Taiwan

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Amis
[ami] Hualien and Taitung counties: valley plains and east coast. 138,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 138,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ami, Amia, Bakurut, Lam-Si-Hoan, Maran, Pagcah, Pangcah, Pangtsah, Sabari, Tanah. Dialects: Central Amis (Haian Ami, Hsiukulan Ami), Tavalong-Vataan (Kuangfu, Kwangfu), Southern Amis (Hengch’un Amis, Peinan, Taitung), Chengkung-Kwangshan, Northern Amis (Nanshi Amis). Chengkung-Kwangshan dialect is most similar to Central Amis dialect. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central. Comments: Traditionally matrilineal. Many migrating to cities and industrial areas.

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Amis, Nataoran
[ais] Hualien county: north of Fenglin. 5 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Nataoran, Natawran, Tauran. Dialects: Nataoran, Sakizaya (Sakiray, Sakiraya), Kaliyawan (Kaliyuawan), Natawran, Cikosowan, Pokpok, Ridaw. Not generally understood by other Amis. Sakizaya dialect is even more divergent from Central Amis [ami]. In recent years dialects converged. Lexical similarity: 50% with Central Amis. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central.

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Atayal
[tay] Hualien, Hsinchu, Miaoli, Nantou, Taoyuan, Yilan counties; New Taipei municipality; northeast mountains. 84,300 (CIP-EY 2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ataiyal, Attayal, Bonotsek, Shabogala, Taijyal, Taiyal, Takonan, Tangao, Tayal, Tyal, Yukan. Dialects: Sqoleq (Squliq), Ts’ole’ (Ci’uli’). Mayrinax is a Ci’uli’ subdialect. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic.

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Babuza
[bzg] Changhua county: west central coast and inland, Tatu and Choshui rivers and beyond. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 35. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Babusa, Favorlang, Favorlangsch, Jaborlang, Poavosa. Dialects: Poavosa, Taokas. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains. Comments: Sinicized.

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Basay
[byq] New Taipei municipality; Yilan county. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Basai, Kawanuwan. Dialects: Trobiawan, Linaw-Qauqaul. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern. Comments: Sinicized. Older people remember a few words.

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Bunun
[bnn] Chiayi, Hualien, Nantou, and Taitung counties; New Taipei municipality; East central plain. 38,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 38,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bubukun, Bunan, Bunti, Bunum, Vonun, Vunum, Vunun, Vunung. Dialects: Randai, Tondai, Shibukun (Sibucoon, Sibukaun, Sibukun, Sivukun), North Bunun (Takebakha, Taketodo, Takibakha, Takitudu), Central Bunun (Takbanuao, Takevatan, Takivatan), South Bunun (Ishbukun), Takopulan. Classification: Austronesian, Bunun.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Miaoli and Taoyuan counties: on northwest coast; Hsinchu and New Taipei municipalities; Kaohsiung and Pintung counties: on south coast. 2,370,000 in China–Taiwan (1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Hailu (Hi-Lu, Hoilluk, Hoiluk), Sanhsien (Shi Xien, Shigen, Shixien). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Settled in Taiwan for 200 years. Sanhsien closely resembles Yuetai of Mainland China. Hailu closely resembles Yong-Ting or Yuqui of Mainland China.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Mainly Taipei and 5 provincial cities. 4,320,000 in China–Taiwan (1993). L2 users: 15,000,000 in China–Taiwan. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Guoyu, Kuoyu, Mandarin, Putonghua. Dialects: Taibei Mandarin. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Tainan, Penghu Archipelago, east coast cities, western plain. 15,000,000 in China–Taiwan (1997 A. Chang). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Taiwanese (Amoy, Chaenzo, Hokkien, Sanso). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Taiwanese people are called Hoklo or Holo. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Kanakanabu
[xnb] Kaohsiung county: Sanmin township, Minchuan village area. 4 (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). A few other semi-speakers who have passive knowledge of the language (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). Ethnic population: 250 (UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kanabu, Kanakanavu. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic.

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Kavalan
[ckv] New Taipei Municipality, above Toucheng to Ilan and inland; migrants on east coast in Hualien county, Fengpin township, Hsishe village. 24 (2000 P. Li). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tsukida and Tsuchida 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cabaran, Kabalan, Kabaran, Kamalan, Kavanan, Kavarauan, Kbalan, Kibalan, Kiwaraw, Kiwarawa, Kuvalan, Kuvarawan, Kuwarawan, Kvalan, Shekwan. Dialects: Kareovan (Kareowan). Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern. Comments: Sinicized.

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Ketangalan
[kae] New Taipei Municipality, Panchiao area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ketagalan, Tangalan. Classification: Austronesian, Unclassified. Comments: Sinicized.

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Kulon-Pazeh
[uun] Miaoli and Taitung counties. 2 (Jen-kuei Li 2013). Last speaker of the Pazeh dialect died in 2010. Only known speakers use Kaxabu dialect (Jen-kuei Li 2013). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kulun, Pazeh, Pazeh-Kahabu, Pazih. Dialects: Kulon (Kulun), Pazeh (Pazih), Kaxabu. Classification: Austronesian, Northwest Formosan. Comments: Sinicized.

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Paiwan
[pwn] Pingtung and Taitung counties: mountains southeast. 66,100 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 66,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Butanglu, Kadas, Kale-Whan, Kapiangan, Katausan, Li-Li-Sha, Paiuan, Payowan, Samobi, Samohai, Saprek, Stimul, Tamari. Classification: Austronesian, Paiwan.

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Papora-Hoanya
[ppu] Taichung municipality. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bupuran, Hinapavosa, Papola, Vupuran. Dialects: Papora, Hoanya. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains. Comments: Sinicized.

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Puyuma
[pyu] Taitung county: southeast coast and inland. 8,490 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 8,490. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kadas, Panapanayan, Pelam, Pilam, Piyuma, Pyuma, Tipun. Dialects: Nanwang, Pinan. Classification: Austronesian, Puyuma.

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Rukai
[dru] Pingtung and Taitung counties: west of Taitung city, 13 or 14 villages in south central mountains. 10,500 (CIP-EY 2002). Some monolingual older adults. Ethnic population: 10,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banga, Bantalang, Bantaurang, Drukai, Drukay, Dukai, Dyokay, Kadas, Rutkai, Sarisen, Taloma, Tsalisen, Tsarisen. Dialects: Budai, Labuan, Tanan, Maga, Tona, Mantauran. Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent. Classification: Austronesian, Rukai. Comments: Some linguists classify it as Paiwanic. Paiwanic influence.

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Saaroa
[sxr] Kaohsiung county: enclave south and southeast of Minchuan, along Laonung river in west central mountains. 10 (2012 C. Pan). Ethnic population: 300 (2000 UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hla’alua, La’alua, La’arua, Lha’alua, Pachien, Paichien, Rarua, Saarua, Saroa, Shishaban, Sisyaban. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kanakanabu [xnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic.

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Saisiyat
[xsy] Miaoli county: Nanchuang Township; Hsinchu county: Wufong Township. Western mountains. 4,750 (CIP-EY 2002). Tungho: more active use. Taai: a few speakers; nearly assimilated into Atayal [tay]. Ethnic population: 7,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amutoura, Bouiok, Saiset, Saisett, Saisiat, Saisiett, Saisirat, Saisyet, Saisyett, Seisirat. Dialects: Taai (North Saiset), Tungho (South Saiset). Dialect differences are mainly phonological and lexical (1978 P. Li). Classification: Austronesian, Northwest Formosan.

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Siraya
[fos] Tainan county: Hengchun to Peimen to Tapu. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baksa, Formosan, “Pepohoan” (pej.), “Pepo-Hwan” (pej.), Sideia, Sideis, Sideisch, Siraia, Siraiya. Dialects: Siraya, Makatao (Makattao, Takaraya, Tta’o), Pangsoia-Dolatok, Taivoan (Tevorang), Lamai. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Southwest. Comments: Still spoken in 1908 and some current semi-speakers. Sinicized.

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Taiwan Sign Language
[tss] Scattered. 20,000 (2004), decreasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Taiwan Ziran Shouyu. Dialects: Taipei, Tainan, Kaohsiung. 2 major dialects. Sources from which the sign language developed were indigenous sign systems before 1895, Japanese occupation and education 1895–1946, Mainland Chinese Sign Language brought by refugees in 1949 and some from Hong Kong since. Lexical similarity: 50% with Japanese Sign Language [jsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Quite different from (Mainland) Chinese Sign Language [csl]; only a few signs the same or similar. Not related to Taiwanese languages. Some signs borrowed from Chinese characters, e.g. by drawing on the palm with a finger. There is also a Signed Mandarin (Wenfa Shouyu). 1,540 special education schools in Taiwan in 2002, which includes schools for the deaf.

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Taroko
[trv] Hualien county: inland from coast; Nantou county; Yulin county: small area in Nan’ao township. Central mountains. 20,000 (2008 R. Covell). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bu-Hwan, Che-Hwan, Daiya-Ataiyal, Hogo, Iboho, Paran, Saediq, Sazek, Sedek, Sedeq, Sediakk, Sedik, Sediq Taroko, Seedek, Seedeq, Seedik, Seediq, Sejiq, Shedekka, Taruku, Toda, Toroko, Truku. Dialects: Teruku (Truku), Te’uda (Tuuda), Tekedaya (Paran, Tkdaya). Dialects differ mainly in phonology and lexicon, some in grammar. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic. Comments: ‘Taroko’, person, used by the coastals; ‘Sediq’, person, used by those in the mountains.

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Thao
[ssf] Nantou county: Sun Moon Lake southeast shore, Te-hua village, and Ta-p’ing-lin, 14 km away. 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 300 (Tsukida and Tsuchida 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chui-Huan, Chuihwan, Sao, Sau, Shao, Suihwan, Vulung. Dialects: Brawbaw, Shtafari. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Thao. Comments: Cooperation with the Bunun [bnn], intermarriage with Bunun women, loanwords from Bunun.

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Tsou
[tsu] Chiayi county: Alishan (Mt. Ali) area; Kaohsiung county: northwest and central; Nantou county: south central. 2,130 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 2,130. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cou, Namakaban, Niitaka, Tibola, Tibolah, Tibolak, Tibolal, Tso, Tsoo, Tsuou, Tsu-U, Tsu-Wo, Tzo. Dialects: Duhtu, Luhtu, Tapangu, Tfuea, Iimutsu. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic. Comments: Some linguistic work done.

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Yami
[tao] Taitung county: Botel Tobago (Lanyu) island, Orchid island, southeast coast. 3,380 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 3,380. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Botel Tabago, Botel Tobago, Lanyu, Pongso no Tao, Tao, Tawu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to northern Philippines Ivatan [ivv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Bashiic, Yami. Comments: Traditional religion.

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