A language of Paraguay

Alternate Names
Ishir, Ishiro, Jeywo

2,000 (Ciucci and Bertinetto 2015).


Alto Paraguay department: (Tomárãho) Pitiantuta and Puerto María Elena, (Ybytoso) Inihta, Karchabalut, Misión Santa Teresita, Puerto Caballo, Puerto Diana, Puerto Esperanza.

Language Maps
Language Status

6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2010, Languages Act, No. 4251, Article 2).


Tomarãho (Chamacoco Bravo, Tomaraho, Tomaraxo, Tomárãho), Chamacoco Ebitoso (Chamacoco Manso, Ebitoso, Ybytoso, Yshyr Ybytoso). Lexical similarity: 30% with Ayoreo [ayo].


SVO; prepositions and postpositions; noun head initial, except for determiners and possessors; 2 genders (masculine and feminine); inflectional language; verb affixes mark person, number, and gender; no passives or voice; no tense or aspect; 22 consonants and 6 vowels, contrast between long and short vowels; presence of voiceless nasal consonants.

Language Use

Vigorous. Home. Used by all. Most also use Spanish [spa] (Ciucci 2016). Some also use Paraguayan Guaraní [gug], but with low proficiency (Crevels 2012). Also use Portuguese [por] (Ciucci 2016).

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 50%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%. Taught in primary schools. Literature. Dictionary. Texts. NT: 2001.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.

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