Syria

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Adyghe
[ady] As Suwayda’ governorate: Salkhad district; Dara’a governorate: Dar’a district. Population: 27,400 in Syria (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, West Circassian. Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Circassian.

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Arabic, Levantine Bedawi Spoken
[avl] As Suwayda’ and Dara’a governorates in southwest corner; Hauran region southwest, from the border to within 35 km of Damascus. Population: 76,600 in Syria (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Ar Raqqah and Halab governorates: Buhayrat al Asad reservoir at center; Dayr az Zawr governorate: along the Euphrates; west Hamah, central Hims, and east Idlib governorates. Population: 53,200 in Syria (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Furati, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, North Syrian Arabic. Dialects: Euphrates Cluster. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Najdi Spoken
[ars] Widespread; eastern Syrian desert. Population: 1,320,000 in Syria (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedawi, Najdi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Levantine Spoken
[apc] Al Ladhiqiyah and Tartus governorates; widespread along Mediterranean coast. Population: 14,700,000 in Syria (2016). Total users in all countries: 24,587,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Lebanese-Syrian Arabic, Levantine Arabic, North Levantine Arabic, Syro-Lebanese Arabic, il-lahje š-šāmiyye. Autonym: شامي‎ (Shami). Dialects: There is an urban standard dialect based on Damascus speech. Beiruti dialect well accepted. Aleppo dialect shows Mesopotamian (North Syrian) influence. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] Al Hasakah governorate: Damascus toward north border with Turkey. Population: 300,000 in Syria (1992). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maslawi, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Arabic. Dialects: Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini), Euphrates Group. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. Population: 15,900,000 in Syria (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 4). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Al Ladhiqiyah governorate: Kessab and Latakia; Idlib governorate: Jisr al-Shughur. Population: 64,900 in Syria (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Al Hasakah governorate: Khabur river banks, Turkey border, over 30 villages; some in Al Hasakah city. Population: 196,000 in Syria (2016). Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Assyrian, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern.

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Hamah and Hims governorates: isolated central enclaves in both. Population: 34,400 in Syria (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Azeri, Turkmen, Turkomen. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani.

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Domari
[rmt] Ar Raqqah governorate: scattered nomadic groups; north, western rural areas. Population: Ethnic population: 37,000 (2005). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barake, Dom, Gypsy, Kurbat, Middle Eastern Romani, Nawar, Tsigene. Dialects: Nawar (Nawari), Kurbati (Ghorbati), Beirut, Nablos, Barake. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom.

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Kabardian
[kbd] Dimashq governorate; Damascus, Aleppo, possibly other cities. Population: 39,000 in Syria (2005 Circassian Association). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Abkhaz-Adyghe, Circassian.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Al Hasakah governorate: Al Hasakah city northwest border; Halab governorate: north of Euphrates reservoir; Ar Raqqah governorate: area surrounding capital. Population: 1,490,000 in Syria (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish.

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Lomavren
[rmi] Al Hasakah governorate. Population: No known L1 speakers in Syria. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Armenian Bosha, Arnebuab Bisa, Bosa, Bosha. Classification: Mixed language, Armenian-Romani.

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Mlahsö
[lhs] Al Hasakah governorate: Qamishli town. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Ibrahim Hanna, died in 1998. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Suryoyo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Turoyo [tru]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern.

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Ossetic
[oss] Dara’a province. Population: 53,900 in Syria (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: Iron, Digor. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern.

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Turkmen
[tuk] Scattered. Population: 117,000 in Syria (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian.

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Turoyo
[tru] Al Hasakah governorate: far northeast corner, Tigris river near Cizre. Population: 25,000 in Syria (2016). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1994). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Surayt, Suryoyo, Syryoyo, Turani. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northwestern.

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Western Neo-Aramaic
[amw] Rif Dimashq governorate: Al-Qutayfah district, Bakh’a, Jubb ’Adin, and Ma’lula villages; Qalamoun mountains, 50 km north of Damascus. Population: 18,800 (2016). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Loghtha Siryanooytha, Maaloula, Maalula, Neo-Western Aramaic, Siryoon. Dialects: Maaloula (Ma’lu:la, Ma’lula, Maalula), Bakh’a (Bax’a), Jub-’adin (Jubb ’Adi:n). Little dialect variation. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Western.

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