Taiwan

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Amis
[ami] Hualien and Taitung counties: valley plains and east coast. Population: 138,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 138,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ami, Amia, Bakurut, Lam-Si-Hoan, Maran, Pagcah, Pangcah, Pangtsah, Sabari, Tanah. Autonym: Amis. Dialects: Central Amis (Haian Ami, Hsiukulan Ami), Tavalong-Vataan (Kuangfu, Kwangfu), Southern Amis (Hengch’un Amis, Peinan, Taitung), Chengkung-Kwangshan, Northern Amis (Nanshi Amis). Chengkung-Kwangshan dialect is most similar to Central Amis dialect. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central.

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Atayal
[tay] Hualien and Taitung counties. Population: 84,300 (CIP-EY 2002). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ataiyal, Attayal, Bonotsek, Shabogala, Taijyal, Taiyal, Takonan, Tangao, Tyal, Yukan. Autonym: Tayal. Dialects: Sqoleq (Squliq), Ts’ole’ (Ci’uli’). Mayrinax is a Ci’uli’ subdialect. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic.

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Babuza
[bzg] Changhua county: west central coast and inland, Tatu and Choshui rivers and beyond. Population: No known L1 speakers. Survived into the 2000s. Ethnic population: 35. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Babusa, Favorlang, Favorlang-Babuza, Favorlangsch, Jaborlang, Poavosa, Sprache von Formosa. Dialects: Poavosa, Taokas. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains.

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Basay
[byq] New Taipei Municipality. Population: No known L1 speakers (Liu 2007). The last fluent speaker probably died by the 1910s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Basai, Basay-Trobiawan, Kawanuwan, Ketangalan, Sprache von Formosa. Dialects: Trobiawan, Linaw-Qauqaul. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern.

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Bunun
[bnn] Chiayi, Hualien, Nantou, and Taitung counties; east central plain. Population: 38,000 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 38,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bubukun, Bunan, Bunti, Bunum, Vonun, Vunum, Vunun, Vunung. Autonym: Bunun. Dialects: Randai, Tondai, Shibukun (Sibucoon, Sibukaun, Sibukun, Sivukun), North Bunun (Takebakha, Taketodo, Takibakha, Takitudu, Takituduh), Central Bunun (Takbanuao, Takbanuaz, Takevatan, Takivatan), South Bunun (Isbukun, Ishbukun), Takopulan. Classification: Austronesian, Bunun.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Hsinchu, Kaohsiung, Miaoli, Pingtung, and Taoyuan counties; New Taipei Municipality. Population: 2,580,000 in China–Taiwan (2015). Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: Hailu (Hi-Lu, Hoilluk, Hoiluk), Sanhsien (Shi Xien, Shigen, Shixien). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Major cities. Population: 19,710,000 in China–Taiwan, all users. L1 users: 4,710,000 in China–Taiwan (2015). L2 users: 15,000,000. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Mandarin. Dialects: Taibei Mandarin. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Widespread: east coast cities, western plain. Population: 15,600,000 in China–Taiwan (2015). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Bân-lâm-gú, Min Nan, Minnan, Taiwanese. Dialects: Hokkien (Amoy, Chaenzo, Sanso). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Kanakanabu
[xnb] Kaohsiung county: Sanmin township, Minchuan village area. Population: 4 (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). A few other semi-speakers who have passive knowledge of the language (2012 P. Jen-Kuei). Ethnic population: 250 (UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kanabu, Kanakanavu. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic.

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Kavalan
[ckv] Yilan county: above Toucheng to Ilan and inland; migrants on east coast in Hualien county: Fengpin township, Hsishe village. Population: 24 (2000 P. Li). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tsukida and Tsuchida 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cabaran, Kabalan, Kabaran, Kamalan, Kavanan, Kavarauan, Kbalan, Kibalan, Kiwaraw, Kiwarawa, Kuvalan, Kuvarawan, Kuwarawan, Kvalan, Shekwan. Dialects: Kareovan (Kareowan). Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Northern.

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Ketangalan
[kae] New Taipei Municipality: Panchiao area. Population: No known L1 speakers. Probably extinct by mid 20th century. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Basay, Ketagalan, Sprache von Formosa, Tangalan. Classification: Austronesian, Unclassified.

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Kulon-Pazeh
[uun] Miaoli county. Population: 2 (Jen-kuei Li 2013). Pazeh dialect is extinct. Only known speakers use Kaxabu dialect (Jen-kuei Li 2013). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kulon, Kulon-Pazih, Kulun, Pazeh, Pazeh-Kahabu, Pazehe, Pazih, Pazzehe, Sprache von Formosa. Dialects: Kulon (Kulun), Pazeh (Pazih), Kaxabu. Last speaker of the Pazeh dialect, Pan Jin-Yu, died in 2010. Classification: Austronesian, Northwest Formosan.

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Paiwan
[pwn] Pingtung and Taitung counties: mountains southeast. Population: 66,100 (CIP-EY 2002). Ethnic population: 66,100. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Butanglu, Kadas, Kale-Whan, Kapiangan, Katausan, Li-Li-Sha, Paiuan, Payowan, Samobi, Samohai, Saprek, Stimul, Tamari, Vinuculjan. Autonym: Pinayuanan. Classification: Austronesian, Paiwan.

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Papora-Hoanya
[ppu] Taichung Municipality. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker survived into the 1980s (Tsuchida 1982). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bupuran, Hinapavosa, Hoanya, Papola, Papora, Sprache von Formosa, Vupuran. Dialects: Papora, Hoanya. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Central Western Plains.

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Puyuma
[pyu] Taitung county: southeast coast and inland. Population: 1,000 (Teng 2008). Ethnic population: 10,800 (2007 Council of Indigenous People). About 6,800 still reside in the Taitung area (Teng 2008). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kadas, Panapanayan, Pelam, Pilam, Piyuma, Pyuma, Tipun. Autonym: Pinuyumayan. Dialects: Nanwang, Katipol. Classification: Austronesian, Puyuma.

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Rukai
[dru] Kaohsiung, Pingtung, and Taitung counties: west of Taitung city, 13 or 14 villages in south central mountains. Population: 10,500 (CIP-EY 2002). Some monolingual older adults. Ethnic population: 10,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banga, Bantalang, Bantaurang, Drukai, Drukay, Dukai, Dyokay, Kadas, Rutkai, Sarisen, Taloma, Tsalisen, Tsarisen. Dialects: Budai (Adiri, Kalramomodhesae, Kinulan, Kucapungan, Vedrai), Labuan (Laboan, Talamakao), Tanan (Taromak), Maga (Teldrɨka), Tona (Kongadavane), Mantauran (’oponoho). Mantauran, Tona, and Maga dialects are divergent. Classification: Austronesian, Rukai.

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Saaroa
[sxr] Kaohsiung county: enclave south and southeast of Minchuan, along Laonung river in west central mountains. Population: 10 (2012 C. Pan). Ethnic population: 300 (2000 UNESCO). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hla’alua, La’alua, La’arua, Lha’alua, Pachien, Paichien, Rarua, Saarua, Saroa, Shishaban, Sisyaban. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kanakanabu [xnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic.

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Saisiyat
[xsy] Miaoli county: Nanchuang and Shihtan townships; Hsinchu county: Wufeng township. Western mountains. Population: 4,750 (CIP-EY 2002). Tungho: more active use. Taai: a few speakers; nearly assimilated into Atayal [tay]. Ethnic population: 7,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amutoura, Bouiok, Saiset, Saisett, Saisiat, Saisiett, Saisirat, Saisyet, Saisyett, Seisirat. Dialects: Taai (North Saiset), Tungho (South Saiset). Dialect differences are mainly phonological and lexical (1978 P. Li). Classification: Austronesian, Northwest Formosan.

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Sakizaya
[szy] Hualien county. Population: 960 (2018 census). Based on nationality. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kizaya, Qilai, Sakidaya, Sakiray, Sakiraya, Sukizaya. Autonym: Sakizaya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53%–58% with Amis [ami]. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Central.

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Seediq
[trv] Hualien county: inland from coast; Nantou county; Yunlin county: small area in Nan’ao township. Central mountains. Population: 20,000 (2008 R. Covell). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bu-Hwan, Che-Hwan, Daiya-Ataiyal, Hogo, Iboho, Saediq, Sazek, Sedek, Sedeq, Sediakk, Sedik, Sediq, Seedakka, Seedek, Seedeq, Seedik, Sejiq, Shedekka, Taroko, Taruku, Toda, Toroko. Autonym: Seediq. Dialects: Teruku (Truku), Te’uda (Tuuda), Tekedaya (Paran, Tkdaya). Dialects differ mainly in phonology and lexicon, some in grammar. Classification: Austronesian, Atayalic.

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Siraya
[fos] Tainan Municipality: Hengchun to Peimen to Tapu. Population: No known L1 speakers. No fluent native speakers since 1908. Some older semi-speakers (2008 C. Huang). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Baksa, Formosan, Sideia, Sideis, Sideisch, Siraia, Siraiya, “Pepo-Hwan” (pej.), “Pepohoan” (pej.). Dialects: Siraya, Makatao (Makattao, Takaraya, Tta’o), Pangsoia-Dolatok, Lamai. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Southwest.

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Taivoan
[tvx] Population: No known L1 speakers. The last known speaker died near the end of the 1800s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Taivuan, Tevorang, Tevorangh. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Siraya [fos]. Classification: Austronesian, East Formosan, Southwest.

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Taiwan Sign Language
[tss] Scattered. Population: 20,000 (2004), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Taiwan Ziran Shouyu. Dialects: Taipei, Tainan, Kaohsiung. 2 major dialects. Sources from which the sign language developed were indigenous sign systems before 1895, Japanese occupation and education 1895–1946, Mainland Chinese Sign Language brought by refugees in 1949 and some from Hong Kong since. Lexical similarity: 50% with Japanese Sign Language [jsl]. Classification: Sign language.

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Thao
[ssf] Nantou county: Sun Moon Lake southeast shore, Te-hua village, and Ta-p’ing-lin, 14 km away. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 2017. Ethnic population: 300 (Tsukida and Tsuchida 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chui-Huan, Chuihwan, Sao, Sau, Shao, Suihwan, Vulung. Dialects: Brawbaw, Shtafari. Classification: Austronesian, Western Plains, Thao.

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Tsou
[tsu] Chiayi county: Alishan (Mt. Ali) area; Kaohsiung county: northwest and central; Nantou county: south central. Population: 4,000 (Zeitoun 2005). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cou, Namakaban, Niitaka, Tibola, Tibolah, Tibolak, Tibolal, Tso, Tsoo, Tsu-U, Tsu-Wo, Tsuou, Tzo. Dialects: Luhtu (Duhtu), Luhtu, Tapangu, Tfuya (Tfuea), Iimucu (Iimutsu). Iimucu has no remaining speakers (Wurm and Hattori 1981); Luhtu is on the verge of extinction (Zeitoun 2005). Classification: Austronesian, Tsouic.

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Yami
[tao] Taitung county: Botel Tobago (Lanyu) island, Orchid island, southeast coast. Population: 3,800 (Rau and Dong 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Botel Tabago, Botel Tobago, Lanyu, Tao, Tawu. Autonym: Pongso no Tao. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to northern Philippines Ivatan [ivv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bashiic, Yami.

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