeria), Pulaar [fuc], Pular [fuf] (Guinea), Western Niger Fulfulde [fuh] (Niger).

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Gusilay
[gsl] Ziguinchor region: Tionk Essil village, between Tendouck and Mlomp-North. Population: 18,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gusiilaay, Gusiilay, Gusilaay, Kusiilaay, Kusilay. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Gusilay.

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Hassaniyya
[mey] Matam and Saint-Louis regions. Population: 162,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Decree No.980 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Hasaniya, Hasanya, Hassani, Hassaniya, Klem El Bithan. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Jalunga
[yal] Kédougou region: intersection of Mali, Guinea, and Senegal borders. Population: 10,000 in Senegal (2007 NTM), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dialonké, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonké, Jalunga xuwiina’, Jalungas, Yalunka, Yalunke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] Sédhiou region: Casamance river area north of Senegal-Gambia border; Ziguinchor region: Bignona area and east and southeast of Ziguinchor town. Population: 340,000 in Senegal. 243,000 Fonyi, 96,700 Buluf. 34,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 397,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Diola, Diola-Fogny, Dyola, Jola, Jola-Fogny, Joola-Fogny, Jóola, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak kati Kúfooñaak, Yola. Autonym: Jóola-Fóoñi, kújoolaay. Dialects: Buluf, Kombo, Kalounaye, Narang. Jola-Fonyi is the largest and most widely understood Jola variety. Lexical similarity: 68% with Jola-Kasa [csk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi.

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Jola-Kasa
[csk] Ziguinchor region: Bignona and Oussouye departments at Casamance river mouth; Hitou and Niamoun villages north of Casamance river. Population: 45,100 in Senegal (2007), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bácuki, Casa, Diola-Kasa, Jóola-Kasa, kújoolowaay-kaasa. Autonym: Jóola Kaasa. Dialects: Ayun, Esulalu (Esuulaalur, Mlomp South, Oussouye), Fluvial, Huluf, Selek, Bliss (Niomoun). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Kasa.

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Karon
[krx] Ziguinchor region: Bignona department, Kafountine area and north; Kalisseye inlet to Casamance river, to Gambian border, east to Dioloulou; Karon islands. Population: 9,600 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. A few hundred elderly monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 15,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jola-Karone, Kaloon, Karone, Karoninka, Kouloonaay, Kulonay. Autonym: Kuloonaay. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Mlomp [mlo], the most similar (Jola) language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp.

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Kerak
[hhr] Ziguinchor region: Kabrousse village area southwest near Guinea-Bissau border. Population: 15,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Her, Keerak, Keeraku. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kerak and Ejamat [eja], more recent estimates are closer to 90%. Both languages are mutually intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat.

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Kobiana
[kcj] Ziguinchor region: Gambian border area. Population: 500 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Buy, Cobiana, Guboy, Uboi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun.

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Kuwaataay
[cwt] Ziguinchor region: Boukot-Diola, Bouyouye, Diembering, and Nyikine coastal villages south of Casamance river mouth; Dakar. Population: 7,200 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kwatay. Autonym: Kuwaataay. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Jola varieties. Lexical similarity: 40% with most Jola languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Kwatay.

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Laalaa
[cae] Tambacounda region; Thiès region: Tivaouane department, Pambal north of Mbaraglov, Dougnan. Population: 14,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lala, Lehar, Serer. Dialects: None known. 52% intelligibility with Noon [snf]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Noon [snf], 74% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], 68% with Ndut [ndv] and Paloor [fap], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin.

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Mandinka
[mnk] Kolda region: Oussadou area on southeast border with Guinea; Sédhiou region: Casamance river north to The Gambia; Ziguinchor region: south of Casamance river. Population: 669,000 in Senegal (2006 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,325,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 982 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Mande, Manding, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque, Socé. Autonym: Mandi’nka kango, لغة مندنكا‎ (Mandi’nka kango). Dialects: None known. Mandinka, Eastern Maninkakan [emk], and Western Maninkakan [mlq] are separate languages. Lexical similarity: 79% with Kalanke, 75% with Jahanka [jad], 70% with Xaasongaxango [kao], 59% with Western Maninkakan [mlq], 53% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk], 48% with Bambara [bam]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West.

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Mandjak
[mfv] Sédhiou region: Soukoutoto southeast to Guinea border, Casamance river, both sides; Ziguinchor region: from capitol southeast to Guinea border. Population: 121,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 983 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Majak, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaaku, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjak, Manjaku, Ndjak. Dialects: Bok (Kabok, Sara, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam, Ubok), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund (Ulund), Yu (Pecixe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel.

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Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] Kédougou and Tambacounda regions: north of Gambia river; Kolda region: near easternmost point of The Gambia. Population: 1,300,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,733,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinké, Maninga, Maninka, Maninka-Western, Maninkakan, Maninkaxan, Western Malinke. Dialects: Jahanka (Diakhanke, Diakhonké, Diakkanke, Jahanque, Jahonque, Jaxanka, Kyakanke). Lexical similarity: 59% with Mandinka [mnk]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West.

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Mankanya
[knf] Sédhiou region: Sédhiou city, Casamance river area; between Casamance and Soungrougrou rivers; Ziguinchior region: south along Casamance river, east and west of Ziguinchor city. Population: 34,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 984 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankaañ, Mankanha, Uhula. Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel.

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Ménik
[tnr] Kédougou region: Gambia river headwaters and Guinea border. Population: 2,500 (2015 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 985 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Bande, Basari du Bandemba, Bedik, Budik, Manik, Münik, Onik, Tandanke, Tenda, Tendanke. Autonym: Ménik. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Oniyan [bsc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda.

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Mlomp
[mlo] Ziguinchor region: Bignona department, Mlomp village on Tendouck to Tiobon road, surrounding villages. Population: 6,200 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gulompaay, Mlomp North. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Karon [krx] (most similar), 42% with the next most similar Jola language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Karon-Mlomp.

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Ndut
[ndv] Thiès region: between Thiès town and Atlantic coast. Population: 43,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ndoute. Autonym: Ndut. Dialects: None known. 32% intelligibility of Paloor [fap]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Paloor [fap]; 68% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], Noon [snf], and Lehar [cae]; 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin.

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N’ko
[nqo] Scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers in Senegal. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Mixed language.

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Noon
[snf] Thiès region: Thiès town area. Population: 32,900 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 986 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Non, None, Serer, Serer-Noon. Autonym: Noon. Dialects: Padee, Cangin, Saawii. Noon is very different from Serer-Sine [srr]. 68% intelligibility of Lehar [cae]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Lehar [cae], 74% with Safen [sav], 68% with Ndut [ndv] and Paloor [fap], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin.

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Oniyan
[bsc] Kédougou and Tambacounda regions: border areas. Population: 15,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 33,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 987 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Bassari, Biyan, Onian, Onëyan, Tenda Basari, Wo. Autonym: Oniyan. Dialects: Ane, Këd, Oxalac. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda.

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Paloor
[fap] Thiès region: northwest of Thiès town. Population: 12,000 (2015 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Falor, Palar, Palor, Serer, Siili, Siili-Mantine, Siili-Siili, Waro. Autonym: Paloor. Dialects: Kajor, Ba’ol. 55% intelligibility of Ndut [ndv], 27% of Saafi-Saafi [sav]. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ndut [ndv], 74% with Saafi-Saafi [sav], 68% with Noon [snf] and Lehar [cae], 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Widespread. Population: 3,450,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 4,457,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde. Autonym: Pulaar, Pël. Dialects: Toucouleur (Fulbe Jeeri, Haalpulaar, Pulaar, Tokilor, Tukolor, Tukulor), Fulacunda (Fulakunda, Fulkunda). A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western.

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Pular
[fuf] Dakar; Sédhiou region: Casamance area. Seasonal migrants from Guinea and elsewhere. Population: 150,000 in Senegal (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Fouta Dyalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central.

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Saafi-Saafi
[sav] Thiès region: between Nguekikh, Popenguine, and Thiès; Dakar region: airport area; 60 villages: 43 are over 80% Saafi, 8 are under 50%. Population: 200,000 (2012), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Decree No. 989 of 21 October). Alternate Names: Saafen, Saafi, Safen, Safi, Safi-Safi, Sereer Saafen, Serer-Safen, Serere-Saafen. Autonym: Saafi-Saafi. Dialects: Boukhou, Sebikotane, Sindia, Hasab, Diobass. Dialects named after villages and a zone (Diobass). Lexical similarity: 74% with Noon [snf], Lehar [cae], and Paloor [fap]; 68% with Ndut [ndv]; 22% with Serer-Sine [srr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Cangin.

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Serer-Sine
[srr] Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, and Thiès regions: Saloum and Sine river valleys; Saint-Louis region: some south of Senegal river, Thile-Boubacar area. Population: 1,380,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,410,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Seex, Sereer, Serer, Serer-Sin, Serrer, Sine-Saloum, Sine-Sine, Sérère-Sine. Autonym: Seereer. Dialects: Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Sine, Dyegueme (Gyegem), Niominka. Niominka and Serere-Sine dialects are mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Serer.

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Soninke
[snk] Kolda region: north of Velingara; Matam region: Kanel district; Tambacounda region: Koudi area along Senegal river south bank (Kinxenna dialect). 42 villages, Bakel, Moudéri, Ouaoundé, and Yaféra are principal towns. Population: 281,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Sarangkolle, Saraxuli, Serahule, Soninkanxanne. Dialects: Kinxenna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke.

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Wamey
[cou] Kédougou region; a few in Tambacounda region; scattered along Guinea border. Population: 21,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Total users in all countries: 38,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Conhague, Coniagui, Koniagui, Konyagi, Wamei. Autonym: Wamay. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda.

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Wolof
[wol] Widespread. Population: 5,210,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 5,267,290. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2001, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Ouolof, Volof, Walaf, Waro-Waro, Yallof. Autonym: Wolof. Dialects: Baol, Cayor, Dyolof (Djolof, Jolof), Lebou (Lebu), Jander. Different from Gambian Wolof [wof]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Wolof.

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Xasonga
[kao] Tambacounda region. Population: 10,000 in Senegal (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Xaasonga, Xaasongaxango, Xasongo, Xasonke. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West.

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