Uganda

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Acholi
[ach] Kitgum, Amuru, Pader, Gulu, Abim, Oyam, Kotido, Kaabong, and Lira districts. 1,170,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 1,197,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Lëbacoli, Log Acoli, Lwo, Lwoo, Shuli. Dialects: Nyakwai, Dhopaluo (Chope, Chopi). Reported intelligibility with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh], but percentages unknown. Lexical similarity: with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi. Comments: Christian.

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Adhola
[adh] Tororo District: near Lake Victoria; Butaleja, Busia, and Bugiri districts. 360,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Badama, Dhopadhola, Jopadhola, Ludama. Dialects: None known. Most distinct of Western Nilotic languages in Uganda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Adhola.

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Alur
[alz] Nebbi, Zombo, Arua, Nyadri, and Yumbe districts: north of Lake Albert. 617,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. 86,700 ethnically identified as Jonam (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, Jo Alur, Lur, Luri. Dialects: Jokot, Jonam, Mambisa, Wanyoro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur. Comments: Christian.

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Amba
[rwm] Bundibugyo district: Ruwenzori mountains, Democratic Republic of the Congo border area south of Lake Albert; Beni district: Watalinga and Bawisa subcounties. 35,600 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 40,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bulebule, Hamba, Humu, Kihumu, Kuamba, Ku-Amba, Kwamba, Lubulebule, Lwamba, Ruwenzori Kibira, Rwamba. Dialects: Kyanzi (Kihyanzi), Suwa (Kusuwa). Lexical similarity: 70% with Bera [brf], 57%–59% with Kaiku [kkq], Komo [kmw], and Bhele [bhy], 25% with Nande [nnb], 34% with Talinga-Bwisi [tlj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.22). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Aringa
[luc] Yumbe district: north of Lugbara, west of Ma’di. 300,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Low Lugbara. Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Lugbara [lgg]. Lexical similarity: with Lugbara [lgg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Aringa speakers consider theirs a separate language, related to Lugbara [lgg] and Ma’di [mhi]. Muslim, Christian.

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Bari
[bfa] Koboko and Yumbe districts. 60,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 34,700 speak the Kuku dialect. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beri, Kuku. Dialects: Kuku, Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Fajulu, Pajulu), Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Mondari (Mandari, Mundari). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Chiga
[cgg] Kibaale district: extreme southwest, Kabale, Rukungiri, Kanungu, north Kisoro, and Ntungamo districts. 1,580,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bachiga, Bahororo, Ciga, Kiga, Nkore, Nkore-Kiga, Oluchiga, Orukiga, Rukiga, Runyankore-Rukiga. Dialects: RuNyaifwe-Hororo, RuSigi, RuNyangyezi, RuHimba. 72% intelligible with Nyankore [nyn]. Lexical similarity: 84%–94% with Nyankore [nyn], 77% with Nyoro [nyo], 75% with Zinza [zin], 72% with Nyambo [now], 70% with Haya [hay], 68% with Tooro [ttj], 63% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.14). Comments: Standardized form of the western varieties (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara. It is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Christian.

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English
[eng] Widespread. L2 users: 2,500,000 in Uganda (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Amendment Act, Article 6(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fumbira
[kin] Kisoro district; Kabale and Ntungamo districts. 449,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kinyarwanda, Ruanda, Rufumbira, Runyarwanda, Rwanda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.61). Comments: Akin to Kinyarwanda [kin] in Rwanda, which probably no longer exists in Uganda, or if so, is known as Fumbira.

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Ganda
[lug] Buganda province: Lake Victoria northwest shore to Lake Kyoga and Tanzania border. 4,130,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. L2 users: 1,000,000 in Uganda (Wiesenfeld 1999). Total users in all countries: 5,133,450 (as L1: 4,133,450; as L2: 1,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Luganda. Dialects: Kooki (Olukooki), Sese (Olusese), Vuma (Luvuma), Diopa (Ludiopa). Lexical similarity: 71%–86% with Soga [xog], 68% with Gwere [gwr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.15). Comments: Vuma dialect is moribund. Christian, Muslim.

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Gungu
[rub] Buliisa district: Lake Albert northeast shore; down the Rift valley and hills above. 49,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugungu, Rugungu. Dialects: None known. Reported 58% or lower inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Nyoro [nyo] is most similar. Lexical similarity: 75% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.101). Comments: Christian.

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Gwere
[gwr] Pallisa and Budaka districts; Bukedea and Mbale districts. 409,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lugwere, Olugwere. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Ganda [lug], 82% with Lamooji [xog], 79% with Lusiginyi [xog], 77% with Kenye [lke], 64% with Lutenga [xog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.17). Comments: Christian.

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Ik
[ikx] Kaabong district: Dodoth county, Kamion subcounty. 7,500 (2011 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Icetod, Icietot, Ng’ateus, Ng’ateuso, Ngulak, Teus, Teuso, Teuth. Dialects: None known. Very different from other Eastern Sudanic languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kuliak, Ik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kakwa
[keo] Koboko and Yumbe districts. 130,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 200,000 total (Onziga and Gilley 2012). Total users in all countries: 190,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kwakwak. Dialects: Dialects of Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda differ little (Nida 1972). Very different from other Eastern Nilotic languages of Uganda. Lexical similarity: close with Bari [bfa]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kenye
[lke] Buyende, Kaliro, Pallisa, Serere, and Mayuge districts: Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga basin; some in Kamuli, Kaberamaido, Kayunga, Bugiri, and Busia districts. 62,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenyi, Lukenhe, Lukenye, Lukenyi. Dialects: Lukenye-Ludebede, Lukenye-Lukooli. Kenye, Lamogi [xog], Siginyi [xog], and Gwere [gwr] are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 81% with Soga [xog], 71%–86% with Ganda [lug], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [lsm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.16). Comments: Politically distinct from Ganda [lug]. Some Kenye people claim to be a displaced people of Ganda origin.

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Konzo
[koo] Southwest, Ruwenzori mountains, Kasese, Kabarole and Bundibugyo districts; Olhughendera dialect: Bundibugyo district. 609,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bayira, Konjo, Lhukonzo, Olukonjo, Olukonzo, Rukonjo. Dialects: Sanza (Ekisanza), Rukonzo (Rukonjo), Lusongora, Olhughendera. Nande [nnb] (Kinande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Konzo [koo] (Lukonzo) in Uganda are 2 varieties of the same language. Nande [nnb] is influenced by French [fra] and Swahili [swh]; Konzo [koo] by Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo-Ndandi (D.41). Comments: Konzo (Bakonzo) in Uganda and Nande (Banande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo both feel very much one people, ethnic autonym: Bayira. They believe they originated from the Ruwenzori Mountains; the mountains belong to them and they to the mountains. This plays a very important role in their traditions and identity. Lusongora is the most important dialect. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kumam
[kdi] Kaberamaido, Amuria, and Soroti districts: Lake Kwania area; some in Kamuli, Amolatar, Lira, and Dokolo districts. 174,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akokolemu, Akum, Ikokolemu, Ikumama, Kuman, Kumum. Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible of Acholi [ach] and Lango [laj]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Acholi [ach], 81% with Lango [laj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Kuman. Comments: Ladefoged, Glick and Criper (1972) and Bender (1988 M. Bender) classify Kumam as Southern Luo; some linguists classify it in the Dinka group. Kumam oral tradition gives a Teso descent. Christian.

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Kupsapiiny
[kpz] Kapchorwa and Bukwa districts; some in Nakapiripirit district; Kenya border area. 181,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuksabin, Kupsabiny, Sabiny, Sapei, Sebei. Dialects: Mbai, Kween (Sor), Kongasis. Mutually intelligible with Sabaot [spy]. Lexically similarity: with Saboat [spy] in Kenya. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lango
[laj] Apac, Lira, Oyam, Amolatar, Dokolo, Alebtong, Otuke, Abim, Moroto, Kotido, Kamuli, and Kayunga districts: north of Lake Kyoga. 1,490,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Apac, 6 other districts north of Lake Kyogo. Alternate Names: Langi, Leb-Lango, Lwo, Lwoo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: distinct from Acholi [ach] (Lwo), Lango [lno] of Sudan (related to Lotuko), or Lango [did] (Didinga) of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi. Comments: Christian.

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Lugbara
[lgg] Arua, Koboko, Maracha, and Yumbe districts. 797,000 in Uganda (2004), increasing. 90,800 in Vurra, 171,000 in Ayivu, 146,000 in Maracha, 158,000 in Terego, 95,500 in Madi Okollo, 42,400 in Arua Municipality, 93,800 in Koboko. Total users in all countries: 1,637,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: High Lugbara, Logbara, Lubarati, Lugbarati, Western Lugbara. Dialects: Arua (Standard Lugbara), Maracha, Terego (Omugo). Lexical similarity: 93% with Maracha and Terego dialects, 87% with Arua and Terego dialects, 80% with Arua dialect and Ogoko Southern Madi [snm], 76% with Arua dialect and Okollo Southern Madi [snm] (1992 SIL). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ma’di
[mhi] Adjumani, Moyo, and Yumbe districts; some in Amuru district; west and east Nile regions, near Nimule, north Sudan border. 296,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Numbers probably include Southern Madi speakers. Total users in all countries: 314,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’aditi, Madi, Ma’di Ti. Dialects: Moyo, Adjumani (Oyuwi). Lexical similarity: 89% with Moyo and Oyuwi Ma’di dialects, 85% with Oyuwi and Ogoko Southern Ma’di [snm], 80% with Moyo and Ogoko Southern Ma’di, 78% with Moyo and Aringa [luc], 76% with Oyuwi and Aringa, 64% between Moyo and Okolli Southern Ma’di, and 59% between Oyuwi and Okollo Southern Ma’di (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Ma’di, Southern
[snm] Arua district: Madi-Okollo county; Yumbe, Maracha, and Nebbi districts. 60,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Ma’di. Dialects: Okollo, Ogoko, Rigbo. Reportedly more similar to Lugbara [lgg] than to Ma’di (Moyo) [mhi], which they do not understand. Ogoko and Rigbo dialects are more similar to Lugbara [lgg] than Okollo; intelligibility testing needed. Okollo considered most pure. Southern Ma’di dialects in Rigbo, Ogoko, and Okollo areas, should be considered Lugbara dialects (SIL 1992 Moru-Ma’di Survey Report). Lexical similarity: 85% between Ogoko dialect and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi], 83% between Okollo and Ogoko, 80% between Ogoko and Arua Lugbara, 80% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 78% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 76% between Okollo dialect and Arua Lugbara [lgg], 64% between Okollo and Moyo Ma’di, 59% between Okollo and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi] (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Masaaba
[myx] Bududa, Bukedea, and Kapchorwa, Manafwa, Mbale, and Sironko districts; Mount Elgon area. 1,120,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gisu, Kisu, Lugisu, Lumasaaba, Masaba. Dialects: Ludadiri (Dadiri), Lubuuya (Buuya, Buya), Luwalasi, Luyobo, Luteza, Lufumbo. Intelligibility of Dadiri and Buuya 83%. Central and Southern varieties of Buuya 93%. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saamia [lsm], 52% with Isukha [ida], 50% with Logooli [rag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.31). Comments: Ludadiri is the main Northern variety; Lubuuya is the main Central or Southern variety. Christian.

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Ndo
[ndp] Arua and Nebbi districts; Mahagi is center. 33,800 in Uganda (2002 census). Total users in all countries: 133,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebu, Ndu, Oke’bu. Dialects: Avari (Avere, Aviritu), Oke’bu (Kebu, Kebutu, Ndo Oke’bu), Membi. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe.

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Ndrulo
[led] Nebbi and Zombo districts: northwest of Lake Albert. 11,100 in Uganda (2002 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Lendu” (pej.). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu. Comments: Lendu speakers in Uganda call themselves Ndrukpa, and their language Ndrulo, which is quite dissimilar to other Lendu dialects. Christian.

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Ng’akarimojong
[kdj] Moroto, Napak, Kaabong, Nakapiripirit, Kotido, Kitgum, Abim, Kapchorwa, and Sironko districts. 736,000 (2002 census), increasing. 260,000 Karamojong, 147,000 Jie and 329,000 Dodoth. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karamojong, Karimojong, Karimonjong, Ng’akaramojong. Dialects: Jie (Jiye), , Matheniko, Napore, Bokora, Pian. Dialects correspond with sub-tribes of Karimojong and have very high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% between dialects, 85% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana. Comments: The people are pastoralist and seminomadic but much less so recently due to disarmament and forced settlement. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nubi
[kcn] Scattered. Arua, Bombo, Koboko, Kumi, Luwero, and Yumbe districts: generally in larger population areas. 26,100 in Uganda (2002 census), decreasing. Total users in all countries: 41,730. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kinubi, Ki-Nubi. Dialects: None known. Conflicting reports of intelligibility with Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga]. 90% of the lexicon comes from Arabic. Classification: Creole, Arabic based. Comments: Came from Sudan and originally settled near Bombo town, but now have dispersed. Muslim.

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Nyang’i
[nyp] Kaabong district: Dodoth county, Karenga subcounty along Nyang’ia mountains west side. 20 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2002 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gyangiya, Ngangea, Ngapore, Ngiangeya, Niporen, Nipori, Nuangeya, Nyangeya, Nyang’ia, Nyangiya, Nyuangia, Upale. Dialects: None known. A separate language from Ik [ikx]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kuliak, Ngangea-So. Comments: Some effort at language documentation. Traditional religion.

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Nyankore
[nyn] Bushenyi district: Ishaka municipality; Kiruhura, Rubirizi, Isingiro, Mbarara, Ntungamo, and Ibanda districts; also Kasese, Kamwenge, and Kabale districts. 2,330,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Bushenyi, Mbarara, Ntungamo districts. Alternate Names: Nkole, Nyankole, Olunyankole, Runyankole, Ulunyankole, Ulunyankore. Dialects: Hororo, Hima. Hima dialect may be a separate language similar to Tuku [ttj] and Hema [nix] in Democratic Republic of Congo. Lexical similarity: 78%–96% between Nyankore, Nyoro [nyo], and their dialects; 84%–94% with Chiga [cgg], 75%–86% with Tooro (Nyoro) [nyo], 81% with Zinza [zin], 78% with Nyambo [now], 74% with Haya [hay], 68% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.13). Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Ethnic groups: Bahima, Bairu. Christian.

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Nyole
[nuj] Butaleja, Budaka, Mbale, Tororo, Bugiri, Namutumba, and Pallisa districts. 341,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lunyole, Nyule, Nyuli. Dialects: Menya (Lumenya), Hadyo (Luhadyo), Sabi (Lusabi), Wesa (Luwesa). Lexical similarity: 70%–80% with Saamia [lsm], 82% with the Lugwe dialect of Saamia, 67% with Ganda [lug], 61% with Nyore [nyd] of Kenya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.35).

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Nyoro
[nyo] Masindi, Kiryandongo, Kibaale, Hoima, and Buliisa districts; also Kiboga, Kyankwanzi, and Kyenjojo districts east of Lake Albert. 667,000 (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kyopi, Lunyoro, Orunyoro, Runyoro. Dialects: Rutagwenda, Orunyoro (Nyoro). 73% inherent intelligibility with Gungu [rub]. Hema-Sud [nyo] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is quite different. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Tooro [ttj], 77% with Nyankore [nyn] and Chiga [cgg], 67% with Nyambo [now] and Zinza [zin], 66% with Haya [hay], 62% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.11). Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara. It is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Pökoot
[pko] Nakapiripirit district. 70,400 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pakot, Pokot, Suk. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Pokot. Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ruuli
[ruc] Central, west of Lake Kyoga area, Nakasongola (mainly), Kayunga, and Masindi districts; some in Amolatar and Luwero districts Kayunga, Masindi, and Nakasongola districts: west of Lake Kyoga area; some also in Amolatar and Luwero districts. 160,000 (2002 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 161,000 (2002 census). 140,000 Baruli, 21,000 Banyara. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Luduuli, Ruli, Ruluuli, Ruluuli-Runyala, Rurulim. Dialects: Runyala. Nakasongola (east) influenced by Ganda [lug], in Kiryandongo (west) by Nyoro [nyo]; Nyala dialect influenced by Soga (xog). Lexical similarity: 71% with Nyoro [nyo], 70% between Eastern Ruli and Ganda [lug]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.103). Comments: Christian.

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Saamia
[lsm] Busia and Bugiri districts; near Kenya border, Lake Victoria is southern boundary. 355,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. 280,000 Basaamia and 75,300 Bagwe (2002 census). Total users in all countries: 480,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bagwe, Bassamia. Dialects: Saamia (Samia), Songa, Gwe (Lugwe). Lexical similarity: 88% with Oluwanga [lwg], 80% with Olunyole [nyd], 62% with Masaba [myx] (Uganda), 59%–61% with Ganda [lug] (Uganda), 52% with Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi [ida], 51% with Gwere [gwr] (Uganda). A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.34). Comments: Part of Luyia macrolanguage. Christian, traditional religion.

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Soga
[xog] Bugiri Mayuge, Buyende, Iganga, Jinja, Kamuli, Luuka, and Namayingo districts; between lakes Victoria and Kyoga. Lulamogi dialect: Kaliro district; Lusiginyi and Lukono dialects: Namutumba district. 2,060,000 (2002 census), increasing. 185,000 Lulamogi, 169,000 Lusiki (Busoga Cultural Research Centre). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Iganga, 4 other districts. Alternate Names: Lusoga, Olusoga. Dialects: Tenga (Lutenga), Lamogi (Lamoogi, Lulamogi, Lulamoogi), Siki (Lusiginyi, Lusiki, Siginyi), Diope (Ludiope), Nholo (Lunholo), Kigulu (Lukigulu), Gweri (Lugweri), Luuka, Tembé (Lutembe), Gabula (Lugabula), Lukono. Lamogi (Lamoogi)and Siki (Siginyi) dialects are mutually intelligible of Gwere [gwr] and Kenye [lke]. Lexical similarity: Lutenga dialect; 82%–86% with Ganda [lug], 77%– 81% with Kenye [lke], 69%–78% with Lulamoogi [xog], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [luy]. Lulamoogi dialect; 89%–92% with Lusiginyi; 83%–88% with Kenye [lke], and 81%–82% with Gwere [gwr]. Lusiginyi dialect; 83%–84% with Kenye [lke], and 79%–82% with Gwere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.16). Comments: Welmers (1973) and Ladefoged (1971) list Soga [xog], Gwere [gwr], and Kenyi (Kenye) [lke] separately. Kenye and Gwere may be dialects of Soga, Gwere being the most geographically distant. Only Tenga, the major and widely held standard dialect, has development in progress. Lamoogi and Siginyi dialects are largely undescribed and still unwritten. Speakers of Lamoogi and Siginyi consider themselves different ethnic groups, though loosely part of the wider Soga Kingdom. These varieties are all very similar and largely intelligible.

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Soo
[teu] Moroto and Nakapiripirit districts; Moroto, Napak, and Kadam mountains border. 50 (2012 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: So, Tepes, Tepeth. Dialects: Moroto, Kadam, Napak (Mount Napak). Moroto and Napak dialects are reportedly more similar; Kadam is different. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kuliak, Ngangea-So.

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Swahili
[swh] 313,000 in Uganda (2015 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 33,800,000 in Uganda (2015). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Constitution Amendment Act, Article 6(2)). Alternate Names: Bajun, Kisuaheli, Kiswahili. Dialects: Shamba (Kishamba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42). Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Talinga-Bwisi
[tlj] Bundibugyo district: Bwamba county, southwest of Fort Portal, between Albert and Edward lakes; Democratic Republic of the Congo border. 68,500 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 99,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwisi, Bwissi, Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Lubwissi, Mawissi, Olubwisi. Dialects: None known. 68% inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Tooro [ttj], 72% with Nyoro [nyo], 40% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.102). Comments: Different from Bwisi of Congo and Gabon. Christian, Muslim.

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Teso
[teo] Amuria, Bukedea, Butaleja, Kaberamaido, Katakwi, Kamuli, Kumi, Pallisa, Ngora, Serere, and Sironko, Soroti, and Tororo districts; Lake Bisina, area. 1,570,000 in Uganda (2002 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 1,909,000. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Tororo, 10 other districts. Alternate Names: Ateso, Bakedi, Bakidi, Elgumi, Etossio, Ikumama, Iteso, Wamia. Dialects: Orom (Rom). Limited intelligibility with other varieties in the Teso-Turkana group. The dialect in Ngora is considered standard. Lexical similarity: 76% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Ng’aKarimojong [kdj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso. Comments: Christian.

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Tooro
[ttj] Bundibugyo, Kabarole, Kamwenge, Kasese, Kibaale, Kyenjojo Kyegegwa, and Ntoroko districts; West, south and southeast of Lake Albert. 488,000 (1991 census), increasing. 20,500 Tuku (2002 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Kabarole and Kabale districts. Alternate Names: Orutoro, Rutooro, Rutoro, Toro. Dialects: Tuku, Rutuku. Hema [nix] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is slightly different. Tuku dialect is most likely a separate language. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.12). Comments: Standardized form of the western languages (Nyankore-Chiga and Nyoro-Tooro) is called Runyakitara, and is taught at the University and used in internet browsing, but is a hybrid language. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ugandan Sign Language
[ugn] Scattered, mainly in urban areas. 160,000 (2008 WFD). Estimates vary, ranging from approximately 1% of the general population of approximately 37,000,000: 160,000–840,000 deaf (2008 WFD). 528,000–800,000 deaf (Lule and Wallin 2010). Over 700,000 deaf adults (2010 B. Oluoch). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1995, Constitution, Article XXIV(d)). Alternate Names: USL. Dialects: None known. Historical influence from British Sign Language [bfi], American Sign Language [ase] and Kenyan Sign Language [xki], but clearly distinct from all three. Influence from English [eng] in grammar, mouthing, initialization, fingerspelling (both one-handed and two-handed systems), especially among young, urban Deaf. Some mouthing from Luganda [lug] and Swahili [swa] (Lule and Wallin 2010). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Sign Language classes for interpreters and others by Kyambogo University and Uganda National Association of the Deaf (2008 WFD, Lule and Wallin 2010). Deaf member of Parliament. 102 interpreters, 77 with formal qualifications, with some government funding. One-handed fingerspelling system is similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Two-handed system, based on British SL [bfi], may still be used, but less-commonly. (2008 WFD). Christian, Muslim.

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