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Abenaki, Eastern
[aaq] Maine: Androscoggin-Kennebec and Penobscot valleys. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). Last speaker died in 1993 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 90 (2000 census). Total Abenaki in the United States. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Penobscot Nation. Alternate Names: Abenaki, Alnombak, Alnôbak, Eastern Abnaki. Dialects: Penobscot (Penawahpskewi). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki. Comments: Penobscot dialect survived to the late 20th century near Bangor, Maine.

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Abenaki, Western
[abe] Vermont: north end of Lake Champlain. 4 (2012 D. Stevens). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alnombak, Alnôbak. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Abenaki. Comments: Non-indigenous. Four recognized Western Abenaki tribes in Vermont.

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Achumawi
[acv] California: northeast. 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Alturas Indian Rancheria, Pit River Tribe, Redding Rancheria, Round Valley Indian Tribes-Round Valley Reservation, Susanville Indian Rancheria. Alternate Names: Achomawi, Pitt River. Dialects: Originally 9 dialects. Classification: Palaihnihan. Comments: Both Achumawi and Atsugewi [atw] are heritage languages of the Pit River Tribe.

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Afro-Seminole Creole
[afs] Texas: Bracketville; Oklahoma: east of Norman. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afro-Seminole, Black Seminole, Seminole. Dialects: Texas Afro-Seminole, Mexico Afro-Seminole. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ahtena
[aht] Alaska: Cantwell, Chickaloon, and Copper river above Eyak river mouth, upper Susitna and Nenana drainages, 8 total communities; Washington state. 45 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 500 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Cheesh-Na Tribe, Chickaloon Native Village, Gulkana Village, Knik Tribe, Mentasta Traditional Council, Native Village of Cantwell, Native Village of Chitina, Native Village of Gakona, Native Village of Kluti Kaah (aka Copper Center), Native Village of Tazlina. Alternate Names: Ahtna, Atna, Atnakenaege’, Copper River, Mednovskiy. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Growing interest in use among the population.

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Alabama
[akz] Alabama: Coushatta Reservation near Livingston; Texas: southeast. 370 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 460 (2000 census). Alabama and Texas. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town. Alternate Names: Albaamo, Albaamo innaaɬiilka, Alibamu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Koasati [cku]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Apalachee-Alabama-Koasati, Alabama-Koasati.

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Aleut
[ale] Alaskan peninsula, east Aleutian Islands, and Pribilofs (Eastern Aleut dialect); Aleutian chain, Atka island (Western Aleut dialect). 150 (Krauss 2007). Ethnic population: 2,300 (Dorais 2010). Total users in all countries: 155. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Agdaagux Tribe of King Cove, King Salmon Tribe, Native Village of Akutan, Native Village of Atka, Native Village of Belkofski, Native Village of False Pass, Native Village of Nelson Lagoon, Native Village of Nikolski, Native Village of Unga, Ninilchik Village, Pauloff Harbor Village, Pribilof Islands Aleut Communities of St. Paul & St. George Islands, Qagan Tayagungin Tribe of Sand Point Village, Qawalangin Tribe of Unalaska. Alternate Names: Anangax, Unangax. Autonym: Unangam tunnu. Dialects: Eastern Aleut (Pribilof Aleut, Unalaskan), Western Aleut (Atka, Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Unangany). Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Aleut. Comments: Different from Medny Aleut (Copper Island Aleut) [mud], spoken in the Russian Federation. Many school texts have been produced.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered, especially in urban centers and near (present or former) residential Deaf schools. 250,000 (Mitchell et al 2006). Total users in all countries: 271,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ASL, Ameslan, SIGN AMERICA. Dialects: Black American Sign Language (Black ASL), Tactile American Sign Language (TASL, Tactile ASL). Some lexical variation across the United States and much of Canada, but intelligibility is high among all varieties called ASL. Black American Sign Language, developed in schools for African-American children due to segregation in the southern United States, contains some distinctive vocabulary and grammatical structure. Tactile ASL (TASL) is used throughout the United States by and with deaf-blind people, especially those with Usher’s Syndrome, concentrations of which are found in Louisiana and Seattle. TASL uses ASL vocabulary and grammar, except (1) signs are perceived by touching the signer’s hands or other parts of their body, and (2) there are modifications to compensate for lack of access to the signer’s facial expressions and other parts of the body that are not being touched. In Seattle, more substantial structural changes have occurred since 2011, resulting in a variety of TASL that may be becoming a separate language (Edwards 2014). Some deaf-blind people learn Braille for reading English. Varieties or closely-related languages derived from ASL are used in many other countries. Lexical similarity: 58% between modern ASL and French Sign Language (LSF) [fsl] on a comparison of 872 signs (Woodward 1978b). Although the 2 are historically related, ASL has undergone substantial creolization (Woodward 1975, Woodward 1976). Classification: Sign language. Comments: American Sign Language is different from Signed English, a range of signing registers influenced by English. Signing Exact English (SEE) and Seeing Essential English (SEE2) are artificially-constructed systems that attempt to match English word order and morphemic structure exactly. Pidgin Signed English does not follow English grammar exactly. Deaf schools and interpreters in mainstreamed educational settings may use any of these sign varieties. The alternate name ‘SIGN AMERICA’ is a representation of the signs that sign language users in other countries often use for ASL. This name is not used in English, but is a word-for-sign translation of the signed name.

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Angloromani
[rme] Scattered. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: English Romani, Romani, Romani English, Romanichal, Romanis. Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Apache, Jicarilla
[apj] New Mexico: Dulce area. 510 (2015 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 3,100 (Golla 2007). All Apache varieties: 13,270 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Jicarilla Apache Nation. Alternate Names: Hikariya, Hoyero, Ollero. Autonym: Abáachi mizaa, Jicarilla Abáachi. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Kiowa
[apk] Oklahoma: Caddo county. 3 (Golla 2007), decreasing. L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Apache Tribe of Oklahoma. Alternate Names: Na’isha, Plains Apache. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Lipan
[apl] New Mexico: Mescalero Reservation. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Lipan. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Mescalero-Chiricahua
[apm] New Mexico: Mescalero Reservation; Oklahoma: some Chiricahua at Fort Sill. 1,500 (Golla 2007). 1,500 Mescalero in New Mexico, 3 Chiricahua in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: More than 3,000 Mescalero (Golla 2007). 175 Chiricawa, including 149 in New Mexico (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation. Autonym: Ndee bizaa. Dialects: Chiricahua (Aiaho, Chiricagua, Chishi), Mescalero (Faraones). Little dialectal variation between Chiricahua and Mescalero. Mostly a distinction in tribal identity (Golla 2007). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Apache, Western
[apw] Arizona: several reservations east central. 14,000 (Golla 2007). 6,000 on San Carlos, 7,000 on Fort Apache Reservation (White Mountain Apache Tribe); smaller numbers at Tonto, Camp Verde, and Fort McDowell reservations (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 20,200 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona, White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation. Alternate Names: Coyotero, Nnee biyáti’. Autonym: Ndee biyáti’. Dialects: Cibecue, San Carlos, Tonto, White Mountain. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean, Apache.

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Arapaho
[arp] Wyoming: Wind River Reservation; also associated with Cheyenne [chy] in western Oklahoma. 1,070 (2015 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,940 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation (Northern Arapaho), Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes (Southern Arapaho), Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation. Alternate Names: Arrapahoe. Autonym: Hinónoʼeitíít. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Arapaho. Comments: No L1 speakers in Oklahoma.

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Arikara
[ari] North Dakota: Fort Berthold Reservation, mostly Parshall and White Shield. 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 94 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. Alternate Names: Arikaree, Arikari, Arikaris, Ree, Ris, Sáhniš. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee, Proto-Pawnee. Comments: Reportedly a group Lewis and Clark met in 1804 in North Dakota. 30,000 were reduced to 6,000 due to smallpox.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] California, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York; 38 other states. 238,000 (2015 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Assiniboine
[asb] Montana: Fort Belknap and Fort Peck reservations. 150 L1 speakers in both countries. Ethnic population: 3,500 in the United States and Canada (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana. Alternate Names: Assiniboin, Hohe, Nakhoda, Nakhona, Nakhota, Nakhóda, Nakhóna, Nakhóta, Nakoda, Nakon, Nakona, Nakota. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Atsugewi
[atw] California: northeast. No known L1 speakers (1988). No known speakers since 1998 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Pit River Tribe, Susanville Indian Rancheria. Classification: Palaihnihan. Comments: Heritage language of 2 of the 11 bands that constitute the Pit River Tribe.

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Barbareño
[boi] California: near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007), but emerging L2 speakers. Last speaker, Mary Yee, died in 1965 (2004 W. Poser). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Tejon Indian Tribe. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Basque
[eus] Scattered. 1,860 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Euskara. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Blackfoot
[bla] Montana: Blackfeet Reservation. 100 (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,970 (2010 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Blackfeet Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation of Montana. Alternate Names: Blackfeet, Niitsipowahsin, Siksika(ipowahsin). Dialects: Pikanii (Peigan, Piegan). Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Caddo
[cad] Oklahoma: Caddo county. 25 (Golla 2007). No monolinguals (2000 B. Levy). Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Caddo Nation of Oklahoma. Alternate Names: Caddoe, Hasí:nay, Hatsinai, Kado, Kadohadacho. Dialects: None known. Related to Pawnee [paw], Kitsai [kii] and Wichita [wic]. Classification: Caddoan. Comments: The tribes are Cahinnio, Hasinai, Kadohadacho, Nanatsoho, Upper Nasoni, Upper Natchitoches, and Upper Yatasi.

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Cahuilla
[chl] California: San Gorgonio Pass and Mohave Desert areas. 6 (Golla 2011). Ethnic population: 800 (Hinton 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians, Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, Cahuilla Band of Mission Indians of the Cahuilla Reservation, Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla & Cupeno Indians, Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, Ramona Band of Cahuilla, Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Indians, Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians, Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cahuilla.

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Catawba
[chc] South Carolina: Rock Hill area. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. The last speaker, Samuel Taylor Blue, died in 1959. Ethnic population: 500 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Catawba Indian Nation (Catawba Tribe of South Carolina). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Catawban.

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Cayuga
[cay] New York: Cattaraugus Reservation. 6 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 45 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Cayuga Nation, Seneca-Cayuga Nation. Alternate Names: Gayogo̱hó:nǫ’. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock. Comments: The dialect in Oklahoma is extinct.

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Chamorro
[cha] Scattered. 19,800 (2015 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chamorru. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Chamorro. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chehalis, Lower
[cea] Washington: southwest coast. No known L1 speakers (2002 M. Kinkade). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, Quinault Indian Nation, Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Maritime. Comments: Not well documented but some sound recordings were made around 1940 (Golla 2007).

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Chehalis, Upper
[cjh] Washington: south of Puget Sound. No known L1 speakers (2007). The last speaker died in 2001 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, Cowlitz Indian Tribe. Alternate Names: Chehalis, Kwaiailk, Q̉ʷay̓áyiłq̉. Dialects: None known. Separate from Lower Chehalis [cea]. Different from Halkomelem [hur] on Chehalis river, British Columbia. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Inland.

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Cherokee
[chr] Oklahoma: Cherokee Reservation; North Carolina: Great Smokey Mountains area. 12,300 (2010 census). Spoken by 10,000 of the 122,000 member Cherokee Nation in Oklahoma, by 1,000 of the 10,000 Eastern Band of Cherokees in North Carolina, by a high percentage of the 7,500 members of the United Keetoowah Band of Oklahoma and Arkansas (Golla 2007). 130 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 140,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Cherokee Nation, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma. Alternate Names: Aniyunwiya, Tslagi. Autonym: Tsalagi, ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ‎ (Tsalagi Gawonihisdi). Dialects: Elati (Eastern Cherokee, Lower Cherokee), Kituhwa (Middle Cherokee), Otali (Overhill Cherokee, Upper Cherokee, Western Cherokee), Overhill-Middle Cherokee. Classification: Iroquoian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chetco
[ctc] Oregon: south coast. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2011). The last first language speaker died before 1990 (Golla 2011). Ethnic population: 100 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tolowa-Chetco.

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Cheyenne
[chy] Montana: northern Cheyenne Reservation; central Oklahoma, Hammon and Seiling. 1,920 (2015 census). Spoken by 1,700 in Montana, 400 in Oklahoma (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). In Montana. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. Alternate Names: Tsitsistas. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Chickasaw
[cic] Oklahoma: Byng and Happyland (near Ada) north, Davis and Ardmore west, to Fillmore and Wapanucka east. California: Los Angeles. 75 (2017 Chickasaw Nation), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1999 Chickasaw Nation). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: The Chickasaw Nation. Alternate Names: Chikashshanompa’. Dialects: None known. Choctaw [cho] find Chickasaw unintelligible. Classification: Muskogean, Western Muskogean.

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Chimariko
[cid] California: northwest. No known L1 speakers (2011). Last speaker, Martha Zigler, died around 1950 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: No ethnic group members left (1997 K. Turner). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Language isolate.

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Chinook
[chh] Oregon: Warm Springs Reservation; Washington: Yakima Reservation. No known L1 speakers (2017). Ethnic population: 140 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Quinault Indian Nation, Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation. Alternate Names: Lower Chinook, Shoalwater. Dialects: Klatsop (Clatsop, Tlatsop), Shoalwater (Chinook Proper). Classification: Chinookan.

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Chinook Wawa
[chn] Oregon: Polk and Yamhill counties, Grand Ronde reservation. 1 (Grant 2013). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon. Alternate Names: Chinook Jargon, Chinook Pidgin, Jargon, Tsinuk Wawa. Autonym: Chinuk Wawa. Dialects: None known. Many words from Chinook, large admixture of words from Nuu-chah-nulth [nuk], Canadian French [fra], and English [eng]. Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian. Comments: Formerly used widely in 19th century as a trade language between Native Americans and Europeans, and between speakers of different languages.

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Chippewa
[ciw] Michigan; Minnesota; North Dakota; Wisconsin. 5,000. Ethnic population: 104,000 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Bay Mills Indian Community, Chippewa-Cree Indians of the Rocky Boy’s Reservation, Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation of Wisconsin, Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Michigan, Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of Michigan, Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan, Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan, Sokaogon Chippewa Community, St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin, Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota. Alternate Names: Minnesota Ojibwe, Ojibway, Ojibwe, Southwestern Ojibwa. Dialects: Upper Michigan-Wisconsin Chippewa, Central Minnesota Chippewa, Red Lake Chippewa, Minnesota Border Chippewa. Turtle Mountain in North Dakota shares features with Central Minnesota. Red Lake includes Northwest Angle on shore of Lake of the Woods. Nett Lake on the Minnesota border is closely related to Lac la Croix (Rainy River Ojibwa of Northwestern Ojibwa [ojb]) in Ontario. A member of macrolanguage Ojibwa [oji]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Chitimacha
[ctm] Louisiana: south. No known L1 speakers (2017). Last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 300 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Chitimacha Tribe of Louisiana. Alternate Names: Chetemacha. Classification: Language isolate.

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Choctaw
[cho] Louisiana; Mississippi: east central; Oklahoma: McCurtain county; Tennessee. 9,640 (2015 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 20,000 (Golla 2007). In Oklahoma. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Jena Band of Choctaw Indians, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians, The Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma, Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe of Louisiana. Autonym: Chahta, Chahta Anumpa. Dialects: None known. Choctaw find Chickasaw [cic] unintelligible. Classification: Muskogean, Western Muskogean. Comments: The Houma are 12,000 racially mixed descendants of a Choctaw subgroup in southern Louisiana who speak a dialect of Cajun French [frc], and no longer speak Choctaw.

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Clallam
[clm] Washington: Port Angeles and northeast Olympic Peninsula. 6, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (2014 R. Allen), but emerging L2 speakers. The last fluent speaker, Hazel Sampson, died in 2014 (2014 Reuters). L2 users: 6. Ethnic population: 3,000 (2014 R. Allen). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe, Lower Elwha Tribal Community, Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribe, Skokomish Indian Tribe. Alternate Names: Klallam, Na’klallam, S’klallam. Dialects: Reportedly similar to the Saanich dialect of Straits Salish [str]. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Cocopa
[coc] Arizona: lower Colorado river south of Yuma. 370 (2015 census). 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 700 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Cocopah Tribe of Arizona. Alternate Names: Cocopah, Cucapá, Delta River Yuman, Kikima, Kuapá, Kwikapa. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California.

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Coeur d’Alene
[crd] Idaho: Coeur d’Alene Reservation. 1 (Kramer 2016). Ethnic population: 80 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Coeur D’Alene Tribe. Alternate Names: Schitsu’umsh, Skitswish, Snchitsu’umshtsn. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

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Columbia-Wenatchi
[col] Washington: Colville Reservation on northeast Olympic Peninsula. 17 (2010 census). 25 Columbia speakers (Golla 2007). L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 230 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation. Alternate Names: Chelan, Columbian, Moses-Colombia, Moses-Colombia Salish, Nxa’amxcin, Wenatchee, Wenatchi, Wenatchi-Columbia. Dialects: Columbia (Columbian, Sinkiuse), Wenatchi (Chelan, Entiat, Wenatchee). Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

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Comanche
[com] Oklahoma: west. 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Comanche Nation. Alternate Names: Numinu. Autonym: Nʉmʉ Tekwapʉ. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Timbisha [par]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central.

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Coos
[csz] Oregon: south coast. No known L1 speakers (2007). Last speaker died in 1972 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 150 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Coos; Lower Umpqua; and Siuslaw Indians of Oregon, Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation. Alternate Names: Hanis. Dialects: Miluk, Hanis. Classification: Coosan.

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Coquille
[coq] Oregon: southwest. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Coquille Indian Tribe. Alternate Names: Mishikhwutmetunee, Upper Coquille. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tututni-Chasta Costa-Coquille.

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Cowlitz
[cow] Washington: southwest. No known L1 speakers (2002 M. Kinkade). Ethnic population: 200 (1990 M. Kinkade). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, Cowlitz Indian Tribe, Quinault Indian Nation. Alternate Names: Lower Cowlitz. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Inland.

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Cree, Plains
[crk] Montana: Rocky Boy Reservation north central. 100 (2001 I. Goddard), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,560 (2000 census). Ethnic population may include Chippewa [ciw]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nēhiyawēwin, Nehiyaw, Western Cree. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Cree-Montagnais. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Crow
[cro] Montana: south. 4,160 (2015 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Crow Tribe of Montana. Alternate Names: Absaroke, Absarokee, Apsaroke. Autonym: Apsáalooke. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Hidatsa [hid]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Missouri River Siouan.

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Cruzeño
[crz] California: Santa Barbara area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Island Chumash, Isleño. Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects. Classification: Chumashan, Island Chumash.

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Cupeño
[cup] California: Pala reservation area, north of Valley Center. No known L1 speakers (2007). Last speaker died in 1987 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 700 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, Pala Band of Luiseño Mission Indians of the Pala Reservation. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic, Cahuilla.

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Czech
[ces] Scattered. 47,400 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Čeština, Český jazyk. Dialects: Texas Czech. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dakota
[dak] Minnesota: Upper Sioux, Lower Sioux, Prior Lake, Prairie Island, Minneapolis; Montana: Fort Peck reservation; Nebraska: Santee; North Dakota: Devils Lake, northern Standing Rock reservation, Sisseton-Lakota Traverse reservation; South Dakota: Crow Creek, Sisseton-Lakota Traverse and Yankton reservations, Flandreau. 100 (2016 W. Meya), decreasing. Ethnic population: 170,000 (2016 Lakota Language Consortium). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Total users in all countries: 290. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Crow Creek Sioux Tribe of the Crow Creek Reservation, Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe of South Dakota, Lower Sioux Indian Community in the State of Minnesota, Mdewakanton Sioux Indians, Prairie Island Indian Community in the State of Minnesota, Santee Sioux Nation, Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community of Minnesota, Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation, Spirit Lake Tribe, Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (North Dakota and South Dakota), Upper Sioux Community, Yankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota. Alternate Names: Sioux. Dialects: Dakota (Dakhota, Santee, Santee-Sisseton), Nakota (Nakoda, Yankton, Yankton-Yanktonais). Lexical similarity: 83%–86% with Stoney [sto], 89%–94% with Assiniboine [asb], 90%–95% with dialects. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Degexit’an
[ing] Alaska: Anvik, Athapaskans, and Shageluk at Holy Cross, below Grayling on the Yukon river. 15 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 280 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Anvik Village, Shageluk Native Village, Village of Stony River. Alternate Names: Deg Xit’an, “Ingalik” (pej.), “Ingalit” (pej.). Autonym: Deg Xinag. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Delaware
[del] Population total all languages: 7 Status: Comments: Includes: Munsee [umu] (Canada), Unami [unm].

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Delaware, Pidgin
[dep] Connecticut; Delaware; New Jersey; New York: Manhattan. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Pidgin, Amerindian. Comments: Widely used in the 17th century between Algonquians and Europeans as L2.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 308,900,000 in United States, all users. L1 users: 261,000,000 (2016). L2 users: 47,900,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: African American Vernacular English (AAVE). Many regional and social dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Esselen
[esq] California: central coast near Carmel. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 80 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Huelel. Classification: Language isolate.

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Eyak
[eya] Alaska: Copper river mouth. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Marie Smith Jones, died in January 2008 (2008 BBC News). Ethnic population: 50 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 9 (Dormant). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan.

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French
[fra] Maine; New Hampshire; Vermont. 1,250,000 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Français. Dialects: Québécois, Acadian (Acadien). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous. Considered threatened. Christian.

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French, Cajun
[frc] Louisiana: west of the Mississippi to Allen, Avoyelles, Calcasieu, and Evangeline parishes; Texas: small border area west of Sabine river, east of Beaumont. 21,300 (2015 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acadian, Cadien, Cajan, Cajun, Louisiana French. Dialects: Marsh French, Prairie French, Big Woods French. Reportedly Cajun speakers can partially understand standard French [fra]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Ancestors came from French Canada in the 18th century. Christian.

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Galice
[gce] Oregon: southwest. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Hoxie Simmons, died in 1963. Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan.

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German, Hutterite
[geh] Minnesota; Montana; North Dakota; South Dakota; Washington; Oregon. 10,800 (2007 SIL). There are 128 colonies in the United States, with about 95 people per colony. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Carinthian German, Hutterian German, Hutterisch, Tirolean, Tyrolese. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian. Comments: Christian.

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German, Pennsylvania
[pdc] Scattered; Florida; Indiana; Iowa; Kansas; Missouri; Ohio; Oklahoma; Pennsylvania; Virginia; West Virginia; Wisconsin; new communities in other states. 133,000 (2015 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 200,000 (Kloss and McConnell 1981). Total users in all countries: 148,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Deitsch, Pennsilfaani-Deitsch, Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch, Pennsylfaanisch Deitsch, Pennsylvaanisch Deitsch, Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanish. Autonym: Pennsylvania Deitsh, Pennsylvanisch-Deitsch. Dialects: Amish Pennsylvania German (Plain Pennsylvania German), Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Non-Plain Pennsylvania German, Pensylvanisch Deitsch). Blending of several German dialects, primarily Rhenish Palatinate (Pfalzer) German, with syntactic elements of High German and English. Mostly incomprehensible to those from the Palatinate (Kloss 1978). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German. Comments: Separate orthographies for Pennsylvania and Ohio dialects. Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] Texas: central. 1,060,000 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Texas German (Texasdeutsch). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous. Texas German is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who arrived in the mid-19th century, settling in the Hill Country of central Texas. Only a few elderly speakers remain today.

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Gros Ventre
[ats] Montana: Fort Belknap reservation, Milk river. 10 (Golla 2007), decreasing. No fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana. Alternate Names: A’ananin, Aane, Ahahnelin, Ahe, Ananin, Atsina, Fall Indians, Gros Ventres, White Clay People. Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Arapaho [arp]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Arapaho.

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Gwich’in
[gwi] Alaska: Arctic village, Birch Creek, Chalkyitsik, Circle, Fort Yukon, and Venetie; on Yukon river and tributaries. 300 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Krauss 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Beaver Village, Birch Creek Tribe, Chalkyitsik Village, Circle Native Community, Native Village of Fort Yukon, Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government (Arctic Village and Village of Venetie). Alternate Names: Dinju Zhuh K’yuu, Kutchin. Dialects: Arctic Red River, Arctic Village Gwich’in, Fort Yukon Gwich’in, Western Canada Gwich’in (Loucheux, Takudh, Tukudh). Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Haida, Northern
[hdn] Alaska: Craig, Hydaburg, Kasaan, Ketchikan, and Prince of Wales island south tip; panhandle south tip. 4 (2017). Ethnic population: 130 (Golla 2007). 600 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Alternate Names: Xaad Kil, Xaat Kíl. Classification: Haida.

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Halkomelem
[hur] Washington state. 25 (1997 B. Galloway), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,270 (1997 B. Galloway). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Halq’eméylem, Holkomelem, Hul’q’umi’num’. Dialects: Chiliwack, Cowichan, Musqueam, Nanaimo. Classification: Salish, Central Salish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Han
[haa] Alaska: Eagle; Yukon river near Alaska-Canada border. 12 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 50 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 19. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Native Village of Eagle. Alternate Names: Dawson, Han-Kutchin, Hän, Moosehide. Autonym: Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: There is a Han textbook with tapes for teaching the language.

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Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai
[yuf] Arizona: central and northwest. Walapai dialect: Grand Canyon south rim; Havasupai dialect: Grand Canyon bottom. 690 (2015 census). 145 Havasupai, 300 Walapai, 245 Yavapai (2015 census). Ethnic population: 3,860 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Including 570 Havasupai, 1,870 Walapai, 1,420 Yavapai (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation, Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation, Hualapai Indian Tribe of the Hualapai Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe. Alternate Names: Pai, Upland Yuman, Upper Colorado River Yuman. Dialects: Havasupai, Walapai (Hualapai, Hualpai, Hwalbáy), Yavapai. 78%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–95% among dialects. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Pai.

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Hawai’i Pidgin
[hwc] Hawaii; Florida: Orlando; Nevada: Las Vegas; west coast. 1,000,000, all users. L1 users: 600,000 (2012 J. Grimes). Another 100,000 on the United States mainland. L2 users: 400,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: HCE, Hawai’i Creole, Hawai’i Creole English, Hawaiian Creole, Hawaiian Creole English, ōlelo paʻi ʻai. Autonym: Pidgin. Dialects: None known. The basilect is barely intelligible with standard English (McKaughan and Forman 1981). Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific. Comments: Some official acknowledgement of it in print, public discussion, and law (for example, Miranda rights may be read in the language). Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Hawaii Sign Language
[hps] Hawaii. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: HPS, HSL, Hawai’i Pidgin Sign Language, Hawaiian Sign Language. Dialects: Creole Hawai‘i Sign Language (CHSL). Not related to American Sign Language (ASL) [ase] or any other known sign language, less than 20% probable cognates with ASL (2013 J. Woodward). Most elderly Deaf use a mixture of HSL with ASL, a variety termed Creole Hawai‘i Sign Language (Clark et al 2016). Classification: Sign language. Comments: The name ‘Hawai’i Pidgin Sign Language’ is no longer commonly used, as Hawai’i Sign Language is not a pidgin and has no relationship to Hawai’i Pidgin [hwc]. Creole Hawai’i Sign Language is a mixture of HSL and American Sign Language (ASL) [ase].

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Hawaiian
[haw] Hawaii: mainly Ni’ihau island, Island of Hawai’i, some on all other islands; some in every state. 2,000 (Wurm 2007). 500 with Ni’ihau Island connections, another 500 in their 70s or 80s (1995 L. Wong). 8,000 can speak and understand it (1993 K. Haugen). In 1900 there were 37,000 L1 speakers (1995 Honolulu Advertiser). 2000 census lists 27,200. Ethnic population: 336,000. 237,000 in Hawaii (1996 Hawaii State Department of Health), 19% of the population (1990 Hawaii State Department of Health), and 99,000 ethnic Hawaiians on the United States mainland (1990 census), including 24,300 in California. Ethnic Hawaiians include 8,300 pure Hawaiian, 72,800 between 50% and 99% Hawaiian, 127,500 fewer than 50% Hawaiian in Hawaii (1984 Office of Hawaiian Affairs). In 1778 there were believed to have been more than 500,000 pure Hawaiians (1995 W. Harada). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in State of Hawaii (1978, Hawaii Constitution, Article 15(4)), co-official with English. Alternate Names: ’Olelo Hawai’i Makuahine. Autonym: ’Olelo Hawai’i. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Rarotongan [rar], 77% with Tuamotuan [pmt], 76% with Tahitian [tah] (Elbert), 71% with Maori [mri] (Schütz), 70% with Marquesan [mqm], 64% with Rapa Nui [rap]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Central, Marquesic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Hidatsa
[hid] North Dakota: Fort Berthold Reservation. 200 (Golla 2007). 25–50 semifluent speakers. 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. Alternate Names: Hinatsa, Hiraca, Minitari. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Crow [cro]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Missouri River Siouan.

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Ho-Chunk
[win] Iowa: south of Sioux City, east bank, Missouri river; Nebraska: Winnebago Reservation; Wisconsin: central, scattered. 250 (Golla 2007). 230 reported in 1997 (1997 V. Zeps). Ethnic population: 1,650 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin, Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska. Alternate Names: Hocak Wazijaci, Hocank, Hochank, Hocák, Winnebago. Dialects: Wisconsin, Nebraska. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Chiwere-Winnebago. Comments: The name is written with a hook under the ‘a’ of Hocák, representing a nasalized vowel. The official name for the people is Hocák Nation.

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Holikachuk
[hoi] Alaska: Grayling village on lower Yukon river. No known L1 speakers (2012). The last fluent speaker, Wilson Deacon, died in 2012. Ethnic population: 200 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Organized Village of Grayling (aka Holikachuk). Alternate Names: Deg Xinag. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Hopi
[hop] Arizona: several villages northeast; New Mexico; Utah. 6,080 (2015 census), decreasing. 40 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,350 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation (Arizona and California), Hopi Tribe of Arizona. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan.

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Hupa
[hup] California: Hoopa Valley Reservation, northwest. 31, all users. L1 users: 1 (2015 Oregon Public Broadcasting), decreasing. L2 users: 30 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Hinton 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Blue Lake Rancheria, Hoopa Valley Tribe. Alternate Names: Hoopa, Na:tinixwe Mixine:whe’. Dialects: Whilkut. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan.

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Ineseño
[inz] California: Santa Barbara area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians of the Santa Ynez Reservation. Alternate Names: Samala, Ynezeño. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Inupiaq
[ipk] Population total all languages: 5,580 Status: Comments: Includes: North Alaskan Inupiatun [esi], Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk].

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Inupiatun, North Alaskan
[esi] Alaska: Norton Sound and Point Hope. All Inupiatun: 3,000, including [esk] (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,420 (2000 census). May include Northwest Alaska Inupiatun [esk]. All Inupiatun: 13,500 including [esk] (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Alatna Village, Atqasuk Village, Inupiat Community of the Arctic Slope, Kaktovik Village, Native Village of Ambler, Native Village of Barrow Inupiat Traditional Government, Native Village of Buckland, Native Village of Deering, Native Village of Kiana, Native Village of Kivalina, Native Village of Kobuk, Native Village of Kotzebue, Native Village of Noatak, Native Village of Nuiqsut, Native Village of Point Hope, Native Village of Point Lay, Native Village of Selawik, Native Village of Shungnak, Noorvik Native Community, Village of Anaktuvuk Pass, Village of Wainwright. Alternate Names: Eskimo, Inupiak, Inupiat, North Alaskan Inuktitut, North Alaskan Inupiaq, North Alaskan Inupiat, North Alaskan Iñupiaq. Dialects: North Slope Inupiaq, Anaktuvik Inupiaq, Kobuk Inupiaq, Kotzebue Inupiaq, Malimiutun Inupiaq, Point Barrow Inupiaq, Uummarmiutun. A member of macrolanguage Inupiaq [ipk]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq.

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Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska
[esk] Alaska: Bering Strait, Kobuk and Noatak rivers, and Seward Peninsula. 5,580 (2010 census), decreasing. All Inuit languages: 75,000 out of 91,000 in the ethnic group (1995 M. Krauss). Census lists this as Eskimo. Ethnic population: All Inupiatun: 13,500 (includes [esi]) (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Chinik Eskimo Community (Golovin), King Island Native Community, Native Village of Brevig Mission, Native Village of Council, Native Village of Diomede, Native Village of Koyuk, Native Village of Mary’s Igloo, Native Village of Shaktoolik, Native Village of Shishmaref, Native Village of Teller, Native Village of Unalakleet, Native Village of Wales, Native Village of White Mountain, Nome Eskimo Community, Village of Solomon. Alternate Names: Eskimo, Inupiatun, Northwest Alaska Inupiat, Seward Peninsula Inupiaq. Dialects: Seward Inupiaq, King Island Inupiaq, Bering Strait Inupiaq, Qawiaraq, Diomede Inupiaq, Wales Inupiaq. A member of macrolanguage Inupiaq [ipk]. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Inuit-Inupiaq.

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Iowa-Oto
[iow] Oklahoma: central. No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speakers of Iowa and Oto died in 1996 (1997 J. GoodTracks). Ethnic population: 1,150 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska, Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma, Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians. Alternate Names: Iowa-Oto-Missouria. Dialects: Iowa (Bah Kho Je, Baxoje, Báxoje ich’é, Ioway), Oto (Chiwere, Jiwele, Jiwere, Jíwere ich’é, Otoe), Niutaji (Missouri, Missouria, Nyut’chi, Ñút’achi). Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Chiwere-Winnebago. Comments: Iowa and Oto formerly 1 language, with some family variations cross-cutting tribal affiliations. Missouri dialect extinct for many years.

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Jemez
[tow] New Mexico: north central. 1,790 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007), decreasing. 6 monolinguals (1990). Ethnic population: 1,940 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Pueblo of Jemez. Alternate Names: Jemez Towa, Towa. Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan. Comments: Traditional Pueblo law forbids writing Jemez or teaching it to outsiders. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalapuya
[kyl] Oregon: northwest. No known L1 speakers (2007). The last speaker (Santiam dialect) died in the 1950s (Golla 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation. Alternate Names: Kalapuyan, Luckiamute, Lukamiute, Santiam, Wapatu, Yoncalla. Dialects: Santiam. Classification: Takelman.

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Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille
[fla] Montana: Flathead Reservation; Washington: Kalispel Reservation. 64 (2005 T. Pete), decreasing. 58 in Salish and Pend d’Oreille; 4 in Kalispel (2000 census). Ethnic population: 6,800 (1997). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation. Alternate Names: Nqlispélišcn, Salish, “Flathead-Kalispel” (pej.), “Kalispel-Flathead” (pej.). Dialects: Pend d’Oreille, Kalispel, Bitterroot Salish, Flathead. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern, Kalispel. Comments: Spokane [spo] is a coordinate language variety.

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Kansa
[ksk] Oklahoma: north central. No known L1 speakers (2005 D. Ranney). The last fluent speaker, Walter Kekahbah, died in 1983 (2005 D. Ranney). Ethnic population: 1,700 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Kaw Nation. Alternate Names: Kanze, Kaw, Konze. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], Ponca [oma], and Quapaw [qua]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan.

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Karok
[kyh] California: northwest along Klamath river. 12 (Golla 2007). 30 have some L2 fluency (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 340 (2000 census). 1,900 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, Karuk Tribe, Quartz Valley Indian Community of the Quartz Valley Reservation of California. Alternate Names: Karuk. Dialects: No significant dialect differences. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Standard writing system adopted in 1980s.

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Kashaya
[kju] California: Sonoma county. 45 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewart’s Point Rancheria. Alternate Names: Southwestern Pomo. Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern. Comments: Separate from other Pomo varieties.

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Kato
[ktw] California: Laytonville Reservation northwest. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007). The last speaker died in the 1960s. A few have fragmentary memories of the language (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 92 (1982 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Cahto Indian Tribe of the Laytonville Rancheria, Round Valley Indian Tribes-Round Valley Reservation. Alternate Names: Batem-Da-Kai-Ee, Cahto, Kai Po-Mo, Tlokeang. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan.

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Kawaiisu
[xaw] California: Tehachapi-Mojave area, Mojave desert. 5 (2005 J. Turner). Ethnic population: 150 (2005 J. Turner). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern.

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Keres, Eastern
[kee] New Mexico: Cochiti, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Santo Domingo, and Zia pueblos. 6,680 (Golla 2007). Includes 500 Zia speakers, 390 Santa Ana, 2,340 San Felipe, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 600 Cochiti (Golla 2007). 2010 census lists 13,100 as Keres. Ethnic population: 8,100 (Golla 2007). Includes 1,200 Cochiti, 2,600 San Felipe, 650 Santa Ana, 2,850 Santo Domingo, 800 Zia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Kewa Pueblo, Pueblo of Cochiti, Pueblo of San Felipe, Pueblo of Santa Ana, Pueblo of Zia. Alternate Names: Eastern Keres Pueblo, Rio Grande Keresan. Dialects: Cochiti, San Felipe, Santa Ana, Santo Domingo, Zia. Classification: Keresan. Comments: Outsiders are discouraged from learning the language.

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Keres, Western
[kjq] New Mexico: north central. 3,990 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Includes 1,930 Acoma, 2,060 Laguna (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007); 2015 census lists 13,200 as Keres. Ethnic population: 10,700 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Includes 3,860 Acoma, 6,870 Laguna. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Pueblo of Acoma, Pueblo of Laguna. Alternate Names: Western Keres Pueblo. Dialects: Acoma, Laguna. Classification: Keresan.

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Kickapoo
[kic] Kansas: Horton northeast; Oklahoma: Jones and McCloud; Texas: Nuevo Nacimiento. 400 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 6 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 820 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 850. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas, Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma. Alternate Names: Kikapoo, Kikapú. Dialects: None known. Possibly intelligible with Meskwaki [sac]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox.

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Kiowa
[kio] Oklahoma: west central. 400 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma. Alternate Names: Cáuigù, Cáuijò:gyà, Gaigwu. Autonym: Cáuijògà. Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan.

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Kitsai
[kii] Oklahoma: Caddo county, among Caddo [cad] language speakers. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1940 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 S. DeLancey). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita; Keechi; Waco; Tawakonie). Alternate Names: Kichai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Pawnee [paw] than to Wichita [wic]. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee.

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Klamath-Modoc
[kla] Oregon: east and north of Klamath and Agency lakes. 6, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (2003). The last speaker, Mabie Eggsman, died in 2003 (2003 L. Juillerat). L2 users: 6 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Klamath Tribes, Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, Quartz Valley Indian Community of the Quartz Valley Reservation of California. Alternate Names: Klamath. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Molale [mbe]. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Active language programs and materials development in Modoc.

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Koasati
[cku] Louisiana: Koasati Reservation near Elton; Oregon; Texas: Alabama-Koasati Reservation near Livingston, others elsewhere. 370 (2015 census), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana. Alternate Names: Coushatta. Autonym: Koasati. Dialects: None known. Koasati and Alabama [akz] grammars are significantly different. Lexical similarity: less than 50% with Alabama [akz]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Apalachee-Alabama-Koasati, Alabama-Koasati. Comments: Christian.

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Koyukon
[koy] Alaska: Koyukuk and middle Yukon rivers. 65 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 2,300 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Allakaket Village, Beaver Village, Evansville Village (aka Bettles Field), Galena Village (aka Louden Village), Hughes Village, Huslia Village, Koyukuk Native Village, Manley Hot Springs Village, Native Village of Ruby, Native Village of Stevens, Native Village of Tanana, Nulato Village, Rampart Village, Village of Kaltag. Alternate Names: Ten’a. Autonym: Denaakk’e. Dialects: Upper Koyukon, Central Koyukon, Lower Koyukon, Central Koyukuk River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Kumiai
[dih] California: east of San Diego and some in Imperial Valley. 150 (Golla 2007). 40–50 fluent speakers of Kumeyaay, 100 speakers of Tipai, a few elderly people speak Ipai (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Campo Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the Campo Indian Reservation, Capitan Grande Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of California, Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians, Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel, Inaja Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the Inaja and Cosmit Reservation, Jamul Indian Village of California, La Posta Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation, Manzanita Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the Manzanita Reservation, Mesa Grande Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of the Mesa Grande Reservation, San Pasqual Band of Diegueño Mission Indians of California, Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation. Alternate Names: Campo, Diegueño, Digueño, Kamia, Kumeyaay, Tipai’. Dialects: Ipai, Tipai (Jamul Tiipay), Kumeyaay. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, Delta-California.

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Kuskokwim, Upper
[kuu] Alaska: Upper Kuskokwim, McGrath, Nikolai, and Telida rivers. 40 (Golla 2007). 3 households (1997). Ethnic population: 160 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: McGrath Native Village, Nikolai Village, Takotna Village, Telida Village, Village of Stony River. Alternate Names: Kolchan, Mcgrath Ingalik. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Formerly regarded as part of Degexit’an [ing].

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Kutenai
[kut] Idaho: Flathead Reservation; Montana. 220 (2010 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 360 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation, Kootenai Tribe of Idaho. Alternate Names: Kootenai, Ktunaxa. Classification: Language isolate.

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Lakota
[lkt] Montana; Nebraska: northwest corner; North Dakota: Bismark, Standing Rock reservation; South Dakota: Cheyenne River, Lower Brule reservation, Pine Ridge, Rapid City, Rosebud. Urban centers including Denver, Minneapolis, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Seattle. 2,100 in United States, all users. L1 users: 2,000 (1997 W. Meya), increasing. 2,300 L1 speakers of all Sioux dialects in a total population of 175,000. L2 users: 100 (2016 W. Meya). Ethnic population: 170,000 (2016 W. Meya). Includes all ethnic Sioux. Total users in all countries: 2,200 (as L1: 2,100; as L2: 100). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe of the Cheyenne River Reservation, Lower Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule Reservation, Oglala Sioux Tribe, Rosebud Sioux Tribe of the Rosebud Indian Reservation, Standing Rock Sioux Tribe (North Dakota and South Dakota). Alternate Names: Lakhota, Lakotiyapi, Teton, Teton Sioux. Dialects: Brulé. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dakota.

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Louisiana Creole
[lou] California: Sacramento; Louisiana: Iberia, Lafayette, Lafourche, Natchitoches, Pointe-Coupée, St. Charles, St. James, St. John the Baptist, St. Landry, St. Martin, St. Mary, and St. Tammany parishes; Texas: east. 10,000 (Neumann-Holzschuh and Klingler 2013). Ethnic population: 4,000,000 (1997 M. Melançon). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kréyol, Louisiana Creole French. Dialects: Bayou Teche Creole (Kourí-viní), Pointe Coupée Creole (Gombó). Different from standard French [fra], Cajun French [frc] (also spoken in Louisiana), Haitian Creole [hat], and other creoles of the Caribbean. Classification: Creole, French based.

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Luiseño
[lui] California: south. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: La Jolla Band of Luiseño Indians, Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, Pala Band of Luiseño Mission Indians of the Pala Reservation, Pauma Band of Luiseño Mission Indians of the Pauma & Yuima Reservation, Pechanga Band of Luiseño Mission Indians of the Pechanga Reservation, Rincon Band of Luiseño Mission Indians of the Rincon Reservation, Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians. Alternate Names: Payómkawichum. Dialects: Juaneño (Acgachemem, Agachemem, Ajachema, Ajachemem), Luiseño. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic.

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Lumbee
[lmz] Maryland; North Carolina: south; South Carolina. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Croatan. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Unclassified. Comments: Racially mixed descendants of a Pamlico group. Still a distinct ethnic group.

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Lushootseed
[lut] Washington: Puget Sound area. No known L1 speakers (2017 C. Willmsen), but emerging L2 speakers. The last native speaker, Vi Hilbert, died in 2008 (2008 C. Willmsen). Ethnic population: 18,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Chehalis Reservation, Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup Reservation, Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe of Washington, Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians of Washington, Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, Tulalip Tribes of Washington, Upper Skagit Indian Tribe of Washington. Alternate Names: Northern Lushootseed, Northern Puget Sound Salish. Dialects: Sauk-Suiattle. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed. Comments: Lushootseed encompasses Southern Lushootseed [slh], Skagit [ska] and Snohomish [sno]. Lushootseed is the name that is used by most scholars for the group as a whole.

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Maidu, Northeast
[nmu] California: Plumas and Lassen counties, northern Sierras. No known L1 speakers (2013 J. Little). The last fluent speaker, Farrell Cunningham, died in 2013 (2013 J. Little). Only a few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 110 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California, Greenville Rancheria, Mooretown Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California, Susanville Indian Rancheria. Alternate Names: Maidu, Mountain Maidu. Classification: Maiduan, Maidu.

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Maidu, Northwest
[mjd] California: Butte, and Yuba counties, Feather river, Oroville area. Ethnic group scattered. 3 (1994 L. Hinton). A few elderly speakers remain (Golla 2011). Ethnic population: 200 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Enterprise Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California, Mechoopda Indian Tribe of Chico Rancheria, Mooretown Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California, Round Valley Indian Tribes-Round Valley Reservation. Alternate Names: Concow, Holólupai, Konkau, Konkow, Maiduan, Meidoo, Michopdo, Nákum, Secumne, Sekumne, Tsamak, Yuba, “Digger” (pej.). Dialects: None known. A separate language from other Maidu varieties. Classification: Maiduan.

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Maidu, Valley
[vmv] California. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2011). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Chico, Chico Maidu. Classification: Maiduan, Maidu.

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Makah
[myh] Washington: Neah Bay on northern tip of Olympic Peninsula, opposite Vancouver Island. No known L1 speakers (2002 M. Barber). The last fluent speaker, Ruth Claplanhoo, died in 2002 (2002 M. Barber). Ethnic population: 2,220 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Makah Indian Tribe of the Makah Indian Reservation. Alternate Names: Kwe-Nee-Chee-Aht, Kweedishchaaht, qʷi·qʷi·diččaq. Classification: Wakashan, Southern Wakashan.

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Malecite-Passamaquoddy
[pqm] Maine: Indian Township and Pleasant Point. 100 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 850 Passamaquoddy (2015 census). Ethnic population: 2,500 (1997 K. Teeter). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians, Passamaquoddy Tribe. Alternate Names: Maliseet-Passamaquoddy. Dialects: Malecite (Maliseet), Passamaquoddy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian. Comments: Malecite dialect is mostly used in Canada; Passamaquoddy dialect is mostly used in Maine.

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Mandan
[mhq] North Dakota: Fort Berthold Reservation. No known L1 speakers (Language Magazine). The last speaker, Edwin Benson, died in 2016. L2 users: 0. Ethnic population: 130 (2000 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan.

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Maricopa
[mrc] Arizona: Phoenix area; associated with Pima [ood] language speakers on Gila River and Salt River reservations. 35 (2015 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 800 (Golla 2007). 160 in Arizona (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation. Alternate Names: Cocomaricopa, Piipaash. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Mohave [mov], 58% with Havasupai [yuf], 57% with Walapai [yuf] and Yavapai [yuf]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave.

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Mattole
[mvb] California: north. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1950s. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan. Comments: A few individuals retain some memory of the language (Golla 2007).

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Menominee
[mez] Wisconsin: former Menomini Reservation, northeast. 60, all users. L1 users: 35 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 65 semispeakers (Golla 2007). L2 users: 25. Ethnic population: 800 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin. Alternate Names: Menomini. Autonym: Mamaceqtaw. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Meskwaki
[sac] Iowa: Tama. Kansas and Nebraska: eastern border area (Mesquakie dialect): Oklahoma: central (Mesquakie dialect); Fox and Sac Reservation (Fox and Sac dialects). 250 (Golla 2007). 200 Mesquakie in Iowa, more than 50 Sac and Fox in central Oklahoma, a few Nemaha Sauks on the Kansas-Nebraska border (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 760 Fox. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Sac & Fox Nation, Sac & Fox Nation of Missouri (Kansas and Nebraska), Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa. Alternate Names: Mesquakie, Sac and Fox, Sauk-Fox. Dialects: Fox, Sac (Sauk), Mesquakie. Kansas and Oklahoma groups closely related to Kickapoo [kic] of Oklahoma and Mexico. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Fox.

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Miami
[mia] Indiana: north central (Miami dialect); Oklahoma: northeast (Miami and Peoria dialects). No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Alternate Names: Illinois, Maumee, Miami-Illinois, Myaamia, Twatwa, Twightwee, Wea. Dialects: Miami, Illinois. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Michif
[crg] North Dakota: Turtle Mountain Reservation. 75 (2010 census), decreasing. L2 users: 0. Total users in all countries: 545. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota. Alternate Names: French Cree, Mitchif. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Plains Cree [crk]. Several varieties in Canada. Classification: Mixed language, French-Cree. Comments: Spoken by some descendants of the children of Indian women and French fur traders.

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Mikasuki
[mik] Florida: Big Cypress, Immokalee, Hollywood, and Tampa Seminole reservations. 290 (2015 census). Spoken by most of the 400 members of the Miccosukee Tribe as well as by many of the 2,700 members of the Seminole Tribe (Golla 2007). 35 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida, Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Seminole Tribe of Florida. Alternate Names: Hitchiti, Miccosukee, Mikasuki Seminole. Dialects: Hitchiti, Mikasuki. Hitchiti dialect is extinct. Not intelligible with Alabama [akz] or Koasati [cku]. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Central Muskogean, Hitchiti-Mikasuki.

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Mi’kmaq
[mic] Maine : north near Fort Fairfield; Massachusetts: Boston; scattered elsewhere. 210 (2015 census). 8,150 L1 speakers in Canada and the United States(Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,800 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians. Alternate Names: Mi’gmaw, Mi’kmaw, Micmac, Miigmao, Restigouche. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Miwok, Central Sierra
[csm] California: upper valleys of the Stanislause and Tuolumne rivers. 12 (1994 L. Hinton). Eastern Central Sierra: 6, Western Central Sierra: 6. 50 Sierra Miwok (from 2000 census) may include Northern Sierra [nsq] and Southern Sierra [skd]. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Includes all Miwok. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California, California Valley Miwok Tribe, Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California, Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians-Shingle Springs Rancheria (Verona Tract), Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California, Wilton Rancheria. Dialects: Eastern Central Sierra Miwok, Western Central Sierra Miwok. Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok.

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Miwok, Coast
[csi] California: coast from San Francisco Bay to Bodega Bay. No known L1 speakers (2006 N. Mullane). The last fluent speaker, Sarah Ballard, died in 1978 (2006 N. Mullane). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria. Dialects: Bodega, Huimen, Marin Miwok. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Western Miwokan. Comments: Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Bodega and Marin Miwok dialects were possibly separate languages.

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Miwok, Lake
[lmw] California: Clear Lake basin. No known L1 speakers. 1 speaker (1994 L. Hinton); 2–3 semispeakers only, not actively using language (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Middletown Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Western Miwokan.

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Miwok, Northern Sierra
[nsq] California: Jackson Rancheria near Westpoint. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California, California Valley Miwok Tribe, Ione Band of Miwok Indians of California, Jackson Band of Miwuk Indians, Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians-Shingle Springs Rancheria (Verona Tract), United Auburn Indian Community of the Auburn Rancheria of California. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Miwok varieties. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok. Comments: Extensive documentation including numerous audio recordings and videotapes of speakers.

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Miwok, Plains
[pmw] California: San Joaquin and Cosumnes rivers’ deltas. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the late 1990s (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Wilton Rancheria. Alternate Names: Valley Miwok. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan.

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Miwok, Southern Sierra
[skd] California: Merced and Chowchilla rivers’ headwaters and Mariposa Creek. 7 (1994 L. Hinton). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California, California Valley Miwok Tribe, Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians-Shingle Springs Rancheria (Verona Tract). Alternate Names: Me-Wuk, Meewoc, Mewoc, Miwoc, Miwokan, Mokélumne, Moquelumnan, San Raphael, Talatui, Talutui, Yosemite. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Miwokan, Eastern Miwokan, Sierra Miwok.

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Mohave
[mov] Arizona-California border: Fort Mohave and Colorado River reservations. 200 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation (Arizona and California), Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (Arizona; California; Nevada). Alternate Names: Mojave, River Yuman, Upriver Yuman, Yuman. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Maricopa [mrc], 63% with Walapai and Havasupai [yuf], 62% with Yavapai [yuf]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave.

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Mohawk
[moh] New York: Saint Regis Reservation, north. 3,100 in United States, all users. L1 users: 3,000 (Golla 2007). L2 users: 100 (2011 M. Mithun). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe. Alternate Names: Kanien’kéha, Kanienkehaka. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida.

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Mohegan-Pequot
[xpq] New York; Connecticut. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Fidelia Fielding, died in 1908. Ethnic population: 1,400 ethnic population of Mohegan-Pequot and Narragansett [xnt] (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Mashantucket Pequot Tribe, Mohegan Tribe of Indians of Connecticut, Shinnecock Indian Nation. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Wampanoag [wam]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Molale
[mbe] Oregon; Washington. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Fred Yelkes, died in 1958. Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon, Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians. Alternate Names: Molala, Molalla, Molele. Classification: Language isolate.

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Mono
[mnr] California: Sierra Nevada west side, between Yosemite National Park and King Canyon National Park; Sierra Nevada east side, Owens Valley, Lone Pine north to Big Pine. 37 (1994 L. Hinton), decreasing. More than 20 speakers and 100 semispeakers of Western Mono. Under 30 speakers of Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 Eastern Mono (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Big Pine Band Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley, Big Sandy Rancheria of Western Mono Indians of California, Bishop Paiute Tribe, Cold Springs Rancheria of Mono Indians of California, Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians of the Fort Independence Reservation, Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, Northfork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California, Table Mountain Rancheria of California, Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation, Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation. Alternate Names: Monache, Monachi. Dialects: Eastern Mono, Western Mono. Related to Northern Paiute [pao]. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western.

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Munsee
[umu] Scattered. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Delaware Nation, Stockbridge Munsee Community. Alternate Names: Delaware, Munsee Delaware. Dialects: None known. Similar to Unami [unm]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Delaware. Comments: Descendants live with Stockbridge-Munsee Community in Wisconsin.

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Muskogee
[mus] Oklahoma: south Alabama Creek, Creek and Seminole; Florida: Seminole of Brighton Reservation. 4,470 (2015 census). Spoken by 4,000–6,000 residents of the former territory of the Muscogee Nation and Seminole Nation in Oklahoma and by fewer than 200 of the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Golla 2007). 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,000 (1997 C. Pye). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town, Kialegee Tribal Town, Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Poarch Band of Creeks, Seminole Tribe of Florida, Seminole Nation of Oklahoma, Thlopthlocco Tribal Town. Alternate Names: Creek. Dialects: Creek, Seminole. Reportedly similar to Mikasuki [mik] in Florida. Dialects reportedly very similar. Classification: Muskogean, Eastern Muskogean, Creek-Seminole.

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Nanticoke
[nnt] Delaware: south; Maryland: east. No known L1 speakers (2001). The last speaker, Lydia Clark, died in the 1840s. Ethnic population: 400 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Nanticoke-Conoy.

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Narragansett
[xnt] Connecticut; Rhode Island. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,400 ethnic population of Narragansett and Mohegan-Pequot [xpq] (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Narragansett Indian Tribe. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Natchez
[ncz] Louisiana (Taensa dialect); Mississippi (Taensa dialect); Oklahoma among Creeks and Cherokees. 6, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007), but emerging L2 speakers. The last speaker, Nancy Raven, died in 1957. L2 users: 6 (2011 H. Fields). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Dialects: Taensa. Classification: Language isolate.

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Navajo
[nav] Arizona: northeast; Colorado; New Mexico: northwest; Utah: southeast. 167,000 (2015 census). 7,600 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 266,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation (Arizona and California), Navajo Nation (Arizona; New Mexico; Utah). Alternate Names: Navaho. Autonym: Diné, Diné Bizaad. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Apachean.

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Nez Perce
[nez] Idaho: Kamiah and Lapwai on Nez Perce Reservation; Washington: east on Colville Reservation (Upriver dialect). Oregon: Umatilla Reservation (Downriver dialect). 100 (1997 H. Aoki), decreasing. Spoken fluently only by a handful of elders on Nez Perce and Colville Reservations. 30–40 semispeakers, mostly in Idaho (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 610 (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Nez Perce Tribe. Alternate Names: Niimíipu, Nuumiipuutimt. Autonym: Niimi’ipuutímt. Dialects: Downriver Nez Perce, Upriver Nez Perce. Classification: Sahaptian.

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Nisenan
[nsz] California: central foothills of the Sierras. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1980s (Golla 2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians-Shingle Springs Rancheria (Verona Tract), United Auburn Indian Community of the Auburn Rancheria of California. Alternate Names: Neeshenam, Nishinam, Pujuni, Southern Maidu, Wapumni. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Maidu varieties. Classification: Maiduan.

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Nomlaki
[nol] California: Grindstone Rancheria, Paskenta, and Round Valley reservation. 1 (Golla 2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Grindstone Indian Rancheria of Wintun-Wailaki Indians of California, Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians of California, Round Valley Indian Tribes-Round Valley Reservation. Alternate Names: Central Wintun, Wintu, Wintun. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Patwin [pwi] and Wintu [wnw]. Classification: Wintuan.

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Nooksack
[nok] Washington: northwest. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Sindick Jimmy, died in 1988. Ethnic population: 1,600 (1997 B. Galloway). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Nooksack Indian Tribe of Washington. Alternate Names: Lhéchelesem, Nootsack. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Nottoway
[ntw] Virginia: Southampton county. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway. Comments: Extinct around 1958.

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Obispeño
[obi] California: near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2011). The last speaker, Rosario Cooper, died in 1917 (Golla 2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan.

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Ohlone, Northern
[cst] California: Monterrey and San Benito counties. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Last fluent speakers in the 18th or early 19th centuries. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Dialects: East Bay, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Soledad. Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Costanoan. Comments: Subdialects of East Bay were Huchiun (Juichun), Niles (Chocheño), San José, San Lorenzo. Soledad may be transitional between Northern and Southern Ohlone.

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Ohlone, Southern
[css] California: Monterrey and San Benito counties. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Mutsun (San Juan Bautista), Rumsen (Carmel, Runsien, San Carlos). Classification: Miwok-Costanoan, Costanoan. Comments: Became extinct in the 1950s.

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Okanagan
[oka] Washington: Colville Reservation. 230 (2015 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation. Alternate Names: Nselxcin, Nsyilxcen, Okanagan-Colville, Okanagon, Okanogan, Syilx. Dialects: Southern Okanogan, Sanpoil, Colville, Lake. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern.

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Omaha-Ponca
[oma] Nebraska: Macy and Walthill (Omaha dialect); Iowa: south of Sioux City, east bank, Missouri river; Oklahoma: Red Rock area (Ponca dialect). 85 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 525 (2000 census). 365 Omaha and 160 Ponca (2000 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Omaha Tribe of Nebraska, Ponca Tribe of Nebraska, Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Alternate Names: Cegiha, Dhegiha, Mahairi, Ponka, Ppankka, Umanhan. Dialects: Omaha, Ponca. Ponca and Omaha are completely mutually intelligible, Reportedly similar to Osage [osa], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan. Comments: Traditional religion, Baha’i, Christian, Mormon.

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Oneida
[one] New York: central; Wisconsin: east. 12 (Golla 2007). No reliable estimates for number of speakers in New York state (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 11,000 (Golla 2007). At Green Bay, Wisconsin. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Oneida Nation of New York, Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock, Mohawk-Oneida. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Onondaga
[ono] New York: south of Syracuse. 12 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,600 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Onondaga Nation. Alternate Names: Onandaga, Ongwehonhwe, Onoñda’géga’. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Osage
[osa] Oklahoma: north central. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. The last L1 speaker, Lucille Roubedeaux, died in 2005. Ethnic population: 11,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: The Osage Nation. Alternate Names: Wazhazhe, Wazhazhe ie. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Omaha [oma], Ponca [oma], Quapaw [qua], and Kansa [ksk]. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan.

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Ottawa
[otw] Michigan: near Sault Sainte Marie and elsewhere. 7,210 (2010 census). 310 Ottawa, 6,900 Ojibwa. 10 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,910 (2000 census). 560 Ottawa, 8,350 Ojibwa. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, Little River Band of Ottawa Indians, Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma, Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of Michigan, Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan. Alternate Names: Chippewa, Eastern Ojibwa, Odawa, Ojibwe. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi.

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Paiute, Northern
[pao] Nevada: north; adjacent areas of California, Idaho, Oregon. About 20 reservations spread over 1,610 square km. 700 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Plus 400 semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Bridgeport Indian Colony, Burns Paiute Tribe, Cedarville Rancheria, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Fort Bidwell Indian Community of the Fort Bidwell Reservation of California, Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes of the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation (Nevada and Oregon), Klamath Tribes (Yahooskin Band of Paiute), Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony, Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of the Pyramid Lake Reservation, Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho, Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Summit Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada, Susanville Indian Rancheria, Walker River Paiute Tribe of the Walker River Reservation, Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada, Yerington Paiute Tribe of the Yerington Colony & Campbell Ranch. Alternate Names: Paviotso. Dialects: Bannock, North Northern Paiute (Mcdermitt), South Northern Paiute (Yerington-Schurz). Related to Mono [mnr]. Most reservations have their own dialect. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Western.

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Pangasinan
[pag] California; Hawaii; Ohio; Washington. 2,270 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Patwin
[pwi] California: Cortina, Grindstone, and Rumsey. 1 (Golla 2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Cachil DeHe Band of Wintun Indians of the Colusa Indian Community of the Colusa Rancheria, Cortina Indian Rancheria of Wintun Indians of California, Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians of California, Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation. Alternate Names: Southern Wintun, Wintu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nomlaki [nol] and Wintu [wnw]. Classification: Wintuan.

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Pawnee
[paw] Oklahoma: north central. 10 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma. Dialects: South Band, Skiri (Skidi). Reportedly similar to Arikara [ari], but not inherently intelligible with it. Kitsai [kii] is somewhat similar to Wichita [wic], but reportedly more similar to Pawnee. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan, Kitsai-Proto-Pawnee, Proto-Pawnee. Comments: Extensive documentary materials archived at American Indian Studies Research Institute.

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Piscataway
[psy] Maryland. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Conoy. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Nanticoke-Conoy.

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Plains Indian Sign Language
[psd] Scattered. Great Plains and neighboring regions, particularly on reservations of Apache, Assiniboine, Blackfeet, Cheyenne, Chippewa, Crow, Hidatsa/Mandan, Kalispel, Kiowa, Kutenai, Lakota, Mandan, Navajo, Pawnee and Southern Tiwa tribes. 75 in United States (2015 M. McKay-Cody), all users. Total users in all countries: 75. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Formerly used as a lingua franca for inter-tribal contact among at least 40 different language groups by hearing and deaf people. In 1890, a private census reported 100,000 users (McKay-Cody 1996). Wide range of genres including story-telling, prayers, inter-tribal negotiation, and bantering (Davis 2010). Alternate Names: Hand Talk, Indian Language of Signs, Indian Sign Language, NAISL, North American Indian Sign Language, PISL, PST, Plains Sign Language, Plains Sign Talk, Sign Talk. Dialects: Plains Standard Indian Sign Language. Some variation by ethnic group and region, but dialect differences generally do not impede communication among different tribes. Many signs are associated with specific tribes (2016 M. McKay-Cody), but the degree to which the different tribal varieties represent separate languages has not been systematically assessed. Lexical similarity between available historical sources on PISL ranges from 80% to 92%. Comparison of these sources with American Sign Language [ase] shows 50% similarity (Davis 2010). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Sign language use by Native Americans is documented in many parts of North America, from the Arctic to Mexico, including the Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southwestern United States, and apparently predates European contact. Some of these varieties are recognized in ISO 639-3 as separate languages, others are clearly distinct languages but not yet with their own ISO codes (e.g. Keresan Pueblo Sign Language), while for others their relationship to PISL is not yet determined (and may never be, since some are extinct). The name ‘North American Indian Sign Language’ is used when this broader range of varieties is considered (McKay-Cody 1996, Davis 2010). Other names are used to refer to specific tribal varieties, many of which appear to be dialects of PISL.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] California: Reedley; Kansas: Hillsboro; Oklahoma: Corn. 12,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German, Mennonite Low German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Pomo, Central
[poo] California: north, Hopland and Clear Lake areas; also Point Arena and Manchester on the coast. No known L1 speakers (2016). Ethnic population: 4,770 (1997 M. Mithun). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Hopland Band of Pomo Indians, Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria. Alternate Names: Ballo-Kai-Pomo, Cabanapo, H’hana, Habenapo, Khabenapo, Khana, Kulanapan, Kulanapo, Kábinapek, Venaambakaia, Venambakaiia, Yokaia. Dialects: Point Arena, Hopland, Ukiah. Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern.

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Pomo, Eastern
[peb] California: north, Clear Lake area. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2011). There were a handful of semifluent speakers at Robinson and Big Valley Rancheria in 2008 (Golla 2011). Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Big Valley Band of Pomo Indians of the Big Valley Rancheria, Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake, Middletown Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California, Robinson Rancheria, Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California. Alternate Names: Clear Lake Pomo. Classification: Pomoan.

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Pomo, Northeastern
[pef] California: Story Creek, coast range valley; Sacramento river tributary. No known L1 speakers. Last fluent speaker died in 1961 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Salt Pomo. Classification: Pomoan.

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Pomo, Northern
[pej] California: north, Sherwood Rancheria, near Willits. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Elenor Stevenson Gonzales, died in 2005. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Coyote Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California, Guidiville Rancheria of California, Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake, Pinoleville Pomo Nation, Potter Valley Tribe, Redwood Valley or Little River Band of Pomo Indians of the Redwood Valley Rancheria California, Round Valley Indian Tribes-Round Valley Reservation, Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California, Sherwood Valley Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California. Dialects: Guidiville, Sherwood Valley. Classification: Pomoan, Western.

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Pomo, Southeastern
[pom] California. 1 (2014 G. Reece). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians of the Sulphur Bank Rancheria, Koi Nation of Northern California, Middletown Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California. Alternate Names: Lower Lake Pomo. Classification: Pomoan.

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Pomo, Southern
[peq] California: Cloverdale and Geyserville. 1 (Walker 2012). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Cloverdale Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California, Dry Creek Rancheria of Pomo Indians, Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, Lytton Rancheria of California. Alternate Names: Gallinoméro. Classification: Pomoan, Western, Southern.

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Potawatomi
[pot] Kansas; Michigan: southwest and north; Wisconsin: north; Oklahoma: central. No known L1 speakers (2011 Potawatomi Language Institute), but emerging L2 speakers. The last fluent speaker, Cecelia Miksekwe Jackson, died in 2011 (2011 Topeka Capital-Journal). Ethnic population: 25,000 (1997 L. Buszard-Welcher). Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Forest County Potawatomi Community, Hannahville Indian Community, Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of Michigan, Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi, Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians (Michigan and Indiana), Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation. Alternate Names: Nishnabek, Pottawotomi. Autonym: Bode’wadmi. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Ojibwa-Potawatomi. Comments: 85% have varying degrees of language retention.

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Powhatan
[pim] Virginia: Tidewater. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Pamunkey Indian Tribe. Alternate Names: Virginia Algonkian, Virginia Algonquian. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Purepecha
[tsz] Alabama; California; Illinois; Missouri; North Carolina. 15,000 (2005 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: P’orhepecha, P’urhepecha. Classification: Tarascan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Purisimeño
[puy] California: south, near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Quapaw
[qua] Oklahoma: northeast corner. 1 (2015 Joplin Globe). Ethnic population: 160 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Quapaw Tribe of Indians. Alternate Names: Alkansea, Arkansas, Capa, Ogaxpa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kansa [ksk], Omaha [oma], Osage [osa], and Ponca [oma]; all called Dhegiha. Classification: Siouan-Catawban, Siouan, Mississippi Valley-Ohio Valley Siouan, Mississippi Valley Siouan, Dhegihan.

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Quechan
[yum] California: Fort Yuma Reservation in southeast corner. 290 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation (Arizona and California). Alternate Names: Kechan, Kwtsan, Quecl, Yuma. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maricopa [mrc] and Mohave [mov]. Classification: Cochimí-Yuman, Yuman, River, Mojave.

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Quileute
[qui] Washington: Lower Hoh River and Quileute reservations on Pacific side of Olympic Peninsula. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1999 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Hoh Indian Tribe, Quileute Tribe of the Quileute Reservation, Quinault Indian Nation. Alternate Names: Quillayute. Dialects: Quileute, Hoh. Classification: Chimakuan.

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Quinault
[qun] Washington: Quinault Reservation, centered in Taholah Community on Olympic Peninsula west coast. 6, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (2016), but emerging L2 speakers. The last speaker, Oliver Mason, died in 1996 (1996 J. Beers). L2 users: 6 (2016 C. Terry-otewaste). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2016 C. Terry-itewaste). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Hoh Indian Tribe, Quinault Indian Nation. Dialects: Lower Chehalis. Classification: Salish, Tsamosan, Maritime.

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Salinan
[sln] California: central coast. No known L1 speakers. Last speakers died in the early 1960s (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 200 (1997 K. Turner). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Formerly 2 dialects, Antoniano and Migueleño. A few linguists have posited a relationship to Hokan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Salish, Straits
[str] Washington: San Juan Islands (Samish dialect), mainland south of San Juan Islands (Lummi dialect). 5 (Golla 2007). 5 speakers but mixed with other dialects and do not form a distinct speech community. No L1 speakers of Lummi (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation, Samish Indian Nation, Swinomish Indian Tribal Community, Tulalip Tribes of Washington. Alternate Names: Lkwungen, Malchosen, Northern Straits Salish, Senčoten, Straits. Dialects: Lummi, Samish, Ts’ooke (T’Sou-ke), Songish, Semiahmoo. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Sea Island Creole English
[gul] Georgia: Sea Islands off coast; Michigan: Detroit; New York: New York City; North Carolina: Jacksonville coastal region; South Carolina: coastal lowlands to Jacksonville, Florida. 390 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 250,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Autonym: Geechee, Gullah. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility with other English-based creoles is undetermined. Reportedly similar to Bahamas Creole English [bah]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Afro-Seminole [afs]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Eastern, Northern. Comments: Linguistic influences from Fula [fub], Mende [men], upper Guinea coast, and Gambia River area (Hancock 1987).

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Seneca
[see] New York: Allegheny, Cattaraugus, and Tonawanda reservations. 100 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 census). 6,240 (1997 W. Chafe). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Seneca Nation of Indians, Seneca-Cayuga Nation, Tonawanda Band of Seneca, Niharondasa Seneca. Autonym: Onödowá’ga:. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Five Nations-Susquehannock.

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Serrano
[ser] California: south, San Bernardino and San Gorgonio Pass area. 1 (Golla 2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, San Manual Band of Serrano Mission Indians of the San Maual Reservation, Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Takic.

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Shasta
[sht] California: north. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2011). The last fluent speaker, Clara Wicks, died in 1978 (Golla 2011). Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon, Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Quartz Valley Indian Community of the Quartz Valley Reservation of California. Alternate Names: Sastean, Shastan. Dialects: Formerly 4 dialects. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: The people have merged their identity with the Karuk Tribe and consider Karuk [kyh] to be their heritage language.

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Shawnee
[sjw] Oklahoma: central and northeast. 260 (2015 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 11,500 (Golla 2007). 2,000 members of the Absentee Shawnee Tribe around Shawnee town (more than 100 speakers); 1,500 members of Eastern Shawnee Tribe in Ottawa County (a few elderly speakers). 8,000 members of the Loyal Shawnee in Cherokee region of Oklahoma around Whiteoak (fewer than 12 speakers) (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians, Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, Shawnee Tribe. Alternate Names: Savannah, Sewanee, Shawano. Classification: Algic, Algonquian.

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Shoshoni
[shh] Idaho: Fort Hall Reservation; Nevada: central to northeast. Wyoming: Wind River Reservation (Northern Shoshoni dialect); Utah: west (Gosiute dialect). 1,000 (Golla 2007). There are an additional 1,000 speakers who are not fluent (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 7,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Reservation (Nevada and Utah), Duckwater Shoshone Tribe of the Duckwater Reservation, Ely Shoshone Tribe of Nevada, Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes of the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation (Nevada and Oregon), Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation, Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony, Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation of Idaho, Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians of Utah, Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada, Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada, Yomba Shoshone Tribe of the Yomba Reservation. Alternate Names: Shoshone. Dialects: Gosiute (Goshute), Western Shoshoni, Northern Shoshoni. Wind River Shoshoni is a subdialect of Northern Shoshoni, spoken at Wind River Reservation. Reportedly similar to Comanche [com] and Timbisha [par], which are not inherently intelligible of Shoshoni. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central.

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Siuslaw
[sis] Oregon: south coast. No known L1 speakers (2000). No speakers by the 1970s (Golla 2007). No speakers of Siuslaw for many years (1998 M. Kinkade). Ethnic population: 100 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Coos; Lower Umpqua; and Siuslaw Indians of Oregon, Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation. Alternate Names: Lower Umpqua, Siuslawan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Skagit
[ska] Washington: Puget Sound east side. 100 (1977 SIL). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Swinomish, Tulalip. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed. Comments: Lushootseed [lut] is the name used by most scholars for Skagit, Snohomish [sno] and Southern Lushootseed [slh] as a whole.

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Snohomish
[sno] Washington: northwest, Tulalip Reservation. 10 (1998 J. Brook). Ethnic population: 800 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Northern Lushootseed (Northern Puget Sound Salish). Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed. Comments: Lushootseed [lut] is the name used by most scholars for Snohomish, Skagit [ska], and Southern Lushootseed [slh] as a group.

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Southern Lushootseed
[slh] Washington: south end of Puget Sound. 210 (2010 census). 5 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,300 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Nisqually Indian Tribe, Snoqualmie Indian Tribe, Squaxin Island Tribe of the Squaxin Island Reservation, Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation, Tulalip Tribes of Washington. Alternate Names: Southern Puget Sound Salish. Dialects: Duwamish, Muckleshoot, Nisqually, Puyallup, Snoqualmie, Suquh, Southern Lushootseed, Sahewamish, Suquamish, Skykomish. Classification: Salish, Central Salish, Lushootseed. Comments: Lushootseed [lut] is the name used by most scholars for Southern Lushootseed, Skagit [ska], and Snohomish [sno] as a group.

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Spanish
[spa] Widespread. 58,200,000 in United States, all users. L1 users: 43,200,000 (2016 census). L2 users: 15,000,000 (Instituto Cervantes 2016). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in New Mexico. Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Dialects: Chicano (Caló), Isleno (Isleño, Islenyo). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Population increased 61% or more since 1970. About 40,000 Islenos in New Orleans speak Isleno, a distinct variety of Canary Island Spanish, which may now face extinction after Hurricane Katrina.

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Spokane
[spo] Washington: northeast. 2 (Golla 2007). Also a few semispeakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation. Alternate Names: Spokan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kalispel-Pend d’Oreille [fla]. Classification: Salish, Interior, Southern, Kalispel.

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Tagalog
[tgl] Hawaii; scattered elsewhere. 1,610,000 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tanacross
[tcb] Alaska: Dot Lake, Tanacross, Upper Tanana area, Healy Lake, and Tok. 60 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 220 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Healy Lake Village, Native Village of Tanacross, Village of Dot Lake. Autonym: Nee’anděg’. Dialects: Healy Lake, Mansfield-Ketchumstuck. Little dialect variation. Mansfield-Ketchumstuck is most important politically and numerically. Reportedly most similar to Upper Tanana [tau], but with different tone systems. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Recognized as a distinct language in the 1970s.

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Tanaina
[tfn] Alaska: Cook Inlet and adjacent area. 90 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Eklutna Native Village, Kenaitze Indian Tribe, Knik Tribe, Lime Village, Native Village of Tyonek, Ninilchik Village, Nondalton Village, Pedro Bay Village, Village of Red Devil, Village of Salamatoff, Village of Stony River. Alternate Names: Dena’ina, Kinayskiy. Dialects: Kenai Peninsula, Upper Inlet, Coastal-Inland, Stoney River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Tanana, Lower
[taa] Alaska: Tanana river below Fairbanks, Minto, and Nenana. 15 (Krauss 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Krauss 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Native Village of Minto, Nenana Native Association. Alternate Names: Tanana, Tanana Athabaskan. Dialects: Chena, Salcha-Goodpaster. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan. Comments: Chena River dialect became extinct in 1976 and Salcha-Goodpaster in 1993.

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Tanana, Upper
[tau] Alaska: upper Tanana river area, Northway, Tetlin, and Tok villages. 100 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 300 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: 110. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Native Village of Tetlin, Northway Village. Alternate Names: Nabesna. Autonym: Nee’aaneegn’. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Northern Athabaskan.

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Tenino
[tqn] Oregon: Warm Springs Reservation. 50 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Alternate Names: Celilo, Columbia River Sahaptin, Umatilla-Tenino, Warm Springs. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin.

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Tewa
[tew] Arizona: Hano and Hopi Reservation; New Mexico: Nambe, Pojoaque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Clara, North of Santa Fe, and Tesuque pueblos. 1,500 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,200 speakers in New Mexico, 300 in Arizona (Golla 2007). 18 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Hopi Tribe of Arizona, Ohkay Owingeh, Pueblo of Nambe, Pueblo of Pojoaque, Pueblo of San Ildefonso, Pueblo of Santa Clara, Pueblo of Tesuque. Alternate Names: Tano. Dialects: Hano, Nambe, Pojoaque, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Clara, Tesuque. Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan.

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Tillamook
[til] Oregon: northwest. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Minnie Scovell, died in 1972 (2009 Tillamook Headlight Herald). Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of Oregon, Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation. Classification: Salish.

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Timbisha
[par] California: Little Lake area in south Eureka Valley; Owens Lake, Coso Range, south Owens Valley area; Nevada: Amargosa Desert, Argus range, Beatty area, north and central Death Valley; Funeral Range on California-Nevada border; Grapevine mountains; Inyo mountains east slopes, northern Panamint valley and mountains; Saline valley. 20 (Golla 2007). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Big Pine Band Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley, Bishop Paiute Tribe, Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Tribe, Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians of the Fort Independence Reservation, Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe. Alternate Names: Coso, Koso, Koso Shoshone, Panamint, Panamint Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshoni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Comanche [com] but not inherently intelligible with them. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Central.

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Tiwa, Northern
[twf] New Mexico: north central. 1,070 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007), decreasing. 998 Taos, 66 Picuris speakers (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Picuris spoken by nearly all 230 members of the Picuris Pueblo. 800 Taos speakers out of 1,600 in the pueblo (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,830 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Pueblo of Picuris, Pueblo of Taos. Dialects: Taos, Picuris. Taos and Picuris are not mutually intelligible (Golla 2007). Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan, Tanoan.

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Tiwa, Southern
[tix] New Mexico: Isleta and Sandia pueblos, north and south of Albuquerque. 1,600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,500 Isleta, 100 Sandia speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007). Including 4,000 Isleta and 500 Sandia (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Pueblo of Isleta, Pueblo of Sandia, Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo. Dialects: Sandia, Isleta (Isleta Pueblo). Classification: Kiowa-Tanoan, Tanoan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tlingit
[tli] Alaska: Carcross-Tagish inland, Ketchikan south to Yakutat north. 1,240 (2015 census), decreasing. 500 fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 10,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Total users in all countries: 1,242. Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Angoon Community Association, Central Council of the Tlingit & Haida Indian Tribes, Chilkat Indian Village (Klukwan), Chilkoot Indian Association (Haines), Craig Community Association, Douglas Indian Association, Hoonah Indian Association, Ketchikan Indian Corporation, Klawock Cooperative Association, Organized Village of Kake, Organized Village of Saxman, Petersburg Indian Association, Sitka Tribe of Alaska, Skagway Village, Wrangell Cooperative Association, Yakutat Tlingit Tribe. Alternate Names: Kolosch, Kolosh, Thlinget, Tlinkit. Autonym: Łingít. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Tlingit. Comments: Rich documentation of Tlingit literature and oratory in publications by Nora and Richard Dauenhauer (Golla 2007).

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Tohono O’odham
[ood] Arizona: south central. 60 villages on 7 reservations. 14,000 (Golla 2007). 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 33,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Total users in all countries: 14,160. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian Reservation, Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Tohono O’odham Nation of Arizona. Alternate Names: Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Upper Piman. Autonym: Tohono O’otham. Dialects: Tohono O’odam (“Papago” (pej.)), Akimel O’odham (Pima). Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Pimic. Comments: Different from Pima Bajo [pia] of Mexico.

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Tolowa
[tol] California: Smith River Rancheria, near Crescent City. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007), but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Big Lagoon Rancheria, Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, Elk Valley Rancheria, Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation. Alternate Names: Smith River. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tolowa-Chetco. Comments: Chasta Costa was a separate tribe in Oregon; now extinct.

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Tonkawa
[tqw] Oklahoma: central. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the late 1960s. Ethnic population: 200 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Tonkawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Classification: Language isolate.

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Tsimshian
[tsi] Alaska: Annette island, New Metlakatla, on panhandle tip; Ketchikan. 40 (2015 census). Ethnic population: 1,300 (Golla 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Metlakatla Indian Community; Annette Island Reserve. Alternate Names: Chimmezyan, Sm’algyax, Tsimshean, Zimshian. Classification: Tsimshian.

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Tübatulabal
[tub] California: south central near Bakersfield. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Jim Andreas, died in 2008 (Golla 2011). Ethnic population: 900 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation. Alternate Names: Pahkaanil, Pakaanil, Pakanapul. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan.

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Tunica
[tun] Louisiana: north central. 32, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (2000), but emerging L2 speakers. The last known native speaker, Sesostrie Youchigant (aka Sam Young), died in 1948 (1964 M. Haas). L2 users: 32 (2017 J. Maxwell). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe of Louisiana. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Heritage language of the Tunica-Biloxi Tribe of Marksville, Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana.

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Tuscarora
[tus] New York: Tuscarora Reservation near Niagara Falls; North Carolina: east. 2 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,200 (1997 M. Mithun). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Tuscarora Nation of New York. Alternate Names: Ska:rù:rę’, Skarohreh. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Tuscarora-Nottoway.

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Tututni
[tuu] Oregon: southwest. 3 (2017). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, Oregon Athabaskan, Tututni-Chasta Costa-Coquille. Comments: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation adopted Deene, a standardized form of Oregon Athabaskan based on Tolowa [tol] rather than Tututni, as the heritage language of the group (Golla 2007).

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Twana
[twa] Washington: Puget Sound area. No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker died in 1980 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Skokomish Indian Tribe. Alternate Names: Skokomish, Ti’tuwaduqut’sid, Tuwa’duqx. Dialects: Skokomish, Quilcene. Classification: Salish, Central Salish.

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Umatilla
[uma] Oregon: Umatilla Reservation, northeast. 25 (Golla 2007). 25–50 Umatilla and Walla Walla [waa] speakers together. Ethnic population: 120 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Alternate Names: Columbia River Sahaptin, Ichishkíin. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin.

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Unami
[unm] Oklahoma: Andarko, Bartlesville, Moraviantown. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. The last known speaker, Edward Thompson, died in 2002. Ethnic population: 11,000 (2015). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Delaware Nation, Delaware Tribe of Indians. Alternate Names: Delaware, Lenape, Lenni-Lenape. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Delaware [del]. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian, Delaware.

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Ute-Southern Paiute
[ute] Colorado: southwest and Utah: southeast and northeast (Ute dialect); Utah: southwest; Arizona:north; Nevada: south; New Mexico: northwest (Southern Paiute dialect); California: lower Colorado river (Chemehuevi dialect). 1,900 (2015 census). 3 Chemehuevi on Chemehuevi Reservation, 10 on Colorado River Reservation (Hinton 1994). 20 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 6,230 (Golla 2007). Ute: 4,800; Southern Paiute: 1,430 (Golla 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, Cabazon Band of Mission Indians, Chemehuevi Indian Tribe of the Chemehuevi Reservation, Colorado River Indian Tribes of the Colorado River Indian Reservation (Arizona and California), Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians of the Kaibab Indian Reservation, Las Vegas Tribe of Paiute Indians of the Las Vegas Indian Colony, Moapa Band of Paiute Indians of the Moapa River Indian Reservation, Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians, Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah, San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe of Arizona, Soboba Band of Luiseño Indians, Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation, Torres-Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians, Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California, Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation, Ute Mountain Ute Tribe (Colorado; New Mexico; Utah). Alternate Names: Colorado River Numic, Southern Paiute, Ute-Chemehuevi. Dialects: Southern Paiute, Ute, Chemehuevi. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern.

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Ventureño
[veo] California: south near Santa Barbara. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died before 1950 (Golla 2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: Not intelligible with other Chumash varieties. Had multiple dialects. Classification: Chumashan, Central Chumash.

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Wailaki
[wlk] California: north. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in the 1960s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Grindstone Indian Rancheria of Wintun-Wailaki Indians of California, Round Valley Indian Tribes-Round Valley Reservation, Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California. Classification: Eyak-Athabaskan, Athabaskan, Pacific Coast Athabaskan, California Athabaskan.

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Walla Walla
[waa] Oregon: Umatilla Reservation. 25 (Golla 2007). 25–50 Walla Walla and Umatilla [uma] speakers together (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 700 (1977 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. Alternate Names: Ichishkíin, Northeast Sahaptin. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin.

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Wampanoag
[wam] Massachusetts: southeast. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2006). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) of Massachusetts. Alternate Names: Massachusett, Massachusetts, Natick. Autonym: Wôpanâak. Classification: Algic, Algonquian, Eastern Algonquian.

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Wappo
[wao] California: north of San Francisco Bay. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Laura Fish Somersal, died in 1990. Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Middletown Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California. Classification: Yukian.

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Wasco-Wishram
[wac] Oregon: north central; Washington: south central. No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012 (2012 Oregon Public Broadcasting). Ethnic population: 750 (1977 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. Alternate Names: Columbia Chinook, Kiksht, Upper Chinook, Wasco, Wishram. Dialects: Clackama (Clackamas), Kiksht, Multnomah, Cathlamet (Kathlamet). Classification: Chinookan, Upper Chinookan.

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Washo
[was] California; Nevada; southeast of Lake Tahoe. 10 (1998 J. Brook). Several dozen fully fluent speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Susanville Indian Rancheria, Washoe Tribe (Nevada and California). Alternate Names: Washoe. Classification: Language isolate.

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Wichita
[wic] Oklahoma: Caddo county, Anadarko. No known L1 speakers (2016). The last speaker, Doris Jean Lamar-McLemore, died in 2016 (2016 R. Poolaw). Ethnic population: 2,100 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita; Keechi; Waco; Tawakonie). Dialects: Waco, Tawakoni. Reportedly similar to Kitsai [kii] and Pawnee [paw]. Classification: Caddoan, Northern Caddoan.

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Wintu
[wnw] California: Hayfork, Redding, Trinity Center, Weaverville in north Sacramento valley, north of Cottonwood creek, into mountains to Trinity river headwaters. No known L1 speakers. The last known speaker, Flora Jones, died in 2003 (Golla 2011). Status: 10 (Extinct). Language of registered tribe: Redding Rancheria. Alternate Names: Northern Wintun, Wintun. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nomlaki [nol] and Patwin [pwi]. Classification: Wintuan.

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Wiyot
[wiy] California: northwest. No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Della Prince, died in 1962 (1975 K. Teeter). Ethnic population: 450 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, Blue Lake Rancheria, Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, Wiyot Tribe. Classification: Algic, Ritwan.

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Wyandot
[wya] Oklahoma: Wyandotte, northeast. No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. Last speaker died about 1960 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 3,600 (Golla 2007). Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Wyandotte Nation. Alternate Names: Wendat, Wyandotte, Wyendat. Dialects: Huron, Wyandot. Classification: Iroquoian, Northern Iroquoian, Five Nations-Huronian-Susquehannock, Huronian, Huron-Petun.

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Yakama
[yak] Washington: Toppenish, on Yakima Reservation, south central. 25 (Golla 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (1977 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation. Alternate Names: Ichishkíin, Waptailmim, Yakima. Dialects: Klikitat. Classification: Sahaptian, Sahaptin. Comments: Together with Upper Cowlitz and Klikitat, sometimes called Northwest Sahaptin.

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Yaqui
[yaq] Arizona: Pascua. 640 (2015 census). 2 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Pascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona. Alternate Names: Hiak-nooki, Yoeme. Classification: Uto-Aztecan, Southern Uto-Aztecan, Taracahitic, Cahitan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Yaqui speakers in the United States migrated from Mexico at the beginning of the twentieth century (Fernández and Guerrero 2007).

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Scattered with concentrations in major urban centers. 156,000 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yokuts
[yok] California: San Joaquin river and valley; Sierra Nevada slopes. 50 (Golla 2007). Wukchumne dialect: fewer than 10; Choinumne dialect: 6; Yowlumne dialect: 20–25 fluent and semispeakers; Chukchansi: a few semispeakers; Tachi dialect: a few speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Picayune Rancheria of Chukchansi Indians of California, Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa Rosa Rancheria, Table Mountain Rancheria of California, Tejon Indian Tribe, Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation, Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California. Dialects: Southern Foothill Yokuts, Valley Yokuts, Wukchumne (Wukchumni), Choinumne (Choinimne, Choynumne), Yowlumne, Chukchansi (Northern Foothill Yokuts), Tachi, Dumna, Gashowu. Many subvarieties. Southern Foothill and Valley Yokuts dialects are extinct. Classification: Yokutsan.

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Yuchi
[yuc] Oklahoma: Bristow and Hectorsville, east central among Creek people, near Sapulpa. 16, all users. L1 users: 4 (2016 R. Grounds). L2 users: 12 (2016 R. Grounds). Ethnic population: 1,500 (Golla 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Euchee, Tsoyaha, Uchean, Uchi, Yuchee, zOyaha. Classification: Language isolate.

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Yuki
[yuk] California: Round Valley Reservation north. No known L1 speakers (Golla 2011). The last speaker, Arthur Anderson, died around 1990 (Golla 2011). Ethnic population: 1,200 (2000 A. Yamamoto). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Round Valley Indian Tribes-Round Valley Reservation. Classification: Yukian, Core Yukian.

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Yupik, Central
[esu] Alaska: Delta area, Nunivak Island, Unalakleet to Bristol Bay coast to Unalakleet on Norton Sound; inland along Kuskokwim, Nushagak, and Yukon rivers; Chevak (Cup’ik dialect). 10,000 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 25,000 (Dorais 2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Akiachak Native Community, Akiak Native Community, Algaaciq Native Village (St. Mary’s), Asa’carsarmiut Tribe, Chevak Native Village, Chinik Eskimo Community (Golovin), Chuloonawick Native Village, Curyung Tribal Council, Egegik Village, Ekwok Village, Emmonak Village, Holy Cross Village, Igiugig Village, Iqurmuit Traditional Council, Kasigluk Traditional Elders Council, Kokhanok Village, Levelock Village, Manokotak Village, Naknek Native Village, Native Village of Aleknagik, Native Village of Chuathbaluk (Russian Mission; Kuskokwim), Native Village of Eek, Native Village of Ekuk, Native Village of Elim, Native Village of Georgetown, Native Village of Goodnews Bay, Native Village of Hamilton, Native Village of Hooper Bay, Native Village of Kipnuk, Native Village of Kongiganak, Native Village of Kwigillingok, Native Village of Kwinhagak (Quinhagak), Native Village of Marshall (Fortuna Ledge), Native Village of Mekoryuk, Native Village of Napaimute, Native Village of Napakiak, Native Village of Napaskiak, Native Village of Nightmute, Native Village of Nunam Iqua, Native Village of Nunapitchuk, Native Village of Paimiut, Native Village of Pitka’s Point, Native Village of Saint Michael, Native Village of Scammon Bay, Native Village of Tuntutuliak, Native Village of Tununak, New Koliganek Village Council, New Stuyahok Village, Newhalen Village, Newtok Village, Nunakauyarmiut Tribe, Organized Village of Kwethluk, Orutsararmuit Native Village (Bethel), Oscarville Traditional Village, Pilot Station Traditional Village, Platinum Traditional Village, Portage Creek Village (Ohgsenakale), South Naknek Village, Stebbins Community Association, Traditional Village of Togiak, Tuluksak Native Community, Twin Hills Village, Umkumiute Native Village, Village of Alakanuk, Village of Aniak, Village of Atmautluak, Village of Bill Moore’s Slough, Village of Chefornak, Village of Clarks Point, Village of Crooked Creek, Village of Iliamna, Village of Kalskag, Village of Kotlik, Village of Lower Kalskag, Village of Ohogamiut, Village of Red Devil, Village of Sleetmute, Village of Stony River, Yupiit of Andreafski. Alternate Names: Central Alaskan Yupik. Dialects: Western Mampruli, General Central Yupik, Hoopes Bay (Unaliq), Unaliq. 3 quite distinct dialects. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan Yupik.

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Yupik, Central Siberian
[ess] Alaska: Gambell, Savoonga on Saint Lawrence Island. 1,000 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 1,400 (Dorais 2010). Total users in all countries: 1,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Native Village of Gambell, Native Village of Savoonga. Alternate Names: Bering Strait Yupik, Saint Lawrence Island Eskimo, Saint Lawrence Island Yupik, Sivuqaghmiistun, Yoit, Yuit. Autonym: Yupik. Dialects: Chaplino. Chaplino and Naukan have 60%–70% mutual intelligibility. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik.

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Yupik, Pacific Gulf
[ems] Alaska: Prince William Sound area, Tatitlek, Chenega Bay, Cordova, a few in Valdez; Kenai peninsula southwest coast, Cook Inlet entrance, Nanwalek, Port Graham, and Seldovia. 200 (Dorais 2010). Ethnic population: 3,500 (Dorais 2010). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Official Languages of Alaska Law as amended, Alaska Statute 44.12.310). Language of registered tribe: Chignik Bay Tribal Council, Chignik Lake Village, Ivanoff Bay Village, Kaguyak Village, Native Village of Afognak, Native Village of Akhiok, Native Village of Chenega (Chanega), Native Village of Chignik Lagoon, Native Village of Eyak (Cordova), Native Village of Kanatak, Native Village of Karluk, Native Village of Larsen Bay, Native Village of Nanwalek (English Bay), Native Village of Ouzinkie, Native Village of Perryville, Native Village of Pilot Point, Native Village of Port Graham, Native Village of Port Heiden, Native Village of Port Lions, Native Village of Tatitlek, Ninilchik Village, Seldovia Village Tribe, Sun’aq Tribe of Kodiak, Tangirnaq Native Village, Ugashik Village, Village of Old Harbor. Alternate Names: Aleut, Alutiiq, Chugach Eskimo, Koniag-Chugach, Pacific Yupik, South Alaska Eskimo, Sugcestun, Sugpiak Eskimo, Sugpiaq Eskimo, Suk. Autonym: Sugpiaq. Dialects: Chugach, Koniag. Classification: Eskimo-Aleut, Eskimo, Yupik, Alaskan Yupik.

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Yurok
[yur] California: northwest. No known L1 speakers (2013). The last speaker, Archie Thompson, died in 2013 (L. Romney). A few dozen semispeakers and passive speakers, middle-aged or older (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,000 (Golla 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Big Lagoon Rancheria, Blue Lake Rancheria, Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, Elk Valley Rancheria, Resighini Rancheria, Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation, Yurok Tribe of the Yurok Reservation. Classification: Algic, Ritwan.

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Zuni
[zun] New Mexico: south McKinley County Reservation, south of Gallup. 9,620 (2015 census), increasing. Few, if any, monolinguals (2000). Ethnic population: 9,650. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation. Alternate Names: Ashiwi, Shiwi, Zuñi. Autonym: Shiwi’ma. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Traditional religion.

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