[ako] Sipaliwini district: Trio villages Tëpu, Kwamalasamutu, and Palumeu on Tapanahoni and Sipaliwini rivers. L1 users: 10 (Carlin and Arends 2002). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Akoerio, Akuliyo, Akuri, Akurijo, Akuriyo, Oyaricoulet, Triometesem, Triometesen, Wama, Wayaricuri. Dialects: None known. Related to, but not inherently intelligible with, Trió [tri]. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó. Comments: Contacted in 1969.
[arw] Commewijne and Para districts: villages from coast to 30 km inland, mainly on the savanna. L1 users: 2,100 (2005 J. Leclerc). Very few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 3,850. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arowak. Autonym: Arawak, Lokono. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean.
[djk] Brokopondo district: Sarakreek commune; Commewijne district: Bakkie, Meerzog, and Tamanredjo communes; Marowijne district: Moengo, Patamacca, and Wanhatti communes; Para district: Carolina commune; Sipaliwini district: Tapanahony commune; Aluku dialect: French Guiana border; Paramaccan dialect: Northeast. L1 users: 21,700 (2013). 1,550 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 39,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aukaans, Businenge Tongo, Businengee Tongo, Eastern Maroon Creole, Ndjuká, Ndyuka, Nenge, Nenge Tongo, Nengee Tongo, Njuká, Okanisi, “Djoeka” (pej.), “Djuka” (pej.). Dialects: Aluku (Aloekoe, Boni), Paramaccan (Pamaka). Ndyuka, Aluku and Paramaccan are highly mutually intelligible dialects; Kwinti [kww] is slightly less intelligible with them. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka. Comments: The society was formed by escaped slaves. Subsistence and economy is Amerindian; social culture and religion are West African. Aluku has more French influence than Paramaccan does. Spelling of Ndyuka without the initial nasal is considered derogatory. Aukan is English, Aukaans is Dutch. In early 1900s an Aukaner named Afaka developed a syllabic writing system, but few learned to read it, and it was not officially endorsed. 12 clans. In the 1980s and 1990s many went to Paramaribo. Traditional religion, Christian.
[car] Coronie district: Welgelegen commune; Marowijne district: Albina and Galibi communes; Para district: Bigi Poika commune; Saramacca district: Calcutta commune; Sipaliwini district: Boven Coppename commune. L1 users: 1,200 (Carlin 2001). Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caribe, Cariña, Galibí, Kali’na, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kara’ibs, Kari’na, Kari’na auran, Kari’nja, Kari’nya, Kari’ña, Karìna, Maraworno. Dialects: Murato (Myrato, Western Carib), Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib), Aretyry. Classification: Cariban. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic autonym: Kari’na. Glossonym: Kara’ibs in Dutch, Galibí in French, Caribe in Spanish, Carib in English.
Guyanese Creole English
[hns] Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, and Wanica districts; north coast. L1 users: 73,300 (2013). Ethnic population: 160,000 (2003). Total users in all countries: 208,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caribbean Hindustani, Sarnami Hindi. Dialects: Trinidad Bhojpuri, Sarnami Hindustani (Aili Gaili, Sarnami Hindi). Reportedly more similar to Bhojpuri [bho] than Hindi [hin]. Similar dialect to Trinidad-Tobago. Distinctive variety of Sarnami spoken in Nickerie district (Damsteegt 2002). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Based on Bhojpuri [bho], with influences from Awadhi [awa], and loans from Sranan [srn], Dutch [nld], and English [eng]. Hindu, Christian, Muslim.
[jvn] Commewijne, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, and Wanica districts; north coast. L1 users: 35,300 (2013). Ethnic population: 71,900 (2004 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caribbean Javanese. Dialects: None known. Significantly different from Javanese [jav] of Indonesia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Descended from plantation workers brought from Java between 1890–1939. Muslim, traditional religion.
[kww] Sipaliwini district: Coppename river area, upstream from Kaimanstan and Witagron. L1 users: 200 (2005 J. Leclerc), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Further removed from Ndyuka [njt] than Aluku and Paramaccan. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname, Ndyuka. Comments: Traditional religion.
[srm] Brokopondo district: Brownsweg, Centrum, Klasskreek, and Kwakoegron, communes, small border area; Para district: Bigi Poika commune; Paramaribo district; Sipaliwini district: Boven Saramaccan and Boven Suriname communes. L1 users: 14,100 (2013). Total users in all countries: 17,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Matawari (Matawai, Matoewari, Matuari). Possibly Portuguese [por] based rather than English [eng] (Hancock 1988). Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] (Hancock 1988). Lexical similarity: 20% with African component. Classification: Creole, English based. Comments: A Bush Negro ethnic group with background similar to the Ndyuka. Traditional religion.
Sign Language of the Netherlands
[srn] Widespread. 367,300 in Suriname, all users. L1 users: 67,300 (2013). L2 users: 300,000. Total users in all countries: 710,700 (as L1: 410,700; as L2: 300,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Lingua franca of 80% of the country, including the Hindustanis, Javanese, Chinese, American Indians, and Bush Negroes. Alternate Names: Surinaams, Suriname Creole English, Surinamese, “Taki-Taki” (pej.). Autonym: Sranan, Sranan Tongo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ndyuka [njt], but with cultural differences. Reportedly many similarities to Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Suriname. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.
[tri] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu on Sipaliwini river, Palumeu on Palumeu river, Tëpu on upper Tapanahoni river. L1 users: 800 (2005 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2003). Total users in all countries: 1,530. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tirió. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó. Comments: Christian.
[waw] Sipaliwini district: Kwamalasamutu area, Sipaliwini river, among Trio [tri] language speakers. L1 users: 10 (Crevels 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 80 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Tunayana. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai. Comments: Non-indigenous. A few came to Suriname in the 1960s and now speak Trio [tri] as L1 (Crevels 2007). Christian.
[way] Marowijne district: upper Tapanahoni river; northwest of Trio [tri] language speakers. L1 users: 500 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 850. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Roucouyenne, Uaiana, Upurui, Wajana. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible of Apalaí [apy]. Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana. Comments: Christian.