Thailand

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Aheu
[thm] Sakon Nakhon province: Song Dao district, Thavung, 3 villages. 450 in Thailand (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Phon Soung, So, Sotawueng, Thavung. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung. Comments: Glossonym: So in Thailand.

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Akeu
[aeu] Chiang Rai province: Mae Suai and Wiang Pa Pao districts. 400 in Thailand (2006 E. Johnson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aki, Akui. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Akha
[ahk] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, and Mae Hong Son provinces. 250 villages. 56,600 in Thailand (Bradley 2007a). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ban Khor Sign Language
[bfk] Lampang province: Ban Khor village. 16 (Nonaka 2009). L2 users: 400 (Nonaka 2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: pasa kidd. Dialects: None known. Not related to Thai Sign Language [tsq] or original sign languages of Thailand such as Chiangmai Sign Language [csd]. Other villages with high incidence of deafness are also reported in rural Thailand: Huay Hai, Plaa Pag, and Na Sai (Nonaka 2004). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Originated in the 1930s (Nonaka 2009).

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Bisu
[bzi] Chiang Rai province: Doi Chomphu and Pui Kham villages. 700 (2016 K. Person). No monolinguals (2015 K. Person). Ethnic population: 700 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lawa, Lua, Mbisu, Mibisu. Dialects: None known. Similar to Laomian [lwm] and Pyen [pyy]. Lexical similarity: 36% with Hani [hni], 32% with Lahu [lhu], 31% with Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid. Comments: The terms ‘Lawa’ and ‘Lua’ generally refer to Waic language varieties in Thailand: sometimes outsiders have classified unrelated languages such as Bisu in this category. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Blang
[blr] Chiang Rai province: Mae Sai and Mae Chan districts; some west of Bangkok. 1,200 in Thailand (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulang, Hkawa, K’ala, Kawa, Khon Doi, Kontoi, K’wa, Plang, Pula, Pulang, Sen Chun, Wa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Bru, Western
[brv] Ubon Ratchathani, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom, and Sakon Nakhon provinces. 20,000 in Thailand (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baru, B’ru, Bruu. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Eastern Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Cham, Western
[cja] Krung Thep province: Ban Khrue section of city (Bangkok), otherwise scattered. 4,000 in Thailand. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, New Cham, Tjam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham. Comments: Non-indigenous. Austro-Asiatic influences. Thought to be remnants of Cham who fought in the Thai army about 200 years ago. Muslim.

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Chiangmai Sign Language
[csd] Chiang Mai province: Scattered. 19 (Woodward and Wongchai 2015). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chiengmai Sign Language, OCMSL, Old Chiang Mai Sign Language, Old Chiangmai Sign Language, Original Chiang Mai Sign Language, Original Chiangmai Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Related to sign languages in Laos and Viet Nam (Haiphong, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City). Distinct from Thai Sign Language [tsq]. Classification: Sign language.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Chiang Mai province; Krung Thep province: Samphanthawong district; Nakhon Ratchasima and Udon Thani provinces: urban areas. 58,800 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Hakka. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Krung Thep province: dispersed through provincial towns and south in Kra peninsula. 5,880 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Ho (Cin Haw, Haw, Hui, Hui-Tze, Hwei, Panghse, Pantha, Panthe, Pathee, Western Mandarin, Yunnanese). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat provinces: main towns Chandi, Nabon, and Lamae. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Eastern Min. Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Krung Thep province; used in capital cities of Chiang Mai, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Udon Thani provinces; used in other urban areas. Southern Min constitute the majority of Thai Chinese and speak the Teochew dialect. 1,080,000 in Thailand (1984). 1,060,000 Chaochow (18%), 17,600 Fujian (less than 1%), 5,880 Hainanese (less than 1%) (1984). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Shantou (Swatow), Hainan, Teochew (Chaochow, Chaozhou, Techu, Teochow, Tiuchiu), Hokkien (Fujian, Fukien). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Scattered in Suphan Buri province: north of Bangkok. 29,400 in Thailand (1984). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chong
[cog] Chanthaburi province: Khao Khitchakut district, 4 villages; Trat province. 500 in Thailand (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chawng, Shong, Xong. Dialects: None known. Related to Somray [smu] in Cambodia. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong.

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Hmong Daw
[mww] Phetchabun, Tak, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Nan, Chiang Rai, Phitsanulok, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet, Phrae, Phayao, Uttaradit, and Lampang provinces. 32,400 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Chuan Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, “Meo Kao” (pej.), Pe Miao, Peh Miao, White Hmong, White Lum, “White Meo” (pej.), White Miao. Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Miao Lai, Striped Hmong), Petchabun Miao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Mae Hong Son, Tak, Phayao, Nan, Phrae, Loei, Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, and Phetchabun provinces. 60,000 in Thailand (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Blue Meo” (pej.), Ching Miao, Green Hmong, “Green Meo” (pej.), Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, “Meo Dam” (pej.), “Meo Lai” (pej.), Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian.

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Iu Mien
[ium] Chiang Rai, Phayao, Lampang, Kamphaeng Phet, and Nan provinces; possibly in Chiang Mai and Sukhothai provinces. 159 villages. 40,000 in Thailand (1999). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Highland Yao, Mian, Mien, Myen, Pan Yao, Yao, Yiu Mien, Youmian. Dialects: Chiangrai. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: Non-indigenous. All Yao and Mien in Thailand are Iu Mien. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jehai
[jhi] Narathiwat province. Ethnic population: 150 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Karen, Phrae Pwo
[kjt] Phrae, Lampang, and Chiang Rai provinces. 6,000 (Dawkins and Phillips 2009). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northeastern Pwo Karen, Phrae, Prae, Pwo Phrae. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Pwo Karen languages. Lexical similarity: 87% with Northern Pwo Karen [pww] of Thailand, 67%–71% with other Pwo Karen varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral.

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Karen, Pwo Northern
[pww] Chiang Mai, Lamphun, and Tak provinces; Mae Hong Son province: Mae Sarieng town, Mae Ngaw along Salween river, 15–25 villages, Hot to Mae Sarieng. 60,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Phlong. Dialects: Mae Ping, Omkoi (Hod), Mae Sarieng. Dialects mutually intelligible. Pwo Karen of Phrae [kjt], Kanchanaburi, and Hua Hin are not intelligible with these. Lexical similarity: 87% with Phrae Province Pwo Karen [kjt] of Thailand, 68%–73% with other Pwo Karen. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Karen, Pwo West-Central Thailand
[kjp] Phetchaburi, Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi, and Uthai Thani provinces; Kanchanaburi dialect is north, Ratchaburi-Phetchaburi dialect is south. 50,000 in Thailand (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Phlou, Southern Pwo Karen. Dialects: Kanchanaburi Pwo Karen, Ratchaburi Pwo Karen (Phetchaburi Pwo Karen). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral.

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Karen, S’gaw
[ksw] Tak, Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai, Kanchanaburi, and Kamphaeng Phet provinces, near Myanmar border. 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Burmese Karen, Kanyaw, Karen, Paganyaw, Pwakanyaw, S’gau, S’gaw, S’gaw Kayin, White, Yang Khao. Dialects: Panapu, Palakhi (Palachi). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kataang
[kgd] Ubon Ratchathani province: Khong Chiam district, 2 villages. 1,500 in Thailand (2014 J. Green). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kayah, Eastern
[eky] Mae Hong Son province: east of Salween river. 18,000 in Thailand (2000). 2 camps of 15,000 refugees from Myanmar. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karennyi, Kayah, Kayay, Kayeh, Red Karen, “Yang Daeng” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Central. Comments: Strong feeling that all Kayah are the same ethnic group. Upper Eastern Kayah is north of Mae Hong Son provincial capital; Lower Eastern Kayah is south. Karieng Daeng means Red Karen in Central Thai. “Yang Daeng”, Red Karen in Northern Thai, is pejorative.

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Kensiu
[kns] Yala province: Thanto district. 9 in Thailand (2015 N. Bishop). Ethnic population: 250 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Belubn, Kense, Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Maniq, Mawas, Mengo, Meni, Menik, Moni, Monik, Moniq, Mos, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar, Sakai, Tiong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western. Comments: Negrito pygmies, nomads, small bands. Traditional religion.

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Khmer, Northern
[kxm] Surin, Buriram, Chanthaburi, Sisaket, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces. 1,400,000 (2006 Mahidol University), decreasing. Very few monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khmer Lue, Thailand Khmer. Dialects: Buriram, Surin, Sisaket. Different from Central Khmer [khm]. Dialects mutually intelligible. Many local varieties. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Khmu
[kjg] Chiang Rai, Nan, and Phayao provinces. Scattered throughout Thailand. 31,400 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Kha Khmu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Kmhmu, Luu, Mou, Pouteng, Tmooy. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Khün
[kkh] Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces. 6,280 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gon Shan, Hkun, Khuen, Khun Shan, Tai Khun. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Khuen [khf], a Mon-Khmer language of Laos. Buddhist.

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Kintaq
[knq] Southern Yala province. 1 in Thailand (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kenta, Kintaq Bong, Kintk. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Negrito pygmies, nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Kuy
[kdt] Surin, Buriram, Sisaket, and Ubon Ratchathani provinces: near Cambodian and Laos borders. 400,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 452,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cuoi, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kui Souei, Kuoy, Kuuy, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi. Dialects: Chang (Suai Chang), Nheu, Kuay. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu. Comments: Kuy villages often intermingled with those of Northern Khmer [kxm], Lao [lao]. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Lahu
[lhu] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Kamphaeng Phet, Mae Hong Son, Yala provinces: 119 known villages. 32,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lohei, Muhso, Muhsur, Musser, Musso, Mussuh. Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Loheirn, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Chiang Rai, Lampang, and Chiang Mai provinces; near Pua and Nan; separate enclaves in Tak and Phayao provinces. 15,000 in Thailand (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Distinct from Kuy [kdt], which is Mon-Khmer.

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Lawa, Eastern
[lwl] Chiang Mai province: Hot district, Bo Luang and Bo Sali subdistricts, 16 villages. 7,000 (Nahhas 2011). Ethnic population: 8,000 (Nahhas 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo Luang Lawa, Lavua, “Lua” (pej.). Dialects: Bo Luang, Bo Sangae. Not intelligible of most Western Lawa dialects [lcp]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Lawa, Western
[lcp] Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son provinces. 8,000 (Nahhas 2011). Ethnic population: 8,500 (Nahhas 2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lava, Lavua, Lavüa, “Lua” (pej.), Luwa, L’wa, Mae Hong Son Lawa, Mountain Lawa, Omphai Lawa. Dialects: La-up, Omphai, Northern Western Lawa. Each village has a distinct accent. Ban Kok Luang, a village of the Northern group, has the most distinct dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Lawa. Comments: Orthography and literature based on Ban La-up dialect. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Lisu
[lis] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Mae Hong Son, Tak, Phayao, and Kamphaeng Phet provinces. 40,000 in Thailand (Bradley 2007b). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Li-Hsaw, Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Liso, Lu-Tzu, Southern Lisu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jen. Dialects: Lu Shi Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian.

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[khb] Nan and Phayao provinces; scattered in north. 83,000 in Thailand (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Pai-Yi, Shui-Pai-I, Tai Lu, Tai Lue, Thai Lu. Dialects: Yong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Lua’
[prb] Nan province: Bo Kluea district, Laos-Thailand border. 6,280 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: East Pua Pray, Pray 2. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai. Comments: Distinct from Mal [mlf] and Prai [prt]. Christian.

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Mal
[mlf] Nan province: east of Pua district and Chiang Kam, valley near northern Laos border. 3,000 in Thailand (1982 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ht’in, Khatin, Ma’di, Thin, Tin, T’in. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai.

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Malay, Pattani
[mfa] North, Songkhla province: Chana region, south through Pattani, Narathiwat, Yala, Saiburi, and Tak Bai. 1,000,000 (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baso Jawi, Jawi, Jawi-Malay, oré Jawi. Dialects: None known. Different from Kedah Malay [meo] and Standard Malay [zsm]. Also different from Patani [ptn]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Preferable ethnonym: Jawi or Jawi-Malay. Ethnic autonym: oré Jawi. Muslim.

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Malay, Satun
[meo] A few villages near Satun. Isolated. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kedah Malay. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: More people in the area speak Thai than Pattani [mfa]. Most outside contacts in Thai centers of Songkhla, Phattalung, and Haad Yai; with west coast Malay states of Perlis and Kedah. Culturally Malay. Muslim.

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Mlabri
[mra] Nan province: Na Noi and Wiang Sa districts; some likely in Uttaradit province; otherwise probably scattered elsewhere in northeast area. 130 in Thailand (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 154. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Luang, Ma Ku, Mabri, Malabri, Mla, Mla Bri, Mrabri, Phi Thong, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri. Comments: Mlabri are different from the Kha Tong Luang (Phi Tong Luang, Yellow Leaf) in Laos, who are Western Viet-Muong (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Sometimes employed by the Hmong. Some nomadic. Traditional religion.

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Mok
[mqt] Lampang province: east northeast of Chiang Mai, on Wang river. 7 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amok, Hsen-Hsum, Muak, Muak Sa-aak. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic.

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Moken
[mwt] Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket (southernmost tip), and Krabi provinces: southwest coast, offshore islands, Andaman Sea and Straits of Malacca. 2,000 in Thailand (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Basing, Chau Ko’, Mawken, Salon, Salong, Selong, Selung. Dialects: Jadiak, Moklen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen. Comments: Primarily live on boats, but occasionally settle on area islands. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Moklen
[mkm] Phangnga and Phuket provinces: west coast. 1,500 (1984 D. Hogan). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chau Pok. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Moklen. Comments: Heavy Thai and Mon-Khmer influence. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Mon
[mnw] Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Pathum Thani, Ratchaburi, and Samut Sakhon provinces. 108,000 in Thailand (2000). 70,000–120,000, total population (Bauer 1984). 1983 census estimated 100,000; about 50,000 L1 speakers (Foster 1972; Smalley 1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aleng, Mun, Peguan, Takanoon, Talaing, Taleng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Monic. Comments: Many seemingly integrated with the Thai; in other areas they are separate. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mpi
[mpz] Phrae province: Ban Dong district, east of provincial capital; Nan province: Ban Sakoen district. 900 (Nahhas 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Nahhas 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kaw. Dialects: Ban Dong, Ban Sakoen. Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen Mpi are mutually intelligible (based on self-report of Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen residents). Lexical similarity: 86% between Ban Dong and Ban Sakoen dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Kaw is used in Ban Sakoen. Possibly some in China who refer to their language as Pu Kaw. Mpi is spoken in 2 villages. Buddhist.

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Nyahkur
[cbn] Bueng Kan, Chaiyaphum, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Phetchabun, Phitsanulok, and Sakon Nakhon provinces; Possibly in Khorat province. 1,500 (2006 C. Shimmin), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,000 (Thongkum 1984). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chao Dong, “Chaobon” (pej.), “Chaobun” (pej.), Chaodon, “Chaubun” (pej.), Lawa, Niakuol, Niakuoll, Nyah Kur, Nyakur. Dialects: Chaiyaphum users say they understand Petchabun only with difficulty, if at all. At least 91% lexical similarity among all dialects (Diffloth 1984). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Southern Monic. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Nyaw
[nyw] Sakon Nakhon, Nakhon Phanom, Udon Thani, Bueng Kan, Maha Sarakham provinces: Sa Kaeo province: isolated area on Cambodia border. 50,000 (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jo, Nyo, Nyoh, Yo. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Northeastern Thai [tts] and the Luang Prabang dialect of Lao [lao]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Maw may be an alternate name. Buddhist.

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Nyeu
[nyl] Sisaket province: Mueang Sisaket district, Phon Kho subdistrict; Phrai Bueng district, Prasat Yoe subdistrict. 200 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yeu, Yoe. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Yoe.

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Palaung, Pale
[pce] Chiang Mai province. 5,000 in Thailand (1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Di-Ang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Pale, Silver Palaung, Southern Palaung, Ta-Ang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Non-indigenous. Distinct from Shwe Palaung [pll] and Rumai Palaung [rbb].

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Pa’o
[blk] Mae Hong Son province. 740 in Thailand (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Karen, Pa Oh, Pa’0, Pa’o Karen, Pa-U, Taungtu. Dialects: Southern Pa’o. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karenic, Peripheral.

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Phu Thai
[pht] Amnat Charoen, Kalasin, Mukdahan, Nakhon Phanom, Sakon Nakhon, Udon Thani, Yasothon, and Roi Et provinces. Possibly also in China. 470,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Total users in all countries: 866,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Phuu Thai, Putai, Puthai. Dialects: Little dialect differentiation. Reportedly similar to Tai Dam [blt] and Tai Don [twh]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Phuan
[phu] Phetchabun, Phichit, Chaiyaphum, Lop Buri, Prachin Buri, Chachoengsao, Nakhon Nayok, and Sara Buri provinces; isolated area, Bueng Kan Province; 1 village south of Bangkok. 200,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Total users in all countries: 307,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Thai [nod], Tai Dam [blt], Thai Song [soa], and Lao [lao]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Strong sense of identity. Socially prominent group. Relocated to Thailand 1827–1890. The name is also used for Lao speakers in Thailand. Buddhist.

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Prai
[prt] Nan province: Bo Klua, Chalerm Prakiat, Chiang Klang, Pua and Thung Chang districts. 20,000 in Thailand (2001). Possibly 3,000 Ban Wen dialect speakers. Total users in all countries: 41,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Prai, Lua Prai, Pray, Thin. Dialects: Prai, Southern Prai, Ban Wen. The main dialect of Prai has 2 subvarieties referred to as, R and Y, which are reportedly minimally different. Ban Wen dialect shares cognates with both Mal [mlf] and Prai, but is unintelligible to Mal speakers. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai. Comments: Distinct from Mal [mlf]. Lua is a self-reported language name for many Prai and Mal [mlf]. The southern dialect is called Longhouse (Jordan-Diller and Diller 2004). About 12 villages, mostly in Bo Klua district, with a few villages in Pua district. Ban Wen dialect speakers live in 10–15 villages, primarily in Bo Klua district, with some in Chalerm Prakiat district. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Saek
[skb] Nakhon Phanom province: Mueang Nakhon Phanom district, At Samat sub-district; Na Wa district, Tha Ruea sub-district. Total L1 speakers in Laos and Thailand: 10,000 with a total ethnic population of 20,000. The majority of the speakers are in Laos (Bradley 2007a). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sek, Tai Sek. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Shan
[shn] North, Mae Hong Son, Maehongson, Myuang Haeng, Chiangrai, Chiangmai, Maesai, and Tak provinces, on northwest border. 95,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Great Thai, “Ngeo” (pej.), “Ngiao” (pej.), “Ngiaw” (pej.), “Ngio” (pej.), “Ngiow” (pej.), Sam, Sha, Tai Luang, Tai Shan, Tai Yay, Thai Yay. Dialects: Mae Hong Son. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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[sss] Kalasin, Nakhon Phanom, Nong Khai, Sakon Nakhon provinces: 53 villages. 70,000 in Thailand (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha So, Thro. Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong, So Makon. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So. Comments: Came from Laos, where the same dialect is spoken. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Loei province; Chiang Khan district, Khao Kaeo sub-district, Ban Na Pa Nat village. 700 in Thailand (2004). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Jinping Dai, Tai Noir, Thai Den. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Arrived in Thailand in 1885.

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Tai Ya
[cuu] Chiang Rai province: Mae Chan district. 400 in Thailand (Dawkins and Kirkland 2008), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Huayaodai, Ya. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Some desire to preserve Tai Ya language. Christian.

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Ten’edn
[tnz] Phatthalung, Trang, Satun, and Songkhla provinces. 350 in Thailand (2014 SIL). Total users in all countries: 365. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maniq, Mos, Tonga, Tonga-Mos. Dialects: Satun. Probably similar to Kensiu [kns]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga.

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Thai
[tha] Central, centered in Bangkok. Khorat dialect: Ratchasima. 20,200,000 in Thailand (2000). 400,000 Khorat. 4,700,000 mother-tongue Thai are ethnic Chinese, or 80% of the Chinese (1984). L2 users: 40,000,000 in Thailand (2001 A. Diller). Total users in all countries: 60,489,750 (as L1: 20,489,750; as L2: 40,000,000). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Bangkok Thai, Central Thai, Siamese, Standard Thai, Thai Klang, Thaiklang. Dialects: Khorat Thai (Korat, Thaikorat). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Different from Central Tai, which is a separate branch of the Tai language family. Buddhist.

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Thai Sign Language
[tsq] Scattered. Major regional centers and Bangkok. 51,000 profoundly, prelingually deaf people in Thailand (1997 C. Reilly). 20% of deaf children go to school to learn it. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Modern Standard Thai Sign Language, MSTSL, ThSL, TSL. Dialects: None known. Signs used at the deaf school at Tak are reportedly very different. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Buddhist.

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Thai Song
[soa] Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Sawan, Phetchaburi, and Phitsanulok provinces: possibly in Suphan Buri Province. 32,300 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chao Song, Lao Song, Lao Song Dam, Song, Tai Song Dam, Thai Soang. Dialects: Slight dialect differences. Reportedly similar to Tai Dam [blt]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Thai, Northeastern
[tts] Widespread in northeast Thailand; Kalerng subdialect: Sakon Nakhon and Nakhon Phanom. 15,000,000 (1983 SIL). At least 1,000,000 in Bangkok. Kalerng has a few thousand speakers (1990 A. Diller). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in east, northeast provinces. Alternate Names: Esarn, Isaan, Isan, Issan, Thai Isaan. Dialects: Northern Isan, Central Isan (Kalerng, Kaleung, Kaloeng), Southern Isan, Korat. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Thai, Northern
[nod] Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Kamphaeng Phet, Lampang, Lamphun, Mae Hong Son, Nan, Phayao, Phrae, Sukhothai, Tak, Uttaradit provinces. 6,000,000 in Thailand (1983 SIL). Total users in all countries: 6,029,500. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in northern provinces. Alternate Names: Kam Mu’ang, Kam Mueang, Kammüang, Kammyang, Khon, Khon Meang, Khon Myang, Khonmuang, La Nya, Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Mu’ang, Mueang, Mung, Myang, Northern Thai, Payap, Phayap, Phyap, Tai Nya, Tai Yon, Tai Yuan, Western Laotian, “Yuan” (pej.). Dialects: Nan, Bandu, Tai Wang. Nan dialect is more distinct. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Yuan is their term for Vietnamese. The name ‘Phyap’ (Phayap) is Sanskrit, north. Buddhist.

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Thai, Southern
[sou] Surat Thani, Chumphon, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Songkhla, Phatthalung, Ranong, Phangnga, Phuket, Krabi, Trang, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Pattani, Yala, and Satun provinces; Muslim Thai dialect. 4,500,000 (2006 Mahidol University). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in southeasternmost 15 provinces. Alternate Names: Dambro, Pak Tai, Pak Thai, Paktay. Dialects: Tak Bai (Tai Tak Bai), Thai Malay (Tai Islam). A group of dialects more distantly related to other Tai languages. Border dialects are quite distinct from others. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Muslim.

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Ugong
[ugo] Uthai Thani province: scattered. 150 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gong, Lawa, Ugawng, ’Ugong. Dialects: Kok Chiang, Suphanburi. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Unclassified. Comments: Distinct from Western Lawa [lcp] and Eastern Lawa [lwl] in the Palaungic branch of Austro-Asiatic.

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Urak Lawoi’
[urk] Southwest coastal islands, south of Phuket province; Krabi province: offshore islands, Phi Phi Don, Ha, Khlong Dao, Lang Sot and Thung; Satun province: Bu Tang, Ra Wi, and A Dang islands. 5,000 (2012 S. Pattemore). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaw Talay, Chawnam, Lawoi, Lawta, Orak Lawoi’. Dialects: Adang, Phuket Young Peoples, Phuket Old Peoples. Aboriginal Malays with a unique Malay language. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Scattered; probably north, northwest. 6,700 in Thailand (2008 P. Hopple). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yong
[yno] Chiang Mai province: San Kamphaeng district; Lamphun province: Pa Sang, Mae The, and Mueang Lamphun districts. 12,600 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nyong. Dialects: None known. Phonology reportedly similar to Lü [khb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Yoy
[yoy] Sakon Nakhon province: small border enclave; Nakhon Phanom province. 5,000 in Thailand (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Total users in all countries: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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