Zambia

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Afrikaans
[afr] 41,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian

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Aushi
[auh] North, Luapula Province. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 95,200 in Zambia (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Avaushi, Ushi, Usi, Uzhil, Vouaousi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.402)

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Bemba
[bem] North, Copperbelt and Luapula provinces. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 3,300,000 in Zambia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001), decreasing. 741,000 Bemba, 32,000 Luunda, 5,190 Shila, 26,400 Tabwa, 16,800 Cishinga, 28,200 Kabende, 6,710 Mukulu, 42,600 Ng’umbo, 14,000 Twa-Unga (1969 census). Population total all countries: 3,600,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in North, Copperbelt, and Luapula provinces. Alternate Names: Chibemba, Chiwemba, Cibemba, Ichibemba, Wemba Dialects: Chishinga, Kabende, Lembue, Lomotua (Lomotwa), Lunda (Luapula), Mukulu, Ngoma, Ng’umbo, Nwesi, Town Bemba, Twa of Bangweulu, Unga. Town Bemba has a Bemba base with heavy code mixing with English and neighboring Bantu languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.42) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bwile
[bwc] Luapula Province. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 12,400 in Zambia (1969 census). Population total all countries: 24,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Bwile (M.401)

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Chichewa
[nya] Eastern and Central provinces. 803,000 in Zambia (2006). 197,000 Chewa, 257,000 Ngoni, 8,030 Kunda (1969 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Eastern, Central provinces. Alternate Names: Chinyanja, Nyanja Dialects: Chewa (Cewa), Chingoni (Ngoni), Kunda, Manganja (Waganga), Nyasa, Peta (Chipeta, Cipeta, Malawi, Marave, Maravi). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Nyanja (N.31) Comments: Kunda dialect is distinct from Kunda [kdn] of Mozambique.

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Chokwe
[cjk] North-Western Province, east of Mbunda [mck] language area. 44,200 in Zambia (1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ciokwe, Cokwe, Djok, Shioko, Tschiokwe, Tshokwe Dialects: Minungo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.11)

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English
[eng] Widespread. 110,000 in Zambia (Crystal 2003). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 1(3)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Gujarati
[guj] 12,000 in Zambia (1985 IEM). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Gujarati Comments: Hindu.

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Ila
[ilb] Central and Southern provinces, Kafue river west bend, west of Sala [shq] language area. 71,200 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiila, Shukulumbwe, Sukulumbwe Dialects: Ila, Lumbu, Lundwe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.63)

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Kaonde
[kqn] North-Western and Central provinces, northwest of Mumbwa. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 207,000 in Zambia (2006). Population total all countries: 243,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chikahonde, Chikaonde, Kawonde, Luba Kaonde Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Kaonde (L.41)

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Khwe
[xuu] West, east of Zambezi river, Luzu village area, 6 villages; east of Luzu; Sakulinda village; 250 km northwest, southeast Senanga district, 3 remote settlements: Kashesha ki liwanika, Namafumbwana, and Sanze. 300 in Zambia (2006 M. Brenzinger). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: !Hukwe, Black Bushman, Cazama, Glanda-Khwe, Hukwe, Kxoe, Mbara Kwengo, Mbarakwena, Schekere, Vazama, Water Bushmen, Xu, Xuhwe, Xun, Zama Dialects: ||Xo-Kxoe. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest

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Kuhane
[sbs] Western Province, southeast corner. 5,490 in Zambia (1969 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikuahane, Chikwahane, Echisubia, Subia, Subiya, Supia Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subia (K.401) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kunda
[kdn] Southeast Central Province. 43,800 in Zambia (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chikunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42) Comments: Distinct from Kunda dialect of Chichewa [nya] or Kunda of Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Lala-Bisa
[leb] Northern, Central, and Eastern provinces; east along Luangwa river (Bisa), southwest (Lala). Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 580,000 in Zambia (2006). Lala 200,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Biza-Lala Dialects: Ambo, Bisa (Biisa, Ichibisa, Wisa, Wiza), Lala (Ichilala), Luano, Swaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.51)

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Lamba
[lam] Copperbelt, Central, and southeast North-Western provinces. Also in Democratic Republic of the Congo. 219,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chilamba, Ichilamba Dialects: Lamba, Lima. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bisa-Lamba (M.54)

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Lambya
[lai] Northern Province, Isoka district. 2,000 in Zambia (1958). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.201)

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Lenje
[leh] Central Province, Lukanga swamp area. 156,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chilenje, Chinamukuni, Ciina, Lengi, Lenji, Mukuni Dialects: Lenje, Twa (Lukanga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.61)

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Lozi
[loz] Western Province, Barotseland; Southern Province near Livingstone. Also in Botswana, Namibia, Zimbabwe. 610,000 in Zambia (2006). Population total all countries: 722,600. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in portions of Western and Southern provinces. Alternate Names: Kololo, Rotse, Rozi, Rutse, Silozi, Tozvi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Sotho-Tswana (S.30) Comments: Recognized for educational and administrative purposes.

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Luchazi
[lch] West central North-Western Province. 54,400 in Zambia (1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiluchazi, Cujazi, Lucazi, Lujash, Lujasi, Lutshase, Luxage, Ponda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.13)

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Lunda
[lun] North-Western Province, Mwinilunga and northern Kabompo districts. Also in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo. 450,000 in Zambia (2006). Population total all countries: 628,000. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Northwest Province, Copperbelt. Alternate Names: Chilunda Dialects: Humbu, Kawiku, Kosa (Koosa), Ndembu. Similar to Ruund [rnd] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Salampasu-Ndembo (L.52) Comments: Distinct from Luunda, a dialect of Bemba [bem].

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Luvale
[lue] North-Western and Western provinces. Also in Angola. 168,000 in Zambia (2006). Population total all countries: 632,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Northwestern and Western provinces. Alternate Names: Chiluvale, Lovale, Lubale, Luena, Lwena Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.14) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Luyana
[lyn] Western Province, east Lozi-Luyana area. Also in Botswana, Namibia. 222,000 in Zambia (2006). 12,100 Kwandi, 29,300 Kwanga, 2,690 Mbowe (1969 census). Population total all countries: 409,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Esiluyana, Louyi, Lui, Luyi, Rouyi Dialects: Kwandi, Kwanga, Mbumi. Mbowe dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.31)

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Mambwe-Lungu
[mgr] Northeast Northern Province south of Lake Tanganyika. Also in Tanzania. 379,000 in Zambia (2006). Population total all countries: 674,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Fipa-Mambwe (Kifipa cha Kimambwe), Lungu (Adong, Ichirungu, Rungu), Mambwe (Ichimambwe, Kimambwe). Uncertain intelligibility between Fipa-Mambwe [fip] (Tanzania) and other dialects. Minor dialect differences between Mambwe and Lungu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, F, Tongwe (M.14)

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Mashi
[mho] Southwest Western Province. Also in Angola, Namibia. 20,800 in Zambia (1969 census). Population total all countries: 23,630. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masi Dialects: Mashi, North Kwandu, South Kwandu. Dialect subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.34) Comments: Nomadic. Different from Mashi [shr] (Shi) which is related to Havu [hav] (Democratic Republic of the Congo). Traditional religion.

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Mbowe
[mxo] North central Western Province. 2,690 (1969 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esimbowe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.32)

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Southwest Western Province, Kwando river area. 5,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gova, Kusso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimukushu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.333) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mbunda
[mck] West North-Western Province, north Barotseland. Also in Angola. 156,000 in Zambia (2006). Population total all countries: 291,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimbunda, Gimbunda, Kimbunda, Mbuunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.15) Comments: Different from Mbunda (Mbuun, Mbunu) which is a dialect of Mpuono [zmp] (Democratic Republic of the Congo).

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Nkoya
[nka] Western and Southern provinces, Mankoya area. 146,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shinkoya Dialects: Lukolwe, Lushangi, Mashasha, Mbowela (Mbwela, Mbwera, Shimbwera), Nkoya, Shasha. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Nkoya (L.601)

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Nsenga
[nse] Eastern and Central provinces, Petauke district. Also in Mozambique, Zimbabwe. 544,400 in Zambia (2006). Population total all countries: 752,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Senga Dialects: Ngoni (Mpezeni), Nsenga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41) Comments: Distinct from Senga dialect of Tumbuka [tum]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nyamwanga
[mwn] East Northern Province. Also in Tanzania. 174,000 in Zambia (2006). 14,700 Iwa and 7,170 Tambo (1969 census). Population total all countries: 261,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ichinamwanga, Inamwanga, Mwanga, Namwanga Dialects: Iwa, Tambo (Tembo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.22)

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Nyiha
[nih] East Northern Province and northeast Eastern Province, near Malawi border, Isoka and Chama districts. 356,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ishinyiha, Nyika, Nyixa Dialects: Nyika, Wandya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.23) Comments: May be the same as Lambya [lai] of Tanzania and Malawi. Different from Nyika [nyf] (Nika, Giryama) of Kenya.

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Nyika
[nkv] Northern Province, Isoka district, Mulekatembo village area. 5,000 in Zambia (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinyika, Kinyika Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyika-Safwa (M.23)

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Pidgin Bantu
[fng] Towns and mining areas. 5,100 L2 speakers in Zambia (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Basic Zulu, “Fanagalo” (pej.), “Fanakalo” (pej.), “Fanekolo” (pej.), “Isikula” (pej.), Isilololo, Isipiki, Lololo, Piki Dialects: Cikabanga. Classification: Pidgin, Zulu based Comments: Rejected by most Africans because it was imported from Zimbabwe and South Africa by Europeans who did not want Africans to learn English (Adler 1977).

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Sala
[shq] South central Central Province. 20,400 (1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Intelligible of Tonga [toi] and possibly Ila [ilb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.631)

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Settla
[sta] No known L1 speakers. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kisetla, Kisettla Classification: Pidgin, Swahili based Comments: Limited vocabulary and grammar. May also be in Kenya.

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Shona
[sna] Central Province, Mumbwa district, Gova near Zimbabwe border. 30,200 in Zambia (2000). Several thousand Shona in Mumbwe. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chishona Dialects: Korekore (Goba, Gova, Gowa, Korikori, Makorekore, Northern Shona, Wakorikori). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.11) Comments: Korekore is the main dialect in Zambia, with subdialect Goba.

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Simaa
[sie] Western Province, Western Lozi-Luyana area. 162,000 (2006). 8,000 in Makoma (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Imilangu, Liyuwa, Makoma, Mulonga, Mwenyi, Nyengo, Simaa. Imigangu may be a dialect of Luyana [lyn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Kwangwa (K.322)

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Soli
[sby] Central Province, east of Lusaka. 54,400 (1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chisoli Dialects: A more distinct language or dialect of the Tonga group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.62)

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Swahili, Congo
[swc] Northern Province, Kaputa and Mporokoso districts; Copperbelt Province, Masaiti district. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.40)

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Taabwa
[tap] Northwest Northern Province. 132,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ichitaabwa, Rungu, Tabwa Dialects: Shila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Bemba (M.41) Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tonga
[toi] Southern and Western provinces. With Ila [ilb] it predominates the south. Also in Zimbabwe. 990,000 in Zambia (2006), increasing. 427,000 Tonga, 12,000 Toka, 7,900 Leya. Population total all countries: 1,127,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Southern and Western provinces. Alternate Names: Chitonga, Plateau Tonga, Zambezi Dialects: Chitonga, Leya, Mala, Shanjo (Sanjo), Toka (Southern Tonga), Twa of Kafwe, We (Valley Tonga). Related to Ila [ilb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Lenje-Tonga (M.64) Comments: Different from Tonga [tog] of Malawi, Tonga [toh] of Mozambique, or Tsonga (Tonga) [tso] of Mozambique.

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Totela
[ttl] Southeast Western Province, north of Subia. Also in Namibia. 14,000 in Zambia (Welmers 1971). Population total all countries: 14,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Echitotela Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Subia (K.41)

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Tumbuka
[tum] Northeast Eastern Province. 480,000 in Zambia (2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chitumbuka, Tambuka, Tew, Timbuka, Tombucas, Tumboka Dialects: Chikamanga (Henga, Kamanga), Chipoka, Chitumbuka, Fililwa (Filirwa), Fungwe, Hewe (Hewa), Kandawire, Nenya, Ngoni (Magodi), Nthali, Senga, Wenya, Yombe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Tumbuka (N.21) Comments: Senga dialect is distinct from Nsenga [nse] of Petauke District.

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Yao
[yao] Eastern Province, Chipata district, Kapata township; Katete district. 200 families or more in the 1970s (F. Banda). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chichawa, Chiyao, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao Dialects: Makale (Cimakale), Massaninga (Cimassaninga). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21) Comments: Muslim.

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Yauma
[yax] Western Province, southwest corner, Kwando river area. 5,100 in Zambia (2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Chokwe-Luchazi (K.16)

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Zambian Sign Language
[zsl] Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Deaf sign language

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