South Sudan

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Acholi
[ach] Eastern Equatoria State, Magwi and Torit counties, Acholi hills. 27,000 in South Sudan (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Log Acoli, Lwo, Shuli. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi.

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Aja
[aja] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Kparakpara just west of Raga. 200 (1993 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajja. Dialects: None known. Consider themselves a Kresh tribe, but their language is not intelligible to the Kresh; nearer to Banda in vocabulary and to Kresh [krs] in structure (Santandrea). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh.

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Anuak
[anu] Jonglei State, Akobo and Pochalla counties. 52,000 in South Sudan (1991 UBS). Total users in all countries: 144,710 (as L1: 142,600; as L2: 2,110). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Anyuak, Anywa, Anywaa, Anywak, Dha Anywaa, Dho Anywaa, Jambo, Nuro, Yambo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Acholi [ach] and Luo languages of Uganda than to Shilluk [shk]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Anuak.

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Arabic, Sudanese Creole
[pga] Central Equatoria State, Eastern Equatoria, Western Equatoria states: widespread, into Northern Bahr al Ghazal, Western Bahr al Ghazal and Upper Nile states. 20,000 (1987). With the rapidly changing demographic situation it is very difficult to know the number of L1 or L2 speakers and whether these numbers are increasing or decreasing. L2 users: 800,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as L1 or L2 in Juba and other towns in Equatoria. As a creole and lingua franca, this language varies enormously in form from place to place, and from speaker to speaker (depending on subject matter and interlocuter), and is changing rapidly. Alternate Names: Juba Arabic, Pidgin Arabic, Southern Sudan Arabic. Dialects: Dialectal variations in different areas due to different local vernaculars. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Creole, Arabic based. Comments: The sociolinguistic situation is changing rapidly with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese from the North, speaking Sudanese Colloquial Arabic [apd], and others from East Africa and the rest of the world, mainly speaking English [eng].

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Arabic, Sudanese Spoken
[apd] Widespread. A reasonable population estimate cannot be given at this time because of the recent increase in population of South Sudan by those arriving from Sudan. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Used as a lingua franca in northern South Sudan and now widely spoken by hundreds of thousands of South Sudanese arriving from the North following South Sudan’s independence. Alternate Names: Khartoum Arabic, Sudanese Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: The situation of this language is currently very fluid (2011).

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Avokaya
[avu] Western Equatoria State, Maridi and Mundri West counties; Central Equatoria State: Yei County, Ajugu dialect: Sudan-Congo border south of Maridi; Ojila dialect: mainly between Naam and Olo rivers and east. 40,000 in South Sudan (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 65,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abukeia, Avukaya. Dialects: Ojila (Odzila, Odziliwa), Ajugu (Adjiga, Agamoru, Ojiga). Avokaya Pur dialect near Faradje (in Democratic Republic of Congo) is reportedly more similar to Logo [log] than to the Ojila dialect of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Bai
[bdj] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Wau-Deim Zubeir road; possibly north of Tembura: 2 villages. 2,500 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri.

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Baka
[bdh] Western Equatoria State, Maridi county, south and west of Maridi; Central Equatoria State, Yei county, northwest of Yei. 25,000 in South Sudan (1993 UBS). Total users in all countries: 26,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Tara Baka. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Baka. Comments: Different from, and unrelated to, Baka [bkc] of Cameroon.

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county, 2 enclaves: Banda Linda, and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages; some in Warrap State. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dukpu, Wasa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county, southeast of Sopo town. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tohgboh). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara. Comments: Non-indigenous. View themselves as very different from Mono [mnh]. Different from Tagbu [tbm] (Tagbo, Tagba) of Democratic Republic of the Congo in Sere group. Not intelligible of other Banda languages or dialects in South Sudan.

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Banda, West Central
[bbp] Western Bahr el Ghazal Stat, Raga country, between Wau and Mboro. 3,000 in South Sudan (1982). 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Golo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda-Banda
[bpd] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county, 2 enclaves: Banda Linda, and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages; some in Warrap State. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Govoro (Govhoroh), Vidiri (Mvedere, Vadara, Vidri, Vodere), Wundu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda-Mbrès
[bqk] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county, 2 enclaves: Banda Linda, and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages; some in Warrap State. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Mbrès, Banda-Mbre. Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbele, Mbere), Moruba (Maraba, Morouba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Banda-Ndélé
[bfl] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county, 2 enclaves: Banda Linda, and Sopo areas, interspersed with other Banda languages; some in Warrap State. 5,000 speakers in South Sudan of all Banda languages (2014 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele. Dialects: Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Tangbago (Tambaggo, Tambolo, Tangago, Tombaggo), Banda-Kpaya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bari
[bfa] Central Equatoria State, Juba, Kajo Keji, and Lainya counties; both banks of the Nile, south of Terakeka on west bank, Mongalla on east bank, to Kajo Kaji escarpment. 420,000 in South Sudan (2000). L2 users: 175,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 655,000 (as L1: 480,000; as L2: 175,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Beri, Kuku. Dialects: Bari, Kuku, Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Madi, Pajulu), Ligo (Liggo). Lexical similarity: 86% with Bari and Nyepu dialects, 85% with Bari and Pöjulu, 81% with Bari and Kuku, 80% with Bari and Nyangbara, 71% with Mundari [mqu], 73% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Comments: Ethnic Bari in Democratic Republic of the Congo now speak a dialect of Logo [log] and not Bari.

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Belanda Bor
[bxb] Western Bahr-el-Ghazal State, Wau and Jur River counties, Raffili Tirga, Bazia, Ayo, Gitten, and Taban villages; Western Equatoria State, Nagero county, Komai, Nagero, and Bangazegino villages, Tambura town. 8,000 (1983). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: De Bor. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Bor. Comments: Much intermarriage with the Belanda Viri [bvi].

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Belanda Viri
[bvi] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Wau and Jur River counties, Bringi, Bagari, Dadu, Ngoku, Ngisa, Farajallah, Ngotakala, Ngongba, Natabo, Momoyi, and Raffili villages; Raga county, southeast of Banda enclaves, Kuru, 65 km east of Deim Zubeir; Western Equatoria state: Tembura and Ibba areas. 16,000 (Welmers 1971a). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Belanda, Biri, Bviri, Gamba, Gumba, Mbegumba, Mvegumba, Viri. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Bai-Viri.

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Beli
[blm] Lakes State, Wulu county, south and west of Rumbek; Central Equatoria State, Terekeka county. 65,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Behli, Beili, ’Beli, Jur Beli. Dialects: Wulu, Bahri Girinti, Sopi (Supi). Lexical similarity: 46% with Jur Modo [bex], 45% with Bongo [bot], 41% with Mo’da [gbn] and Morokodo [mgc], 39% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Boguru
[bqu] Western Equatoria State, Ibba and Yambio counties, Mariko, Baambu, Ibba, and Bagasu villages. No known L1 speakers in South Sudan. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Buguru, Kinsong, Kogoro, Koguru. Dialects: Boguru, Bukur (Bukum, Bukuru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.302). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bongo
[bot] Western Bahr el Ghazel State, Wau and Jur Rivers counties; Warrap State, Tonj South county, Aguka and Busere villages. 10,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bungu, Dor. Dialects: Bungo, Busere Bongo, Tonj Bongo. Slight dialect differences between River Busere variety, with Zande influence, and that around Tonj. Bungo dialect has minor differences. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Bongo. Comments: Different from Bongo, a dialect of Mid-Southern Banda [bjo] of Central African Republic.

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Didinga
[did] Eastern Equatoria State, Budi county, Chukudum area; Didinga hills. 60,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: ’Di’dinga, Lango, Toi, Xaroxa. Dialects: None known. Ethnic groups: Chukudum and Lowudo. Slight differences in speech between Chukudum and Lowudo, apparently mainly phonetic. Lexical similarity: 83% with Narim [loh], 71% with Murle [mur]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim. Comments: Different from Lango [lno] which is related to Otuho [lot].

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Dinka
[din] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,365,900 Status: Comments: Includes: Northeastern Dinka [dip], Northwestern Dinka [diw], South Central Dinka [dib], Southeastern Dinka [dks], Southwestern Dinka [dik].

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Dinka, Northeastern
[dip] Upper Nile State, Renk, Melut, and Baliet counties; Jonglei State, Canal/Pigi and Fangak counties; Unity State, Pariang county. 320,000 (1986 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Padang, White Nile Dinka. Dialects: Abiliang (Akoon, Bawom, Bowom, Dinka Ibrahim), Dongjol, Luac (Luaic), Ngok-Sobat (Jok, Ngork), Ageer (Abuya, Ageir, Ager, Beer, Niel, Nyel, Paloc, Paloic), Rut, Thoi. Lexical similarity: 92% with Northwestern Dinka [diw], 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 86% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Northwestern
[diw] Unity State, Abiemnhom and Pariang counties; into Abyei area. 80,000 (1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Alor, Ngok-Kordofan, Pan Aru, Ruweng. Lexical similarity: 88% with Southwestern Dinka [dik] and Southeastern Dinka [dks], 84% with South Central Dinka [dib]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, South Central
[dib] Mainly in Lakes State except for Wulu county in southwest; small border areas, Warrap and Unity states. 250000 Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Agar, Central Dinka. Dialects: Aliap (Aker, Aliab, Thany), Ciec (Ador, Ajak, Chiech, Cic, Ciem, Kwac), Gok (Cok, Gauk), Agar. Gok dialect is influenced by Southwestern Dinka [dik]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Southeastern
[dks] Jonglei State: Bor South and Twic East counties. 250,000 in South Sudan. Total users in all countries: 265,900. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Bor, Cam, Dinka Bor, Eastern Dinka. Dialects: Bor (Bor Gok), Athoc (Athoic, Atoc, Bor Athoic, Borathoi), Ghol, Nyarweng (Narreweng, Nyarueng), Tuic (Twi). A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dinka, Southwestern
[dik] Mozt of Northern Bahr el Ghazal and Warrab states; some in Lakes State, Rumbek and Cueibet counties, Jur River area. 450,000 (1982 UBS). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Rek, Western Dinka. Dialects: Rek (Raik), Abiem (Ajong Dit, Ajong Thi, Akany Kok, Akern Jok, Anei, Apuoth, Apwoth), Aguok (Agwok), Apuk, Awan, Lau, Luac, Malual (Atoktou, Duliit, Korok, Makem, Malwal, Peth), Paliet (Ajak, Baliet, Bon Shwai, Buoncwai, Bwoncwai, Kondair, Kongder, Tainbour, Thany Bur), Palioupiny (Akjuet, Akwang, Ayat, Cimel, Gomjuer, Palioping), Tuic (Adhiang, Amiol, Nyang, Thon, Twic, Twich, Twij). Luac dialect is different from Luac dialect in Northeastern Dinka [dip]. Lexical similarity: 89% with South Central Dinka [dib], 90% with Southeastern Dinka [dks]. A member of macrolanguage Dinka [din]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Dinka.

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Dongotono
[ddd] Eastern Equatoria State, Ikotos county, Ikotos payam; Lomohidang payam, Isoke and Chakari villages. 5,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: May be a separate language or dialect of Lango [lno]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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English
[eng] Almost no L1 speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Feroge
[fer] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Kapalala east of Raga. 8,000 (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Feroghe, Ferroge, Kalige, Kaligi, Kalike, Kaliki. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya.

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Fulfulde, Adamawa
[fub] Scattered, presumably in Western Bahr el Ghazal State. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Migrating groups of Ambororo cattle herders.

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Gbaya
[krs] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga and north through Katta, Kosho and Boro to Kafia Kingi, south of Radom National Park. 16,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). L2 users: 4,000 in South Sudan. Total users in all countries: 20,000 (as L1: 16,000; as L2: 4,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Kpala, Kpara, Kparla, Kredj, Kreich, Kreish, Kresh. Dialects: Naka (Kresh-Boro), Gbaya-Ndogo (Kresh-Ndogo), Gbaya-Ngbongbo (Kresh-Hofra), Gbaya-Gboko, Orlo (Woro), Gbaya-Dara, Dongo. 8 tribes and dialects. Gbaya-Ndogo is prestigious and understood by all. Naka is largest and also well understood. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Kresh. Comments: Different from Gbaya languages in the Niger-Congo family.

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Homa
[hom] Western Equatoria State. No known L1 speakers. No remaining speakers as of 1975. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.304).

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Indri
[idr] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county, Sabil Abu Zalah area. 700 Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Yanderika, Yandirika. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo.

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Jumjum
[jum] Upper Nile State, northeast Mabaan county, Sudan border area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berin, Olga, Wadega, Wadkai. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Jur Modo
[bex] Western Equatoria State, Mvolo county. 100,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jur, Modo. Dialects: Lori, Modo (Jur Modo, Modo Lali), Wira, Wetu. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Kacipo-Balesi
[koe] Jonglei State, Pibor county, Boma plateau, near Ethiopia border, Rumeat, Upper Boma and Mewun villages; East Equatoria State, northwest corner. 5,000 in South Sudan (2010 SIL). Almost all monolingual. Total users in all countries: 9,120. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baale, Kacipo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–54% with Murle [mur], 35% with Mursi [muz]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Kacipo-Balesi.

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Kakwa
[keo] Central Equatoria State, Yei county. 40,000 in South Sudan (1978). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kakwak, Kwakwak. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Keliko
[kbo] Central Equatoria State, Morobo county. 10,000 in South Sudan (1998 SIL). Total users in all countries: 22,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaliko. Dialects: Eastern Keliko, Western Keliko. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Komo
[xom] Upper Nile State, Longochuk and Maiwut counties, on Ethiopia border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aru, Koma. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Lango
[lno] Eastern Equatoria State, Ikotos county: Lorwama dialect: Losite payam, Lofos and Lotome; Logir dialect: Ikotos and Lomohidong payams, Kidepo and Ludwera; Logire (Imatong) dialect: Ikotos payam between Ikotos and Chukudum; Lokwaa dialect: Kikire and Ikotos; Ketebo dialect: Losite payam, Bira. 38,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langgo. Dialects: Madial Lorwama (Okolie), Logir, Lokwaa, Ketebo, Logire (Imotong). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. Comments: It is uncertain whether or not the dialects are separate languages. Dongotono [ddd] may be a dialect of this language or a separate language.

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Lokoya
[lky] Eastern Equatoria State, Lafon county, Longairo and Okaru areas; Central Equatorial state: Juba county, Ngangala and Liria. 12,400. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ellyria, Koyo, Loirya, Lokoiya, Lokoja, Loquia, Lowoi, Oirya, Owoi, Oxoriok. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Otuho [lot], 57% with Lopit [lpx], 56% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo. Comments: Ethnic groups: Irya and Owe.

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Lopit
[lpx] Eastern Equatoria State, Lafon county, north end of Lopit Hills. 50,000 (1995 S. Randal). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lafiit, Lafit, Lafite, Lofit, Lopid, Loppit. Dialects: Lolongo, Logonowati, Mura, Iboni. Lexical similarity: 63% with Otuho [lot]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Luwo
[lwo] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Jur river and Wau counties; Warrap State, Gogrial West, Gogrial East, and Tonj North counties. 80,000 (1983 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Dhe Luwo, Dhe Lwo, Giur, Jo Lwo, Jur Luo, Jur Luwo, Jur Lwo, Lwo. Dialects: None known. Different from Lango (Lwo) [laj] of Uganda, or Dholuo [luo] of Kenya and Luo [luo] of Tanzania, but related. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Jur.

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Mabaan
[mfz] Upper Nile State, Mabaan county. 50,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barga, Gura, Maaban, Meban, Southern Burun, Tonko, Tungan, Ulu. Dialects: Partially intelligible with some southern dialects of Burun [bdi]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Mabaan-Burun, Mabaan.

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Ma’di
[mhi] Central Equatoria State, Juba county; Eastern Equatorial State, Naguri county. 18,000 in South Sudan (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’diti. Dialects: Pandikeri, Lokai, Burulo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Mandari
[mqu] Central Equatoria State, Terakeka county, both sides of the Nile; small area, Western Equatoria State, Mvolo county. 70,000 (2014 T. Stirtz). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chir, Kir, Mondari, Mundari, Shir. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Bari [bfa]. Bari dialects: 75% with Nyanggwara, 71% with Ngyepu, 70% with Pöjulu, 66% with Kuku; 61% with Kakwa [keo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Comments: A different language and culture from Bari [bfa]. Ethnic groups: Mondari Boronga, Sere, Bör. Mundari users from the Tali area have difficulty understanding those from other areas.

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Mangayat
[myj] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Zakka, 30 km southeast of Raga on road to Sopo. 400 (1987 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bug, Buga, Mangaya, Mongaiyat. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Feroge-Mangaya.

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Mittu
[mwu] Warrab State. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli.

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Mo’da
[gbn] Lakes State, Wulu county, Wako, and Dokoo; Western Equatoria State, Mvolo and Juba counties; a few scattered among Jur Modo [bex] and Beli [blm] language areas. 600 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gbara, Gberi, Gweri, Muda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Morokodo [mgc], 58% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 49% with Bongo [bot], 38% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da.

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Morokodo
[mgc] Western Equatoria State, north Mundri West and Maridi counties, south Mvolo county. 50,000 (2011 A. Persson). 280 Biti (2011 A. Persson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)), primary education, literacy efforts. Alternate Names: Ma’di. Dialects: Biti, Ma’du, Morokodo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jur Modo [bex], 41% with Beli [blm], 45% with Bongo [bot], 43% with Baka [bdh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da. Comments: The Ma’du dialect may be extinct (1984).

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Moru
[mgd] Western Equatoria State, Mundri East and Mundri West counties. 70,000 (1982 SIL). 1,200 Agi, 2,500 Andri, 5,000 Kadiro, 9,000 Miza, 400 Wa’di. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2011, Transitional Constitution, Article 6(1)). Alternate Names: Kala Moru. Dialects: Agi, Andri, ’Bali’ba, Kadiro, Lakama’di, Miza, Wa’di. Andri and ’Bali’ba dialects are similar, Kadiro and Lakama’di are nearly identical. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Northern. Comments: Miza dialect is the written standard.

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Mündü
[muh] Two enclaves: Western Equatoria State, Maridi county south and southeast of Maridi; Central Equatoria State, northwest Yei county. 23,000 in South Sudan. Total users in all countries: 25,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mondo, Mondu, Mountou, Mundo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: close with Mayogo [mdm] and Bangba [bbe] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Eastern, Mundu.

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Murle
[mur] Jonglei State, Pibor and Bor South counties. 60,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adkibba, Agiba, Ajibba, Beir, Merule, Mourle, Murelei, Murule. Dialects: Ethnic subgroups: Lotilla, Boma, and Olam (Ngalam). Maacir may be a dialect or ethnic group. Lexical similarity: 74% with Narim [loh], 71% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Murle. Comments: Taught in churches; most church pastors literate in Murle.

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Narim
[loh] Eastern Equatoria State, north Budi county, 10 villages. 3,620 (Fukui 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boya, Lariim, Larim, Lariminit, Larimo, Longarim, Nariim. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Murle [mur], 83% with Didinga [did]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Didinga-Longarim. Comments: Larim is the form preferred by L1 speakers. Longarim is the Didinga name.

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Ndogo
[ndz] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Wau county, about 10 villages on Wau-Deim Zubeir road between Mboro and Kpango rivers; Western Equatoria State, north of Tembura among Zande [zne] language speakers. 20,000 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Co Ndogo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Sere-Bviri, Ndogo-Sere. Comments: Gbaya-Ndogo [krs] is a different language.

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Njalgulgule
[njl] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, northwest of Raga, Gossinga and Boro villages; Northern Bahr el Ghazal State, Aweil county. 900 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bege, Begi, Beko, Ngulgule, Njangulgule, Nyolge, Nyoolne. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Daju, Western Daju. Comments: May be the same as Baygo [byg].

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Nuer
[nus] Mainly Jonglei State, north of a Jonglei–Pibor Post line; Unity State, south of Bentin town; Upper Nile State, Baliet, Ulang, and Lukapin/Nasir counties; Samll border areas in Lakes, Warab, and Northern Bahr el Ghazal states. 740,000 in South Sudan (1982). 2,940 Western Jikany, 12,500 Lou, 1,100 Nyuong, 2,500 Thiang, 5,900 Bul, 2,400 Jagai, 6,700 Laak, 4,900 Leik, 1,600 Door, 17,600 Eastern Jikany (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Total users in all countries: 894,120 (as L1: 893,000; as L2: 1,120). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Naadh, Naath. Dialects: Dor (Door), Eastern Jikany (Jekaing, Jikain), Abigar, Western Jikany, Cien, Thognaath (Thok Nath), Lou (Lau), Nyuong, Thiang (Bul, Gawaar, Jagai, Laak, Leik). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer.

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Nyamusa-Molo
[nwm] Western Equatoria State, southeast Mvolo county, Lesi area; some in border areas, Central Equatorial State, Terakeka county. 1,630 (2011 R. Abraham). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nyamusa, Molo. Lexical similarity: 84% with Nyamusa and Molo dialects, 70%–75% with Jur Modo [bex] dialect cluster. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Bongo-Baka, Morokodo-Beli, Morokodo-Mo’da.

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Olu’bo
[lul] Central Equatoria State, Juba county, southeast of Juba, Lulba hills area, main town is Lokiliri; some in Eastern Equatoria State. 15,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lolubo, Luluba, Lulubo, Olubogo, Oluboti, Ondoe. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Opuuo
[lgn] Upper Nile State, Nasir and Maiwut counties, Kigile and Maiwut areas; Buldit dialect: Longachuk county, Daga river area, Paitath and Tedibi villages. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansita, Ciita, Cita, Kina, Kwina, “Langa” (pej.), Opo, Opo-Shita, Opuo, Pur, Shita, Shitta. Dialects: Buldit (Barun, Baruun), Kusgilo. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Otuho
[lot] Eastern Equatoria State, Torit, Ikotos, and Magwi counties. 135,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 2,500 Koriot, 1,000 Lomya. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Latooka, Lattuka, Latuka, Latuko, Lotuho, Lotuka, Lotuko, Lotuxo, Olotorit, Otuxo. Dialects: Koriok, Logiri (Logir), Lomya (Lomia), Lorwama, Lowudo (Lauda, Loudo), Logotok. Logiri and Lorwama may be dialects of Lango [lno], not Otuho. Lexical similarity: 64% with Lokoya [lky], 63% with Lopit [lpx], 60% with Dongotono [ddd]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Lotuxo-Maa, Lotuxo.

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Päri
[lkr] Eastern Equatoria State, Lafon county, in Jebel Lafon, Bura, Pucwaa, Pugari, Kor, Angulumeere, and Wiatuo villages. 28,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lokoro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Unclassified.

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Reel
[atu] Lakes State, south Yirol West county; Ciec Dinka [dib] language area is north near Panekar; Agar Dinka [dib] language area west near Lake Nyibor; Jur Modo [bex] south; and Ador Dinka [dib] east near Yirol. 50,000 (1998). The Kuek and Jikeyi have many monolinguals and are regarded as having the purest form of the language (SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atuot, Atwot, Thok Cieng Reel, Thok Reel. Dialects: Cieng Luai, Cieng Nhyam. Lexical similarity 77% with Nuer [nus]; 49% with Dinka languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Dinka-Nuer, Nuer. Comments: Live among and are culturally Dinka; 100 km from the Nuer, but have common grazing grounds with them. Subtribes: Apak, Luac, Jilek, Jikey (Rorkec), Akot, and Kuek. Cieng Luai dialect spoken by Luac, Jilek, and Akot; Cieng Nhyam spoken by Kuek and Jikeyi.

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Shilluk
[shk] Upper Nile State, Manyo, Fashoda, Malakal and Panyikang counties. 175,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chulla, Colo, Dhocolo, Shulla. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity 60% with Anuak [anu], Pari [lkr], and Luwo [lwo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Shilluk. Comments: Taught in churches.

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Tennet
[tex] Eastern Equatoria State, Lafon county, Arilo payam, Lovirang, Lomorotok, Longilayo, and Dorik villages. 10,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tenet. Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility with Murle [mur], Narim [loh], and Didinga [did] (in descending order). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Surmic, South, Southwest, Didinga-Murle, Tennet.

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Thuri
[thu] Northern Bahr el Ghazal State, Aweil Centre county, Bar-Mayen and Nyabulo; Lol river west of Marial-Bai; Raga county, east of Deim Zubeir on roads to Wau. 6,600 (Tucker and Bryan 1956). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dhe Thuri, Jo Thuri, Shatt, Wada Thuri. Dialects: Bodho (Dembo, Demen, Dhe Boodho, Dombo), Colo (Dhe Colo, Jo Colo, Jur Shol), Manangeer (Jur Manangeer). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Northern, Thuri. Comments: Different from Shatt [shj] in the Daju group.

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Togoyo
[tgy] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Togoy. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Sere, Indri-Togoyo.

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Toposa
[toq] Eastern Equatoria State, Kapoeta North, Kapoeta South and Kapoeta East counties; along Singaita and Lokalyen rivers. 100,000 (2000 M. Schroeder). Most are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akara, Kare, Kumi, Taposa, Topotha. Dialects: Eastern Toposa, Western Toposa, Jiye. Inherently intelligible with Nyangatom [nnj], Karamojong [kdj], and Turkana [tuv], but each has strong ethnic attitudes. Limited intelligibility of Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana.

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Uduk
[udu] Upper Nile State, Mabaan county, on eastern border with Sudan. 22,000 in Sudan and South Sudan (split between the 2 not known). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebeirka, Korara, Kumus, Kwanim Pa, Othan, Twampa. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Koman.

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Yulu
[yul] Western Bahr el Ghazal State, Raga county; Yulu dialect: Khor Buga, 5 km west of Raga; Binga dialect: Menangba, 50 km west of Raga. 3,000 in South Sudan (1987 SIL). Population is total for both Sudan and South Sudan. 2,000 Yulu, 1,000 Binga. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Yulu, Binga. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Zande
[zne] Western Equatoria State, Tambura, Nagero, Ezo, Nzara, Yambio, and Ibba counties; parts of Maridi county. 350,000 in South Sudan (1982 SIL). L2 users: 100,000 in South Sudan (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). LWC across western half of Western Equatoria, for church, market, and media domains. Regional language chosen for development by Rejaf Conference 1928. Alternate Names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi. Dialects: Dio, Makaraka (Odio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara. Comments: Zande speech is fairly uniform.

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