Suriname

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Akurio
[ako] Sipaliwini district: Trio villages Tëpu, Kwamalasamutu, and Palumeu on Tapanahoni and Sipaliwini rivers. 10 (Carlin and Arends 2002). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Akoerio, Akuliyo, Akuri, Akurijo, Akuriyo, Oyaricoulet, Triometesem, Triometesen, Wama, Wayaricuri. Dialects: None known. Related to, but not inherently intelligible with, Trió [tri]. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó. Comments: Contacted in 1969.

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Arawak
[arw] Commewijne and Para districts: villages from coast to 30 km inland, mainly on the savanna. 700 in Suriname (1980 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,050 (1980 census). Total users in all countries: 2,450. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arowak, Lokono. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.

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Aukan
[djk] Brokopondo district: Sarakreek commune; Commewijne district: Bakkie, Meerzog, and Tamanredjo communes; Marowijne district: Moengo, Patamacca, and Wanhatti communes; Para district: Carolina commune; Sipaliwini district: Tapanahony commune; Aluku dialect: French Guiana border; Paramaccan dialect: Northeast. 15,500 in Suriname. 14,400 Aukan, 33 Aluku, 1,160 Paramaccan (1980 census). 1,550 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 33,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aukaans, Businenge Tongo, Businengee Tongo, “Djoeka” (pej.), “Djuka” (pej.), Eastern Maroon Creole, Ndjuká, Ndyuka, Nenge, Nenge Tongo, Nengee Tongo, Njuká, Okanisi. Dialects: Aluku (Aloekoe, Boni), Paramaccan (Pamaka). Ndyuka, Aluku and Paramaccan are highly mutually intelligible dialects; Kwinti [kww] is slightly less intelligible with them. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka. Comments: The society was formed by escaped slaves. Subsistence and economy is Amerindian; social culture and religion are West African. Aluku has more French influence than Paramaccan does. Spelling of Ndyuka without the initial nasal is considered derogatory. Aukan is English, Aukaans is Dutch. In early 1900s an Aukaner named Afaka developed a syllabic writing system, but few learned to read it, and it was not officially endorsed. 12 clans. In the 1980s and 1990s many went to Paramaribo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Carib
[car] Coronie district: Welgelegen commune; Marowijne district: Albina and Galibi communes; Para district: Bigi Poika commune; Saramacca district: Calcutta commune; Sipaliwini district: Boven Coppename commune. 1,200 in Suriname (Carlin 2001). Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibí, Kalihna, Kali’na, Kalinya, Kara’ibs, Kari’na, Kari’ña, Karìna, Kari’na auran, Kari’nja, Kari’nya, Maraworno. Dialects: Murato (Myrato, Western Carib), Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib), Aretyry. Classification: Cariban. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic autonym: Kari’na. Glossonym: Kara’ibs in Dutch, Galibí in French, Caribe in Spanish, Carib in English.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Saramacca district: scattered. 7,010 in Suriname (2000), decreasing. Ethnic population: 12,000 (1971). Includes Yue [yue]. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kejia. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dutch
[nld] 200,000 in Suriname (1997 C. DeKleine). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Guyanese Creole English
[gyn] Nickerie district: Courantyne river mouth. 50,000 in Suriname (1986 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Creolese, Guyanese Creole. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Hindu, Muslim.

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Hindustani, Sarnami
[hns] Saramacca district: north coast. 150,000 in Suriname (1986). Ethnic population: 160,000 (2003). Total users in all countries: 165,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caribbean Hindustani. Dialects: Trinidad Bhojpuri, Sarnami Hindustani (Aili Gaili, Sarnami Hindi). Reportedly more similar to Bhojpuri [bho] than Hindi [hin]. Similar dialect to Trinidad-Tobago. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Based on Bhojpuri [bho], with influences from Awadhi [awa], and loans from Sranan [srn], Dutch [nld], and English [eng]. Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Javanese, Suriname
[jvn] Commewijne district: north coast. 60,000 in Suriname (1986). Ethnic population: 71,900 (2004 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caribbean Javanese. Dialects: None known. Significantly different from Javanese [jav] of Indonesia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Descended from plantation workers brought from Java between 1890–1939. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kwinti
[kww] Sipaliwini district: Coppename river area, upstream from Kaimanstan and Witagron. 130 (1980 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Further removed from Ndyuka [njt] than Aluku and Paramaccan. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mawayana
[mzx] Sipaliwini district. 10 in Suriname (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 60 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ndyuka-Trio Pidgin
[njt] Sipaliwini district: upper Tapanahonij river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin.

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Saramaccan
[srm] Brokopondo district: Brownsweg, Centrum, Klasskreek, and Kwakoegron, communes, small border area; Para district: Bigi Poika commune; Paramaribo district; Sipaliwini district: Boven Saramaccan and Boven Suriname communes. 23,000 in Suriname (1995 SIL). 1,000 Matawari. Total users in all countries: 26,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Matawari (Matawai, Matoewari, Matuari). Possibly Portuguese [por] based rather than English [eng] (Hancock 1988). Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] (Hancock 1988). Lexical similarity: 20% with African component. Classification: Creole, English based. Comments: A Bush Negro ethnic group with background similar to the Ndyuka. Traditional religion.

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Sikiana
[sik] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu area on Sipaliwini river. 15 in Suriname (Carlin 2001), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chikena, Sikiuyana, Sikiyana, Tshikiana. Classification: Cariban, Kashuyana.

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Sranan
[srn] Widespread. 120,000 in Suriname (1993). L2 users: 300,000 in Suriname. Total users in all countries: 426,400 (as L1: 126,400; as L2: 300,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Lingua franca of 80% of the country, including the Hindustanis, Javanese, Chinese, American Indians, and Bush Negroes. Alternate Names: Sranan Tongo, Surinaams, Suriname Creole English, Surinamese, Taki-Taki. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ndyuka [njt], but with cultural differences. Reportedly many similarities to Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Trió
[tri] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu on Sipaliwini river, Palumeu on Palumeu river, Tëpu on upper Tapanahoni river. 1,400 in Suriname (2003 ISA). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2003). Total users in all countries: 2,130. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tirió. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó. Comments: Christian.

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Waiwai
[waw] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu area, Sipaliwini river, among Trio [tri] language speakers. 10 in Suriname (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 80 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Tunayana. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai. Comments: Non-indigenous. A few came to Suriname in the 1960s and now speak Trio [tri] as L1 (Crevels 2007). Christian.

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Warao
[wba] Nickerie district: near Guyana border. Few speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Guarao, Guarauno, Warrau. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Wayana
[way] Marowijne district: upper Tapanahoni river; northwest of Trio [tri] language speakers. 500 in Suriname (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 850. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Roucouyenne, Uaiana, Upurui, Wajana. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible of Apalaí [apy]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana. Comments: Christian.

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