Togo

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Adangbe
[adq] Plateaux region: Togo, Ghana border directly east of Ho. 4,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Different from but related to Dangme [ada]. The Adan and Agotime are separate ethnic groups who speak Adangbe.

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Adele
[ade] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture. 26,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 37,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bedere, Bidire, Gadre, Gidere, Gidire. Dialects: Upper Adele, Lower Adele. Intelligibility: 85%–90% between dialects, minor differences in tone and lexicon. Ghana and Togo dialects differ. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Comments: Different from Adere [add] of Cameroon. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Aguna
[aug] Plateaux region: southeast corner, north and south of ‘Forêt de Togodo’, Moyen-Mono, ‘des Lacs’, and Yoto prefectures, both sides of Mono river; Lome and other towns south. 14,000 in Togo (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agunaco, Agunagbe, Agunaný, Awuna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Some villages in the Aguna language area also have Ifè [ife], Fon [fon] and Aja [ajg] speakers; one reportedly had Kabiye [kbp] speakers. (2006 G. Faton).

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Aja
[ajg] Plateaux region: southeast corner, Haho, Moyen-Mono, and Ogou prefectures, Mono river area, southeast of Atakpame town; Maritime region: Lacs and Yoto prefectures, east of Mono river. 190,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adja, Ajagbe. Dialects: Dogo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Tadou), Sikpi (Shikpi), Tala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Tado and Tala speakers are mainly in Togo. Traditional religion.

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Akaselem
[aks] Centrale region: east of Sokodé, Tchamba prefecture. 59,200 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akasele, Cemba, Chamba, Kamba, Kasele, Tchamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham. Comments: Muslim.

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Akebu
[keu] Plateaux region: Akébou and Wawa prefectures east of Ghana, mostly in Kougnohou, Djon, Kamina, Sérégbéné, and Yala. 70,300 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akebou, Akébou, Ekpeebhe, Ekpeebhibhe, Gakagba, Kabu, Kébou, Kebu, Kegberike, kekpeeke, kekpeerike. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, LSAF, Togo Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Although many people say they use ASL in Togo, they generally do not understand nor sign standard ASL from the United States. However, the sign language in Togo has not been separately recognized by ISO 639-3.

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Anii
[blo] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Balanka, Kouloumi, Nandjoubi, and Afem villages. 15,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akpe, Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, “Ounji-Ounji” (pej.), “Winji-Winji” (pej.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Comments: Each village has a distinct speech variety name, and that of Balanka is hard to understand. Muslim.

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Anufo
[cko] Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Mango town area southwest. 72,100 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bago-Kusuntu
[bqg] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, mostly Koussountou and Bagou. 9,900 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bago, Koussountou. Dialects: Bago, Kusuntu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Muslim.

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Biali
[beh] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture, along Benin border. 2,580 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern.

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Bissa
[bib] Savanes region: Tone prefecture, Burkina Faso border. 12,000 in Togo (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Delo
[ntr] Centrale region: Sotouboua prefecture; Plateaux region: Wawa prefecture, near Ghana border. 7,500 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ditammari
[tbz] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, northeast of Kanté, mostly in Nadoba, Wantema, Warengo, and Koutougou; Savanes region, Oti prefecture, western corner. 34,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bataba, Batammarab, Soma, “Somba” (pej.), Some, Tamari, Tamberma. Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Éwé
[ewe] Widespread. Maritime and Plateaux regions: south of Atakpamé. Kpalimé, Notsé, and Tsévié are main centers. 862,000 in Togo (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ehwe, Eibe, Eve, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe. Dialects: Adan, Agu, Anglo (Anlo, Awlan), Aveno, Be, Gbin, Ho, Kpelen, Togo, Vlin, Vo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fon
[fon] Plateaux region: north and south Atakpamé, scattered small groups. 35,500 in Togo (1991). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dahomeen, Djedji, Fo, Fogbe, Fon-Gbe, Fonnu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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French
[fra] 3,000 in Togo (1993). L2 users: 2,640,000 in Togo (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 3). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Borgu
[fue] Savannes and Kara regions; scattered small groups. 48,200 in Togo (Johnstone 1993). Often speak the language of their home base as a second language (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulani, Peul, Peulh. Dialects: Atakora Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Gbe, Maxi
[mxl] Plateaux region: north and south of Atakpamé; isolated villages south. 25,300 in Togo (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahi, Maxi-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Waci
[wci] Maritime region: Yoto, Vo, Bas-Mono, and Lacs prefectures, mostly Vogan, Tabligbo, and Attitogon. 366,000 in Togo (1991). Total users in all countries: 402,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ouatchi, Wachi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Western Xwla
[xwl] Maritime region: southeast Lacs prefecture, along Mono river. 21,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gen
[gej] Maritime region: Lacs prefecture, east of Lomé toward Benin border. 201,000 in Togo (1991). Total users in all countries: 278,900. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ge, Gebe, Gen-Gbe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo. Dialects: Anexo, Gliji, Agoi, Gen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina.

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Ginyanga
[ayg] Centrale region: Blitta prefecture, west and south of Blitta town. 16,500 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Ethnic population: 12,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agnagan, Anyanga, Genyanga. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Gikyode [acd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Gikyode [acd] (Ghana) language materials not well understood. Traditional religion.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Savanes region: Kpendjal prefecture; east Tone prefecture, Mandouri subprefecture, mostly Korbongou and Mandouri. 204,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ifè
[ife] Northeast Plateaux region: north Ogou, Anie and Est-Mono prefectures, mostly Atakpamé, Kamina, Dadja, and Ese-Ana; Centrale region: west Tchamba prefecture. 127,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 154,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ana, Ana-Ifé, Baate. Dialects: Tschetti, Djama, Dadja. Ede language subgroup member. Lexical similarity: 78% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 87%–91% with Ede Nago [xkb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Igo
[ahl] Plateaux region: far northwest Danyi prefecture, Bogo-Ahlon canton, Sassanou village area. 7,600 (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achlo, Ago, Ahlõ, Ahlon, Ahlon-Bogo, Ahonlan, Anlo, Bogo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Official name: Ahlon. Christian, traditional religion.

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Ikposo
[kpo] Plateaux region: Amou, Wawa, and Ogou prefectures, west of Atakpamé, mostly Amlamé, Amou-Oblo, and Atakpamé. 155,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 162,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposo, Akposso, Kposo. Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Widespread. 975,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 984,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye. Dialects: Kewe, Kijang, Lama-Tissi, Boufale. Lexical similarity: 60% between Kabiye [kbp], Lama [las], Tem [kdh], and Lukpa [dop]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Konkomba
[xon] Kara region: Dankpen prefecture, north of Kabou, Ghana border, Guérin-Kouka, Nawaré, and Kidjaloum; Savanes region: south Oti prefecture. 84,700 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Likpakpaanl. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kpessi
[kef] Centrale region: Nyamassila area west of Mono river; Plateaux region: Est Mono prefecture. 4,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpesi, Kpési, Kpetchi, Kpétsi. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Éwé [ewe] (1998 SIL). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kusaal
[kus] Savanes region: Cinkassé area, near Burkina Faso and Ghana borders. 1,200 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kusaas. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast.

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Lama
[las] Widespread. Significant presence in Lomé. 198,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 258,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso. Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla), Defale. Reportedly similar to Tem [kdh] and Kabiye [kbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lukpa
[dop] Kara region: Binah prefecture along Benin border; Central region: a few villages. 17,900 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Different from Logba [lgq] of Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mampruli
[maw] Savanes region: Tone prefecture, 2 villages near Ghana border. 10,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mbelime
[mql] Kara region: Kéran prefecture, Koko Tamberma canton (Benin border). 2,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bèbèdibè, Bebelibe, Oubièlo, Ubielo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern.

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Miyobe
[soy] Kara region: Solla prefecture. 14,900 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kuyobe, Kyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma.

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Moba
[mfq] Northwest Savanes region: Tandjoare prefecture, into Tone and Oti prefectures, mainly Dapaong and Bombouaka towns. 319,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 320,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ben, Moa, Moab, Moare. Dialects: Natchaba, Ben, Lok, Yanbann. Limited intelligibility of Bimoba [bim] in Ghana, although related. Diverse dialect situation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mòoré
[mos] Savanes region: Cinkassé prefecture, Cinkassé, Timbou, and Tabi villages north of Dapaong. 33,300 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mole, Moose, More, Moshi, Mossi. Dialects: Yanga (Jaan, Timbou, Yaan, Yam, Yan, Yana). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest.

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Nago, Northern
[xkb] Centrale region: Tchamba prefecture, Kambolé town area, Benin border. 40,000 in Togo (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kambolé, Southwest Ede. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nawdm
[nmz] Kara region: Bassar and Doufelgou prefectures, Niamtougou area; Centrale and Plateaux regions: Sotouboua, Amou, Wawa, Tchamba, Est-Mono, and Haho prefectures; significant presence in Lomé. 146,000 in Togo (2012 SIL). 7,300 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Losso, Losu, Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam. Dialects: West Nawdm (Baga, Koka, Niamtougou), East Nawdm (Siou Canton), Central Nawdm (Bana’, Tenega). Reportedly similar to Yom [pil]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm. Comments: Exonym: Losso. L1 speakers may use this term with outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ngangam
[gng] Savanes region: Oti prefecture, Gando-Namoni, Mogou, Koumongou, and Kountouri areas; Kara region: Keran prefecture, small area. 57,400 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 77,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dye, Gangam, Gangum, Migangam, Mijiem, Nbangam, Ngangan. Dialects: Motiem (Mogou), Koumongou. Reportedly similar to Konkomba [xon], Ntcham [bud], Moba [mfq], and Gurmanchema [gux]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Anufo villages also in the area. Gando is considered the center of economic and religious life. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ntcham
[bud] Kara region: Bassar and eastern Dankpen prefectures, Kabou, Kalanga, Bitchabe, Dimori, and Bangeli areas. 160,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 329,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncam, Ncham, Tobote. Dialects: Ntaapum, Ceemba, Dipiitil. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tem
[kdh] Centrale region: Tchaoudjo and Sotouboua prefectures, Bafilo, Sokode, and Sotouboua; Plateaux region: north Agou prefecture near Badou; Kara region: Bassar and Assoli prefectures. 234,000 in Togo (Gblem-Poidi and Kantchoa 2012). Total users in all countries: 381,300. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Wudu
[wud] Plateaux region: Amou prefecture, some near Atakpame. 2000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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