Uganda

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Acholi
[ach] Amuru, Gulu, Kitgum, Lamwo, Nwoya, Oyam, and Pader districts. Population: 1,500,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Includes 34,200 Dhopaluo (2014 census). Total users in all countries: 1,527,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acoli, Acooli, Akoli, Atscholi, Dok Acoli, Gang, Log Acoli, Lwo, Lwoo, Lëbacoli, Shuli. Autonym: Acholi. Dialects: Dhopaluo (Chope, Chopi). Reported intelligibility with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh], but percentages unknown. Lexical similarity: with Lango [laj], Kumam [kdi], Dhopadhola [adh], Thur [lth]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi.

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Adhola
[adh] Tororo District: near Lake Victoria; Bugiri, Busia, Butaleja, and Namayingo districts. Population: 482,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Badama, Jopadhola, Ludama. Autonym: Dhopadhola. Dialects: None known. Most distinct of Western Nilotic languages in Uganda. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Adhola.

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Alur
[alz] Arua, Nebbi, Nyadri, Yumbe, and Zombo districts: north of Lake Albert. Population: 985,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. 106,000 ethnically identified as Jonam (2014 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aloro, Alua, Alulu, Dho Alur, DhuAlur, Jo Alur, Lur, Luri. Dialects: Jokot, Jonam, Mambisa, Wanyoro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Alur.

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Amba
[rwm] Bundibugyo and Ntoroko districts: Ruwenzori mountains, Democratic Republic of the Congo border area south of Lake Albert. Population: 42,600 in Uganda (2014 census), decreasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 47,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baamba, Bulebule, Hamba, Humu, Kihumu, Ku-Amba, Kuamba, Lubulebule, Lwamba, Ruwenzori Kibira, Rwamba. Autonym: Kwamba. Dialects: Kyanzi (Kihyanzi), Suwa (Kusuwa). Lexical similarity: 70% with Bera [brf], 57%–59% with Kaiku [kkq], Komo [kmw], and Bhele [bhy], 25% with Nande [nnb], 34% with Talinga-Bwisi [tlj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Lega-Holoholo (D.22).

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Aringa
[luc] Yumbe district: north of Lugbara, west of Ma’di. Population: 495,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Low Lugbara. Autonym: Ãrị̃ngã. Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Lugbara [lgg]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Bukusu
[bxk] Manafwa and Namisindwa districts. Majority of speakers live across the Kenyan border. Population: 37,100 in Uganda (2014 census). Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babukusu, Lubukusu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.31).

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Chiga
[cgg] Kabale, Kanungu, Kibaale, north Kisoro, Ntungamo, and Rukungiri districts. Population: 2,390,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bachiga, Bahororo, Bakiga, Ciga, Kiga, Nkore, Nkore-Kiga, Oluchiga, Orukiga, Runyankore-Rukiga. Autonym: Rukiga. Dialects: RuNyaifwe-Hororo, RuSigi, RuNyangyezi, RuHimba. 72% intelligible with Nyankore [nyn]. Lexical similarity: 84%–94% with Nyankore [nyn], 77% with Nyoro [nyo], 75% with Zinza [zin], 72% with Nyambo [now], 70% with Haya [hay], 68% with Tooro [ttj], 63% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.14).

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English
[eng] Widespread. Population: 2,500,000 in Uganda (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Amendment Act, Article 6(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Fumbira
[kin] Kisoro district; Kabale and Ntungamo districts. Population: 1,240,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation; 713,000 Bafumbira, 524,000 Banyarwanda (2014 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bafumbira, Banyarwanda, Kinyarwanda, Ruanda, Rufumbira, Runyarwanda, Rwanda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Ruanda-Rundi (D.61).

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Ganda
[lug] Buganda province: Lake Victoria northwest shore to Lake Kyoga and Tanzania border. Population: 6,560,000 in Uganda, all users. L1 users: 5,560,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. L2 users: 1,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Total users in all countries: 6,564,750 (as L1: 5,564,750; as L2: 1,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Baganda, LùGáànda, luGanda. Autonym: Luganda. Dialects: Kooki (Olukooki), Sese (Olusese), Vuma (Luvuma), Diopa (Ludiopa). Lexical similarity: 71%–86% with Soga [xog], 68% with Gwere [gwr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.15).

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Gungu
[rub] Buliisa district: Lake Albert northeast shore; down the Rift valley and hills above; Hoima district: Kigoroobya, both Town Council and Kigorobya (Rural) sub-county. Population: 84,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rugungu. Autonym: Lugungu. Dialects: Highland Gungu, Lowland Gungu. Reported 58% or lower inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Nyoro [nyo] is most similar. Lexical similarity: 75% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.101).

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Gwere
[gwr] Budaka, Butaleja, Butebo, Kibuku, Mbale, Pallisa, and Sironko districts. Population: 621,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagwere, Olugwere, oLugwere. Autonym: Lugwere. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Ganda [lug], 82% with Lamooji [xog], 79% with Lusiginyi [xog], 77% with Kenye [lke], 64% with Lutenga [xog]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.17).

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Ik
[ikx] Kaabong district: Dodoth county, Kamion subcounty. Population: 7,500 (2011 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 14,000 (2014 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Icietot, Ng’ateus, Ng’ateuso, Ngulak, Teus, Teuso, Teuth. Autonym: Icetod. Dialects: None known. Very different from other Eastern Sudanic languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kuliak, Ik.

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Kakwa
[keo] Koboko and Yumbe districts. Population: 182,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 242,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bari Kakwa, Kakua, Kwakwak. Autonym: Kakuwâ. Dialects: Dialects of Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda differ little (Nida 1972). Very different from other Eastern Nilotic languages of Uganda. Lexical similarity: close with Bari [bfa]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Kenye
[lke] Buyende, Kaliro, Kibuku, Mayuge, Pallisa, and Serere districts: Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga basin; some in Bugiri, Busia, Kaberamaido, Kamuli, Kayunga, and Namayingo districts. Population: 99,900 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakenyi, Kenyi, Lukenhe, Lukenye, Lukenyi. Dialects: Lukenye-Ludebede, Lukenye-Lukooli. Kenye, Lamogi [xog], Siginyi [xog], and Gwere [gwr] are mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 81% with Soga [xog], 71%–86% with Ganda [lug], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [lsm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.16).

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Konzo
[koo] Bundibugyo, Kabarole, Kasese, and Ntoroko districts in Ruwenzori mountains; Bundibugyo district (Olhughendera dialect). Population: 893,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Includes 16,000 Banyabindi, 10,000 Banyabutumbi and 16,000 Basongora (2014 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bakonzo, Bayira, Konjo, Olukonjo, Olukonzo, Rukonjo, oluKonzo. Autonym: Lhukonzo. Dialects: Sanza (Ekisanza), Rukonzo (Rukonjo), Rusongora (Lusongora), Olhughendera, Runyabindi, Rugabo, Rukingwe (Runyabutumbi). Nande [nnb] (Kinande) in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Konzo [koo] (Lukonzo) in Uganda are 2 varieties of the same language. Nande [nnb] is influenced by French [fra] and Swahili [swh]; Konzo [koo] by Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Konzo-Ndandi (D.41).

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Kuku
[bfa] Kayunga, Koboko, and Yumbe districts. Population: 46,500 in Uganda (2014 census), decreasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bari, Beri. Dialects: Kuku, Nyepu (Ngyepu, Nyefu, Nyepo, Nypho), Pöjulu (Fadjulu, Fajelu, Fajulu, Pajulu), Nyangbara (Nyambara, Nyangwara), Mondari (Mandari, Mundari). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Bari.

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Kumam
[kdi] Amuria, Kaberamaido, Serere, and Soroti districts: Lake Kwania area; some in Amolatar, Buyende, Dokolo, Kamuli, Lira, and Otuke districts. Population: 266,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Akokolemu, Akum, Ikokolemu, Ikumama, Kuman, Kumum. Dialects: None known. Mutually intelligible of Acholi [ach] and Lango [laj]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Acholi [ach], 81% with Lango [laj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Kuman.

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Kupsapiiny
[kpz] Bukwa, Kapchorwa, and Kween districts; some in Amudat and Nakapiripirit districts; Kenya border area. Population: 274,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuksabin, Kupsabiny, Sabiny, Sapei, Sebei. Autonym: Kupsapiiny. Dialects: Mbai (Tingey), Kongasis (Sor), Benet (Kumosop, Kween, Mosop, “Ndorobo” (pej.), Ogiek). Mutually intelligible with Sabaot [spy]. Benet is the variety most closely similar to Sabaot [spy] and may be a separate language (2018 R. Nzogi). Lexically similarity: with Saboat [spy] in Kenya. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Elgon.

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Lango
[laj] Abim, Alebtong, Amolatar, Apac, Dokolo, Kole, Lira, Otuke, and Oyam districts: north of Lake Kyoga. Population: 2,130,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Apac, 6 other districts north of Lake Kyogo. Alternate Names: Langi, Leb Laŋo, Leb Lango, Leb-Lango, Lwo, Lwoo, Lëblaŋo, leb Lano. Autonym: Lëblango. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: distinct from Acholi [ach] (Lwo), Lango [lno] of Sudan (related to Lotuko), or Lango [did] (Didinga) of Sudan. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi, Lango-Acholi.

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Lugbara
[lgg] Arua, Koboko, Nyadri and Yumbe districts. Population: 1,100,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 1,940,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: High Lugbara, Logbara, Lubarati, Western Lugbara. Autonym: Lugbarati. Dialects: Arua (Ayivu, Standard Lugbara), Maracha, Terego (Omugo). Lexical similarity: 93% with Maracha and Terego dialects, 87% with Arua and Terego dialects, 80% with Arua dialect and Ogoko Southern Madi [snm], 76% with Arua dialect and Okollo Southern Madi [snm] (1992 SIL). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Central.

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Ma’di
[mhi] Adjumani, Moyo, and Yumbe districts; some in Amuru and Nwoya districts; west and east Nile regions, near Nimule, north Sudan border. Population: 293,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Numbers probably include Southern Madi speakers. Total users in all countries: 311,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ma’adi, Ma’aditi, Ma’di Ti, Ma’di ti, Ma’diti, Madi. Autonym: Mãꞌdí. Dialects: Moyo, Adjumani (Oyuwi). Lexical similarity: 89% with Moyo and Oyuwi Ma’di dialects, 85% with Oyuwi and Ogoko Southern Ma’di [snm], 80% with Moyo and Ogoko Southern Ma’di, 78% with Moyo and Aringa [luc], 76% with Oyuwi and Aringa, 64% between Moyo and Okolli Southern Ma’di, and 59% between Oyuwi and Okollo Southern Ma’di (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Ma’di, Southern
[snm] Arua district: Madi-Okollo county; Nebbi, Nyadri, Yumbe, and Zombo districts. Population: 60,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Okollo (Ma’di Okollo), Ogoko, Rigbo. Reportedly more similar to Lugbara [lgg] than to Ma’di (Moyo) [mhi], which they do not understand. Ogoko and Rigbo dialects are more similar to Lugbara [lgg] than Okollo; intelligibility testing needed. Okollo considered most pure. Southern Ma’di dialects in Rigbo, Ogoko, and Okollo areas, should be considered Lugbara dialects (1992 SIL). Lexical similarity: 85% between Ogoko dialect and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi], 83% between Okollo and Ogoko, 80% between Ogoko and Arua Lugbara, 80% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 78% between Ogoko and Moyo Ma’di, 76% between Okollo dialect and Arua Lugbara [lgg], 64% between Okollo and Moyo Ma’di, 59% between Okollo and Adjumani Ma’di [mhi] (Boone and Watson 1999). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Moru-Madi, Southern.

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Masaaba
[myx] Bududa, Bulambuli, Manafwa, Mbale, and Sironko districts; Mount Elgon area. Population: 1,650,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagisu, Gisu, Kisu, Lugisu, Masaba. Autonym: Lumasaaba, Masaaba. Dialects: Ludadiri (Dadiri), Lubuuya (Buuya, Buya), Luwalasi, Luyobo, Luteza, Lufumbo. Intelligibility of Dadiri and Buuya 83%. Central and Southern varieties of Buuya 93%. Lexical similarity: 62% with Saamia [lsm], 52% with Isukha [ida], 50% with Logooli [rag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.31).

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Ndo
[ndp] Zombo district: Warr and Kango areas; Arua district: Okoro county. Population: 54,100 in Uganda (2014 census). Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 154,100. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kebu, Kebu’tu, Ndu, Okebu. Dialects: Avari (Avere, Aviritu), Oke’bu (Kebu, Kebutu, Ndo Oke’bu), Membi (Membitu). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Mangbutu-Efe.

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Ndrulo
[dno] Hoima and Masindi districts; Zombo district: Nyapea, Paidha, and Zeu subcounties. Population: 18,900 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ndrŭló, Ndukpa, “Lendu North” (pej.), “Lendu-Ndrŭló” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Most similar to Lendu [led] and Ngiti [niy]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, East, Lendu.

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Ng’akarimojong
[kdj] Amudat, Kaabong, Kotido, Moroto, Nakapiripirit, and Napak districts. Population: 691,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Includes 165,000 Jie, 129,000 Dodoth and 25,000 Napore (2014 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akarimojong, Karamojong, Karimojong, Karimonjong, N’Karamojong, Ng’akaramojong, Ngakarimojong, Ngakarimojongo, a-karamojoŋ, a-karimojoŋ, ŋaKaramojoŋ. Autonym: ŋaKarimojoŋ. Dialects: Jie (Jiye), Dodoth, Matheniko, Napore, Bokora, Pian. Dialects correspond with sub-tribes of Karimojong and have very high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% between dialects, 85% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Teso [teo]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Turkana.

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Nubi
[kcn] Scattered. Arua, Bombo, Koboko, Kumi, Luwero, Ngora, and Yumbe districts: generally in larger population areas. Population: 28,800 in Uganda (2014 census), decreasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 44,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ki-Nubi, Kinubi. Dialects: None known. Conflicting reports of intelligibility with Sudanese Creole Arabic [pga]. 90% of the lexicon comes from Arabic. Classification: Creole, Arabic based.

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Nyang’i
[nyp] Kaabong district: Dodoth county, Karenga subcounty along Nyang’ia mountains west side. Population: 20 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gyangiya, Ngangea, Ngapore, Ngiangeya, Niporen, Nipori, Nuangeya, Nyang’ia, Nyangeya, Nyangiya, Nyuangia, Upale. Dialects: None known. A separate language from Ik [ikx]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kuliak, Ngangea-So.

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Nyankore
[nyn] Bushenyi district: Ishaka municipality; Ibanda, Isingiro, Kabale, Kamwenge, Kasese, Kiruhura, Mbarara, Ntungamo, and Rubirizi districts. Population: 3,420,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Includes 152,000 Hororo and 49,000 Runyaruguru (2014 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Bushenyi, Mbarara, Ntungamo districts. Alternate Names: Nkole, Nyankole, Olunyankole, Runyankole, Ulunyankole, Ulunyankore. Autonym: Runyankore. Dialects: Hororo, Hima, Runyaruguru. Hima dialect may be a separate language similar to Tuku [ttj] and Hema [nix] in Democratic Republic of Congo. Lexical similarity: 78%–96% between Nyankore, Nyoro [nyo], and their dialects; 84%–94% with Chiga [cgg], 75%–86% with Tooro (Nyoro) [nyo], 81% with Zinza [zin], 78% with Nyambo [now], 74% with Haya [hay], 68% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.13).

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Nyole
[nuj] Butaleja, Mbale, and Tororo districts. Population: 530,000 (2002 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LoNyole, Nyule, Nyuli. Autonym: Lunyole. Dialects: Menya (Lumenya), Hadyo (Luhadyo), Sabi (Lusabi), Wesa (Luwesa). Lexical similarity: 70%–80% with Saamia [lsm], 82% with the Lugwe dialect of Saamia, 67% with Ganda [lug], 61% with Olunyole [nyd] of Kenya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.35).

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Nyoro
[nyo] Buliisa, Hoima, Kibaale, Kiryandongo, and Masindi districts; also Kiboga, Kyankwanzi, Kyegegwa, and Kyenjojo districts east of Lake Albert. Population: 967,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kyopi, Lunyoro. Autonym: Runyoro. Dialects: Rutagwenda, Orunyoro (Nyoro). 73% inherent intelligibility with Gungu [rub]. Hema-Sud [nyo] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is quite different. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Tooro [ttj], 77% with Nyankore [nyn] and Chiga [cgg], 67% with Nyambo [now] and Zinza [zin], 66% with Haya [hay], 62% with Kerewe [ked]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.11).

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Pökoot
[pko] Amudat and Nakapiripirit districts. Population: 105,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pakot, Pokot, Suk. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Southern, Kalenjin, Pokot.

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Ruruuli-Runyala
[ruc] Kayunga, Kiryandongo, Masindi, and Nakasongola districts: west of Lake Kyoga area; some in Amolatar and Luwero districts. Population: 238,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. 190,000 Ruuli, 48,000 Nyala (2014 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baruli, Luduuli, Ruli, Ruluuli, Ruluuli-Runyala, Rurulim, Ruuli, Ruuli-Nyala. Dialects: Runyala. Reportedly similar to Gwere [gwr], Gungu [rub], and the Lamoogi, Siki and Lukono dialects of Soga [xog]. Lexical similarity: 71% with Nyoro [nyo], 70% between Eastern Ruli and Ganda [lug]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.103).

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Saamya-Gwe
[lsm] Bugiri, Busia, and Namayingo districts: near Kenya border, Lake Victoria is southern boundary. Population: 525,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. 421,000 Saamya, 100,000 Gwe and 4,000 Heehe (2014 census). Total users in all countries: 650,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bagwe, Basamia, Lusaamya-Lugwe, Saamia. Autonym: Ólusaamya. Dialects: Saamya (Saamia, Samia), Gwe (Lugwe), Heehe (Luheehe, Luhehe). Lexical similarity: 88% with Oluwanga [lwg], 80% with Olunyole [nyd], 62% with Masaba [myx] (Uganda), 59%–61% with Ganda [lug] (Uganda), 52% with Luidakho-Luisukha-Lutirichi [ida], 51% with Gwere [gwr] (Uganda). A member of macrolanguage Oluluyia [luy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Masaba-Luhya (E.34).

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Soga
[xog] Bugiri, Buyende, Iganga, Jinja, Kamuli, Luuka, Mayuge, and Namayingo districts; between Lake Victoria and Lake Kyoga. Kaliro district (Lulamogi dialect); Namutumba district (Lukono and Lusiginyi dialects). Population: 2,960,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Iganga, 4 other districts. Alternate Names: Olusoga. Autonym: Lusoga. Dialects: Tenga (Lutenga), Lamoogi (Lamogi, Lulamogi, Lulamoogi), Siki (Lusiginyi, Lusiki, Siginyi), Diope (Ludiope), Nholo (Lunholo), Kigulu (Lukigulu), Gweri (Lugweri), Luuka, Tembé (Lutembe), Gabula (Lugabula), Lukono (Kono). Lamogi (Lamoogi)and Siki (Siginyi) dialects are mutually intelligible of Gwere [gwr] and Kenye [lke]. Lexical similarity: Lutenga dialect; 82%–86% with Ganda [lug], 77%– 81% with Kenye [lke], 69%–78% with Lulamoogi [xog], 64% with Gwere [gwr], 58% with Saamia [luy]. Lulamoogi dialect; 89%–92% with Lusiginyi; 83%–88% with Kenye [lke], and 81%–82% with Gwere [gwr], Lusiginyi dialect; 83%–84% with Kenye [lke], and 79%–82% with Gwere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.16).

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Soo
[teu] Amudat, Moroto, Nakapiripirit, and Napak districts; Mount Kadam border area. Population: 50 (2012 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 23,400 (2014 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kadama, So, Toongi, “Tepes” (pej.), “Tepeth” (pej.). Dialects: Moroto, Kadam (Kadama), Napak (Mount Napak, Toongi). Moroto and Napak dialects are reportedly more similar; Kadam is different. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Kuliak, Ngangea-So.

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Swahili
[swh] Population: 34,113,000 in Uganda, all users. L1 users: 313,000 in Uganda (2015 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 33,800,000 (2015). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (2005, Constitution Amendment Act, Article 6(2)). Alternate Names: Kiswahili. Dialects: Shamba (Kishamba). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42).

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Talinga-Bwisi
[tlj] Bundibugyo district: Bwamba county, southwest of Fort Portal, between Albert and Edward lakes; Democratic Republic of the Congo border. Population: 101,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 131,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bwissi, Kitalinga, Lubwisi, Lubwissi, Mawissi, Olubwisi, Talinge. Autonym: Bwisi. Dialects: None known. 68% inherent intelligibility with Tooro [ttj]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Tooro [ttj], 72% with Nyoro [nyo], 40% with Nande [nnb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.102).

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Teso
[teo] Amuria, Bukedea, Butebo, Kaberamaido, Katakwi, Kumi, Ngora, Pallisa, Serere, Soroti, and Tororo districts; Lake Bisina area. Population: 2,360,000 in Uganda (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. Total users in all countries: 2,699,000. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Tororo, 10 other districts. Alternate Names: Ateso, Bakedi, Bakidi, Elgumi, Etossio, Ikumama, Iteso, Wamia. Autonym: Atεsᴐ. Dialects: Orom (Rom). Limited intelligibility with other varieties in the Teso-Turkana group. The dialect in Ngora is considered standard. Lexical similarity: 76% with Turkana [tuv], 75% with Ng’aKarimojong [kdj]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Eastern, Lotuxo-Teso, Teso-Turkana, Teso.

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Thur
[lth] Abim district: Labwor county. Population: 98,000 (2014 census). Census based on tribal affiliation. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acholi-Labwor, Ethur, Labwor. Autonym: Lëb Thur. Dialects: Nyakwai (Nyakwae), Abim, Morulem, Lotukei, Alerek. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Core, Eastern Sudanic, Southern (n languages), Nilotic, Western, Luo, Southern, Luo-Acholi, Alur-Acholi.

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Tooro
[ttj] Bundibugyo, Kabarole, Kamwenge, Kasese, Kibaale, Kyegegwa, Kyenjojo, and Ntoroko districts; West, south and southeast of Lake Albert. Population: 846,000 (2014 census), increasing. Census based on tribal affiliation. 811,000 Tooro, 35,000 Tuku (2014 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Kabarole and Kabale districts. Alternate Names: Orutoro, Rutoro, Toro. Autonym: Rutooro. Dialects: Tuku, Rutuku. Hema [nix] (Nyoro-Toro) in Democratic Republic of the Congo is slightly different. Tuku dialect is most likely a separate language. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% with Nyoro [nyo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, J, Nyoro-Ganda (E.12).

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Ugandan Sign Language
[ugn] Scattered, mainly in urban areas. Population: 160,000 (2008 WFD). Estimates vary, ranging from approximately 1% of the general population of approximately 37,000,000: 160,000–840,000 deaf (2008 WFD). 528,000–800,000 deaf (Lule and Wallin 2010). Over 700,000 deaf adults (2010 B. Oluoch). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1995, Constitution, Article XXIV(d)). Alternate Names: USL. Dialects: None known. Historical influence from British Sign Language [bfi], American Sign Language [ase] and Kenyan Sign Language [xki], but clearly distinct from all three. Influence from English [eng] in grammar, mouthing, initialization, fingerspelling (both one-handed and two-handed systems), especially among young, urban Deaf. Some mouthing from Luganda [lug] and Swahili [swa] (Lule and Wallin 2010). Classification: Sign language.

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