Togo

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Adangbe
[adq] Plateaux region: Togo, Ghana border directly east of Ho. Population: 4,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili.

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Adele
[ade] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture. Population: 26,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 37,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedere, Bidire, Gadre, Gidere. Autonym: Gidire. Dialects: Upper Adele. Intelligibility: 85%–90% between dialects, minor differences in tone and lexicon. Ghana and Togo dialects differ. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele.

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Aguna
[aug] Plateaux region: Moyen-Mono prefecture; Maritime region: Lacs and Yoto prefectures, north and south of ‘Forêt de Togodo’, both sides of Mono river; Lomé and other towns south. Population: 14,000 in Togo (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aguna-gbe, Agunaco, Agunagbe, Agunaný, Awuna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe.

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Aja
[ajg] Maritime region: Lacs and Yoto prefectures, east of Mono river; Plateaux region: Haho, Moyen-Mono, and Ogou prefectures, Mono river area, southeast of Atakpame town. Population: 190,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajagbe. Dialects: Dogo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Tadou), Sikpi (Shikpi), Tala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja.

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Akaselem
[aks] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture east of Sokodé. Population: 59,200 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akasele, Cemba, Chamba, Kamba, Kasele, Tchamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham.

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Akebu
[keu] Plateaux region: Agou and Wawa prefectures east of Ghana, mostly Djon, Kamina, Kougnohou, Sérégbéné, and Yala. Population: 70,300 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akebou, Akébou, Ekpeebhe, Ekpeebhibhe, Gakagba, Kabu, Kebu, Kegberike, Kébou, kekpeerike. Autonym: Kǝkpǝǝ-kǝ. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: LSAF, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, Togo Sign Language. Classification: Sign language.

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Anii
[blo] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Afem, Balanka, Kouloumi, and Nandjoubi villages. Population: 15,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akpe, Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, “Ounji-Ounji” (pej.), “Winji-Winji” (pej.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele.

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Anufo
[cko] Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Mango town area. Population: 72,100 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern.

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Bago-Kusuntu
[bqg] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, mostly Bagou and Koussountou. Population: 9,900 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koussountou. Autonym: Bagó, Kusuńtú. Dialects: Bago, Kusuntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern.

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Biali
[beh] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture, along Benin border. Population: 2,580 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern.

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Bissa
[bib] Savanes region: Tone prefecture, Burkina Faso border. Population: 12,000 in Togo (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa.

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Delo
[ntr] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture; Plateaux region: Wawa prefecture, near Ghana border. Population: 7,500 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern.

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Ditammari
[tbz] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, mostly Koutougou, Nadoba, Wantema, and Warengo; Savanes region, Oti prefecture, western corner. Population: 34,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bataba, Batammarab, Soma, Some, Tamari, Tamberma, “Somba” (pej.). Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern.

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Éwé
[ewe] Widespread. Maritime and Plateaux regions: south of Atakpamé. Kpalimé, Notsé, and Tsévié are main centers. Population: 862,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ehwe, Eibe, Eve, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe. Dialects: Adan, Agu, Anglo (Anlo, Awlan), Aveno, Be, Gbin, Ho, Kpelen, Togo, Vlin, Vo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe.

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Fon
[fon] Plateaux region: north and south Atakpamé, scattered small groups. Population: 35,500 in Togo (1991). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dahomeen, Djedji, Fo, Fogbe, Fon-Gbe, Fonnu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon.

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French
[fra] Population: 3,013,000 in Togo, all users. L1 users: 3,000 in Togo (1993). L2 users: 3,010,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Fulfulde, Borgu
[fue] Kara and Savannes regions; scattered small groups. Population: 48,200 in Togo (Johnstone 1993). Often speak the language of their home base as a second language (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulani, Peul, Peulh. Dialects: Atakora Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central.

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Gbe, Maxi
[mxl] Plateaux region: north and south of Atakpamé; isolated villages south. Population: 25,300 in Togo (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahi, Maxi-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon.

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Gbe, Waci
[wci] Maritime region: Bas-Mono, Lacs, Vo, and Yoto prefectures, mostly Attitogon, Tabligbo, and Vogan. Population: 366,000 in Togo (1991). Total users in all countries: 424,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ouatchi, Wachi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe.

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Gbe, Western Xwla
[xwl] Maritime region: southeast Lacs prefecture, along Mono river. Population: 21,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe.

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Gen
[gej] Maritime region: Lacs prefecture, east of Lomé toward Benin border. Population: 201,000 in Togo (1991). Total users in all countries: 325,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ge, Gebe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo. Autonym: Gen-Gbe. Dialects: Anexo, Gliji, Agoi, Gen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina.

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Ginyanga
[ayg] Centrale region: Blitta prefecture, west and south of Blitta town. Population: 16,500 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Ethnic population: 12,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agnagan, Anyanga, Genyanga. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Gikyode [acd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture; east Tone prefecture, Mandouri subprefecture, mostly Korbongou and Mandouri. Population: 204,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma.

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Ifè
[ife] Centrale region: west Tchamba prefecture; Plateaux region: Anié, Est-Mono, and north Ogou prefectures, mostly Atakpamé, Dadja, Ese-Ana, and Kamina. Population: 127,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 170,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ana, Ana-Ifé, Anago, Baate, Ede Ife. Autonym: Ifè. Dialects: Tschetti, Djama, Dadja. Ede language subgroup member. Lexical similarity: 78% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 87%–91% with Ede Nago [xkb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri.

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Igo
[ahl] Plateaux region: far northwest Danyi prefecture, Bogo-Ahlon canton, Sassanou village area. Population: 7,600 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achlo, Ago, Ahlon, Ahlon-Bogo, Ahlõ, Ahonlan, Anlo, Bogo. Autonym: Igo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili.

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Ikposo
[kpo] Plateaux region: Amou, Ogou, and Wawa prefectures, mostly Amlamé, Amou-Oblo, and Atakpamé. Population: 155,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 162,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposo, Akposso, Kposo. Autonym: Ikposo. Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Widespread. Population: 975,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 984,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye. Autonym: Kabɩyɛ, Kabɩyɛ Tɔm. Dialects: Kewe, Kijang, Lama-Tissi, Boufale. Lexical similarity: 60% between Kabiye [kbp], Lama [las], Tem [kdh], and Lukpa [dop]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern.

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Konkomba
[xon] Kara region: Dankpen prefecture, Ghana border, Guérin-Kouka, Kidjaloum, and Nawaré; Savanes region: south Oti prefecture. Population: 84,700 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Likpakpaanl. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma.

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Kpessi
[kef] Centrale region: Nyamassila area west of Mono river; Plateaux region: Est Mono prefecture. Population: 4,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpesi, Kpetchi, Kpési, Kpétsi. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Éwé [ewe] (1998 SIL). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe.

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Kusaal
[kus] Savanes region: Cinkassé area, near Burkina Faso and Ghana borders. Population: 1,200 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kusaas. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast.

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Lama
[las] Widespread. Significant presence in Lomé. Population: 198,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 258,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso. Autonym: Lama. Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla), Defale. Reportedly similar to Tem [kdh] and Kabiye [kbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern.

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Lukpa
[dop] Centrale region: a few villages; Kara region: Binah prefecture along Benin border. Population: 17,900 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern.

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Mampruli
[maw] Savanes region: Tone prefecture, 2 villages near Ghana border. Population: 10,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast.

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Mbelime
[mql] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, Koko Tamberma canton. Population: 2,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bebelibe, Bèbèdibè, Oubièlo, Ubielo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern.

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Miyobe
[soy] Kara region: Solla prefecture. Population: 14,900 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kuyobe, Kyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma.

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Moba
[mfq] Savanes region: Tandjoaré prefecture, into Oti and Tône prefectures, mainly Bombouaka and Dapaong towns. Population: 319,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 320,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jifelm, Moa, Moab, Moare. Autonym: Muaba. Dialects: Natchaba, Ben, Lok, Yanbann. Limited intelligibility of Bimoba [bim] in Ghana, although related. Diverse dialect situation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba.

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Mòoré
[mos] Savanes region: Cinkassé prefecture, Cinkassé, Tabi, and Timbou villages north of Dapaong. Population: 33,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi. Dialects: Yanga (Jaan, Timbou, Yaan, Yam, Yan, Yana). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest.

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Nago, Northern
[xkb] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Kambolé town area, Benin border. Population: 40,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kambolé, Southwest Ede. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri.

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Nawdm
[nmz] Centrale region: Sotouboua and Tchamba prefectures; Kara region: Bassar and Doufelgou prefectures, Niamtougou area; Plateaux region: Amou, Est-Mono, Haho, and Wawa prefectures; many in Lomé. Population: 146,000 in Togo (2012 SIL). 7,300 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Losso, Losu, Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam. Autonym: Nawdm. Dialects: West Nawdm (Baga, Koka, Niamtougou), East Nawdm (Siou Canton), Central Nawdm (Bana’, Tenega). Reportedly similar to Yom [pil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm.

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Ngangam
[gng] Kara region: small area in Kéran prefecture; Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Gando-Namoni, Koumongou, Kountouri, and Mogou areas. Population: 57,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 77,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dye, Gando, Gangam, Gangum, Migangam, Mijiem, Nbangam, Ngangan. Autonym: Miganganm. Dialects: Motiem (Mogou), Koumongou. Reportedly similar to Konkomba [xon], Ntcham [bud], Moba [mfq], and Gurmanchema [gux]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma.

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Ntcham
[bud] Kara region: Bassar and eastern Dankpen prefectures, Bangeli, Bitchabe, Dimori, Kabou, and Kalanga areas. Population: 160,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 329,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncam, Tobote. Autonym: Ncham. Dialects: Ntaapum, Ceemba, Dipiitil. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham.

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Tem
[kdh] Centrale region: Sotouboua and Tchaoudjo prefectures, Bafilo, Sokode, and Sotouboua; Kara region: Assoli and Bassar prefectures; Plateaux region: north Agou prefecture near Badou. Population: 234,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 381,300. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu. Autonym: Tem. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern.

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Wudu
[wud] Plateaux region: Amou prefecture, some near Atakpame. Population: 2000 Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe.

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