Vanuatu

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Akei
[tsr] Sanma province: southwest Espiritu Santo island. 650 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tasiriki. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Fortsenal [frt]. Complex dialect chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Ambae, East
[omb] Penama province: Ambae (Leper’s) island. 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aoba, Northeast Ambae, Northeast Aoba, Oba, Omba, Walurigi. Dialects: Lombaha (Lobaha), Longana, Lolokaro (Lolokara, Lolsiwoi), Lolovoli. About 15 dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: Christian.

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Ambae, West
[nnd] Penama province: west Ambae (Aoba, Leper’s) island. 8,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Duidui, Opa. Dialects: Walaha, Nduindui (Duindui). Many dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Amblong
[alm] Sanma province: south Espiritu Santo island. 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 220. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Narango [nrg] and Morouas [mrp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Ambrym, North
[mmg] Malampa province: north Ambrym island. 5,250 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Magam, Olal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ambrym, Southeast
[tvk] Malampa province: southeast Ambrym island. 3,700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Taveak (Taviak), Endu, Toak, Penapo. Linguistically similar to Paama [pma]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Aneityum
[aty] Tafea province: Aneityum island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aneiteum, Aneiteumese, Anejom. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Aneityum.

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Aore
[aor] Sanma province: east Espiritu Santo island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Malo [mla] and Tutuba [tmi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Comments: Map not updated.

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Apma
[app] Penama province: central Pentecost (Raga). 7,800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abma, Central Raga. Dialects: Asuk (Asa, Asu), Suru Mwerani, Suru Rabwanga (Suru Bo), Suru Kavian, Wolwolan (Volvoluana). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: Suru Kavian dialect is referred to in some sources as a dialect of Namaram, though no longer the major dialect spoken there; Bwatnapni village dialect is a mixture of Suru Mwerani and Suru Rabwanga; Asuk and Wolwolan dialects are extinct or poorly known.

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Araki
[akr] Sanma province: Araki island, south Espiritu Santo island. 8 Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Aulua
[aul] Malampa province: east Malekula. 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aulua Bay. Dialects: Onesso, Boinelang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Avava
[tmb] Malampa province: central Malekula. 700 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Katbol, Navava, Taremp, Tembimbe-Katbol, Tisvel, Vava. Dialects: Bangasa, Nevaar, Nevat, Timbembe. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Axamb
[ahb] Malampa province: south Malekula. 750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahamb. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Baetora
[btr] Penama province: Maewo island. 1,330 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Nasawa, Talise, Narovorovo. Considerable dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Baki
[bki] Shefa province: west Epi. 350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Few monolinguals, youngest and oldest. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Burumba, Paki. Dialects: Slight dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo. Comments: Christian.

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Banam Bay
[vrt] Malampa province: southeast Malekula. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banan Bay, Burmbar, Vartavo. Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Bierebo
[bnk] Shefa province: west Epi, south of Lamenu [lmu] and north of Baki [bki] language areas. 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,140. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonkovia-Yevali. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Baki-Bierebo.

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Bieria
[brj] Shefa province: south Epi, between Maii [mmm] and Lewo [lmu] language areas. 70 (Early 2006), decreasing. Ethnic population: 100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bieri, Vovo, Wowo. Dialects: Bieria, Vovo (Wowo). Wurm and Hattori (1981) treat Bieria and Vovo as separate languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii. Comments: Christian.

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Bislama
[bis] Widespread. 10,000 in Vanuatu (2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 95% Melanesian. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1980, Constitution, Art 3(1)). Most in the country understand and use it as lingua franca and as a symbol of national identity. Alternate Names: Bichelamar. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Pijin [pis] (Solomon Islands) and Tok Pisin [tpi] (Papua New Guinea), but, unlike them, Bislama has some French loanwords. Classification: Creole, English based, Pacific. Comments: Christian.

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Butmas-Tur
[bnr] Sanma province: east central Espiritu Santo island. 520 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ati. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South.

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Daakaka
[bpa] Malampa province: south Ambrym. 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baiap, Dakaka, South Ambrym. Dialects: Sesivi. Several other dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Dixon Reef
[dix] Malampa province: southwest Malekula. 50 (1982 SIL). Likely fewer than the 50 reported in 1982 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 60. 80% of the ethnic group speaks Dixon Reef. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas.

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Dorig
[wwo] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Gaua island, Dorig and Kweteon villages. 200 (2003 A. François). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wetamut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Efate, North
[llp] Shefa province: north Efate island, Nguna, Tongoa, and several smaller islands, southeast Epi. 9,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nakanamanga. Dialects: Nguna (Guna, Ngunese, Tongoa), Buninga, Sesake, Emau, Paunangis, Livara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu.

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Efate, South
[erk] Shefa province: Efate island. 6,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Population includes Eton [etn]. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erakor, Fate, Southern Efate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu.

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Emae
[mmw] Shefa province: Emae, Sesake and Three Hills islands. 2 villages. 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emai, Emwae, Mae, Mai, Mwae. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic.

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English
[eng] 1,900 in Vanuatu (1995). L2 users: 120,000 in Vanuatu (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1980, Constitution, Art 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Eton
[etn] Shefa province: southeast Efate island, Eton, Pang Pang, and surrounding villages. 500 (1989 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Efate, Epwau. Dialects: Eton, Pang Pang. Formerly thought a dialect of South Efate [erk]. 88% inherent intelligibility of Lelepa [lpa], 64% of South Efate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu.

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Fanbak
[fnb] Malampa province: North Ambrym island, Faramsu, Ranvetlam, and Konkon villages. 95 (2015 M. Franjieh). Ethnic population: 190 (2015 M. Franjieh). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Orkon. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with North Ambrym [mmg] and 40% with Southeast Ambrym [tvk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Fortsenal
[frt] Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island. 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 560. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kiai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Akei [tsr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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French
[fra] 6,300 in Vanuatu (1995). L2 users: 73,400 in Vanuatu (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1980, Consitution, Art 3(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Futuna-Aniwa
[fut] Tafea province: Aniwa and West Futuna islands, east of Tanna. 1,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erronan, West Futuna-Aniwa. Dialects: West Futuna (Fotuna), Aniwa (Anewa). Significant differences between West Futunan and Aniwan dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic. Comments: Distinct from (East) Futuna [fud] on Futuna Island in French Territory of Wallis and Futuna.

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Hano
[lml] Penama province: south Maewo, north Pentecost (Raga), and Whitsuntide islands. 6,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bwatvenua, Lamalanga, North Raga, Qatvenua, Raga, Vunmarama. Dialects: Nggasai (Kasai). Slight dialect differences; the last Nggasai dialect speaker died 1999. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: ‘Hano’ is the name preferred locally.

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Hiw
[hiw] Torba province: Hiw island, Torres Islands. 150 (2007 A. François). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hiu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Ifo
[iff] Tafea province: south Erromanga island. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1954. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Utaha. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga.

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Koro
[krf] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Gaua island, Koro and Mekeon villages. 160 (2003 A. François). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Kwamera
[tnk] Tafea province: Galilee, Greenpoint, Imaki, Imayo, Kwamera, Kwaraka, Port Resolution, Samaria, Yenmarei, and Yeruareng are major villages on southeast Tanna coast. 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nafe, Neninafe. Dialects: 2 main dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna. Comments: Christian.

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Lakon
[lkn] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Gaua island. 700 (2003 A. François). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lakona, Lakona Bay, West Gaua. Dialects: Qatareu, Togla, Vure. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Lamenu
[lmu] Shefa province: Varmali region, Epi island northwest tip, Lamenu island; Luganville, Port Vila, and Sara villages. 850 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamen, Lewo, Lewo-Lamen, Varmali. Dialects: Galoparua, Galokumali, Galovasoro. Lexical similarity: borderline with Lewo [lww], but strong local identification as separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo. Comments: Population of Lamenu and Epi was over 14,000, but was reduced to 800 in early 1900s due to disease and economic dependence. Christian.

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Larevat
[lrv] Malampa province: central Malekula. 680 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laravat. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Lehali
[tql] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Ureparapara island west coast. 250 (2007 A. François). Ethnic population: 350. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Teqel. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Lelepa
[lpa] Shefa province: west Efate island, Lelepa island, Mangaliliu and Napkoa. 400 (1989 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Havannah Harbour. Dialects: Formerly thought a dialect of North Efate [llp]. Also related to South Efate [erk]. 84% inherent intelligibility of Eton [etn], 88% of South Efate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu.

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Lemerig
[lrz] Torba province: Vanua Lava island, northeast coastal villages. 2 (2008 A. François). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bek, Leon, Päk, Sasar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Vera’a [vra] and Mosina [msn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Lenakel
[tnl] Tafea province: west central Tanna. 11,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tanna. Dialects: Loanatit, Nerauya, Itonga, Ikyoo. Complex dialect chain; up to 10 dialects (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna.

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Letemboi
[nms] Malampa province: south Malekula. 800 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,100 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Small Nambas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas.

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Lewo
[lww] Shefa province: east Epi island, Varmali and Varsu regions. 2,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Only very elderly and very young are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Varsu. Dialects: Tasiko, Mate-Nul-Filakara. Lexical similarity: borderline with Lamenu [lmu] but strong community perception that it is a different language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Lamenu-Baki, Lamenu-Lewo. Comments: Christian.

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Litzlitz
[lzl] Malampa province: Malekula. 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lagalag, Litzlitz-Visele, Lolnarrong, Naman, Netensal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Lo-Toga
[lht] Torba province: Torres islands. 650 (2007 A. François). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Loh-Toga. Dialects: Lo, Toga. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Lonwolwol
[crc] Malampa province: west Ambrym island; Efate island, Maat village. 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ambrym, Craig Cove, Fali, Fanting, West Ambrym. Dialects: 2 main dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Lorediakarkar
[lnn] Sanma province: Espiritu Santo island, central east coast. 340 (2000). Ethnic population: 850. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shark Bay [ssv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South.

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Löyöp
[urr] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Divers bay area, Ureparapara island. 250 (2007 A. François). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Divers Bay, Lehalurup. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Mae
[mme] Malampa province: Malekula. 1,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dirak. Dialects: North Small Nambas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Maewo, Central
[mwo] Penama province: Maewo (Aurora) island. 1,400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Maewo, Sungwadaga, Tanoriki. Dialects: Lotora. Arata and Bangoro may be dialects or closely related languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Mafea
[mkv] Sanma province: east Espiritu Santo and Mafea islands. 250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 730 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mavea. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Maii
[mmm] Shefa province: southwest Epi, Mafilau village; north of Bieria [brj] language area, south of Baki [bki] language area. 180 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 260 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mae-Morae, Mafilau, Mkir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Epi, Bieria-Maii.

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Malo
[mla] Sanma province: north Malo island; some in Port Vila and Santo. 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Avunatari (North Malo), Ataripoe (South Malo), Tamambo, Tamapo. Reportedly similar to Araki [akr], Aore [aor] (extinct), and Tutuba [tmi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Malua Bay
[mll] Malampa province: Malekula, northwest coast. 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 715 (2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Espiegle Bay, Middle Nambas. Dialects: Several dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Maragus
[mrs] Malampa province: Malekula, central north. 15 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Maragaus, Tape, Tobah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Marino
[mrb] Penama province: north Maewo. 500 (2008 A. Henri), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naone, North Maewo, Sunwadia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: Christian.

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Maskelynes
[klv] Malampa province: southeast Malekula, Maskelyne Islands. 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kuliviu, Maskelyne Islands. Dialects: Uliveo, Uluveu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Comments: Christian.

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Mele-Fila
[mxe] Shefa province: Efate, Mele village; Ifara island. 3,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fila-Mele, Ifara-Mele, Ifira-Mele. Dialects: Fila (Efira, Fira, Ifira), Mele. Significant differences between Mele and Fila. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, Samoic-Outlier, Futunic.

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Merei
[lmb] Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island, between Lape and Ora rivers north of Morouas. 400 (1997 J. Chung). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lametin. Dialects: Winiv. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Comments: ‘Merei’ is self name. Christian.

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Morouas
[mrp] Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island. 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moruas. Dialects: Several dialects. Possibly a dialect subgroup with Amblong [alm] and Narango [nrg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Mota
[mtt] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Mota (Sugarloaf) island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Mpotovoro
[mvt] Malampa province: Malekula, north tip. 430 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 610. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Mwerlap
[mrm] Torba province: Mere Lava and Merig islands. 1,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Merelava, Merlav, Merlav-Merig. Dialects: Matliwag, Mwerig (Merig), West Merelava. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Mwotlap
[mlv] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Mota Lava (Saddle) island. 1,800 (2007 A. François), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Motalava, Motlav. Dialects: Dagmel, Valuwa, Volow. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Na’ahai
[mlx] Malampa province: south Malekula. 600 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malfaxal, Malvaxal-Toman Island, Taman, Tomman. Dialects: Orierh (Na’ahai), Milip, Toman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Nahavaq
[sns] Malampa province: southwest Malekula. 600 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 860. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Labo, Lamangkau, Na’ahai, Nahapa, Seniang, Sinesip. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Namakura
[nmk] Shefa province: north Efate, Tongariki and Tongoa. 3,750 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makura, Namakir. Dialects: Tongoa Island, Tongariki Island, Buninga, Makura (Emwae Island), Mataso. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Central Vanuatu.

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Narango
[nrg] Sanma province: south Espiritu Santo island. 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 230. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Several dialects. Reportedly similar to Amblong [alm] and Morouas [mrp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Nasarian
[nvh] Malampa province: southwest coast of Malekula. 5 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Navut
[nsw] Sanma province: west central Espiritu Santo island. 520 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tiale [mnl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Neve’ei
[vnm] Malampa province: central west Malekula. 500 (Musgrave 2007). Ethnic population: 710. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banggor, Lambumbu, Nefe’ei, Telag, Vinmavis. Dialects: Winiv. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Neverver
[lgk] Malampa province: Malekula. 1,250 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bushman’s Bay, Lingarak, Nevwervwer. Dialects: Mindu, Wuli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Ninde
[mwi] Malampa province: Malekula, Southwest Bay town. 1,100 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Labo, Meaun, Mewun, Nide. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Labo. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nokuku
[nkk] Sanma province: northwest Espiritu Santo island. 160 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 400. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nogugu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Nume
[tgs] Torba province: northeast Gaua island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gaua, Gog, North-East Gaua, Tarasag. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: Distinct from Numee [kdk] of New Caledonia.

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Olrat
[olr] Torba province: Gaua island west coast, mainly Dolap village. 5 (2008). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Koro [krf] and Lakon [lkn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu. Comments: In the 20th century the Olrat moved from their mountain village to Gaua west coast villages and adopted the dominant language Lakon [lkn].

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Paama
[pma] Malampa province: Paama, 1 village on east Epi (Lopevi), large group in Vila. 6,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paama-Lopevi, Paamese, Pauma. Dialects: North Paama, South Paama. Reportedly similar to Southeast Ambrym [tvk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Piamatsina
[ptr] Sanma province: northwest Espitiru Santo island. 150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 210. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Vunapu [vnp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Polonombauk
[plb] Sanma province: southeast Espiritu Santo island. 120 (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 550. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South.

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Port Sandwich
[psw] Malampa province: southeast Malekula. 1,200 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lamap. Dialects: Several dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Port Vato
[ptv] Malampa province: southwest Ambrym island. 1,300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Repanbitip
[rpn] Malampa province: east Malekula. 90 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Small Nambas.

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Rerep
[pgk] Malampa province: east Malekula. 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pangkumu, Pangkumu Bay, Tisman. Dialects: Tisman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Roria
[rga] Sanma province: central Espiritu Santo island. 75 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mores. Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Sa
[sax] Penama province: south Raga island. 2,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Saa. Dialects: Ponorwal (South Raga), Lolatavola, Ninebulo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Sakao
[sku] Sanma province: northeast Espiritu Santo island. 4,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hog Harbour, Klep, N’kep, Sakau, Santo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, North. Comments: Christian.

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Seke
[ske] Penama province: Pentecost island. 300 (2011 K. Johnson). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ske. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Shark Bay
[ssv] Sanma province: east Espiritu Santo island and Litaro (Pilot) islands; Shark Bay coast. 450 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,130. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lorediakarkar [lnn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, East Santo, South.

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Sie
[erg] Tafea province: Erromanga island. 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eromanga, Erramanga, Erromanga, Erromangan, Sye. Dialects: Yoku (Enyau), Potnariven, Sie (Sorung). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga.

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Sowa
[sww] Penama province: central Raga island. 20 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Tambotalo
[tls] Sanma province: southeast Espiritu Santo island, Tambotalo village. 50 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 70. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Tangoa
[tgp] Sanma province: Tangoa island, off south Espiritu Santo island. 4 villages. 800 (2001 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Santo, South Santo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Comments: Distinct from Tongoa (Namakura [nmk] and North Efate [llp]) languages.

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Tanna, North
[tnn] Tafea province: north Tanna island. 5,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: East Tanna, West Tanna, Imafin. In a dialect chain. Reportedly similar to Whitesands [tnp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna.

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Tanna, Southwest
[nwi] Tafea province: southwest Tanna island. 4,500 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nafe, Naha, Nvhal, Yahurmene. Dialects: Siporo, Nowai, Vaha, Narpaimene. Complex dialect chain (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tasmate
[tmt] Sanma province: west Espiritu Santo island. 150 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 210. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo. Comments: May be same as Vunapu [vnp].

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Tiale
[mnl] Sanma province: north central Espiritu Santo island. 400 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 570. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malmariv. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Navut [nsw]; mutually intelligible with Merei [lmb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Tolomako
[tlm] Sanma province: Big Bay, Espiritu Santo island. 900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Big Bay, Marina, Tolomako-Jereviu. Dialects: Slight dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Tutuba
[tmi] Sanma province: Tutuba and south Espiritu Santo islands. 500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 1,250. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aore [aor] and Malo [mla]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Unua
[onu] Malampa province: east Malekula island. 750 (1999), increasing. 50 in Bush Unua. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Onua. Dialects: Bush Unua, Pangkumu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal. Comments: Christian.

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Ura
[uur] Tafea province: north Erromanga island. 6 (1998 T. Crowley). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Erromanga.

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Uripiv-Wala-Rano-Atchin
[upv] Malampa province: northeast Malekula and nearby islands. 9,000 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). 1,380 Atchin, 3,450 Uripiv-Wala-Rano. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northeast Malakula, Tirax. Dialects: Uripiv, Wala-Rano, Atchin (Nale). Dialect chain from Uripiv in the south to Atchin in the north. Lexical similarity: 85% at extremes of the dialect chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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Valpei
[vlp] Sanma province: northwest Espiritu Santo island. 300 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Valpay, Valpei-Hukua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Vao
[vao] Malampa province: north Malekula and Vao islands. 1,900 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Fooa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, Malekula Coastal.

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V’ënen Taut
[nmb] Malampa province: northwest Malekula. 3,350 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Big Nambas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Malekula Interior, Malekula Central.

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Vera’a
[vra] Torba province: Vanua Lava island west coast, Vera’a village. 300 (2005 A. François). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vatrata, Vetrat. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lemerig [lrz] and Vurës [msn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Vunapu
[vnp] Sanma province: northwest Espiritu Santo island. 380 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 540. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Piamatsina [ptr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Vurës
[msn] Torba province: Banks Islands group, Vanua Lava island. 1,100 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Vetumboso, Vuras, Vureas. Dialects: Mwesen (Mosin, Mosina). Lexical similarity: 88% with Mosina and Vures. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, East Vanuatu.

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Wailapa
[wlr] Sanma province: southwest Espiritu Santo island. 100 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 140. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: A dialect chain with Akei [tsr] and Penantsiro [ptr] at the extremes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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Whitesands
[tnp] Tafea province: Tanna island east coast. 7,500 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Napuanmen, Whitsands. Dialects: Weasisi (Wassisi), Lometimeti. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, South Vanuatu, Tanna.

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Wusi
[wsi] Sanma province: west Espiritu Santo island. 300 (Lynch and Crowley 2001). Ethnic population: 430. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wusi-Kerepua. Dialects: Some dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, North and Central Vanuatu, Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands, West Santo.

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