Lingala

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Alternate Names
Ngala
Autonym
Lingala
Population

2,040,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 2,256,710.

Location

Widespread in Bas-Uele, Equateur, Haut-Uele, Kinshasa, Mai-Ndombe, Mongala, Nord-Ubangi, Orientale, Sud-Ubangi, and Tshopo provinces.

Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in northwestern regions (2006, Constitution, Article 1(8)). Developed as a trade language around 1900 about halfway between Kinshasa and Kisangani. It then spread along the river, ultimately becoming entrenched in Kinshasa, where it has become the L1 of most people.

Dialects

None known. Reportedly similar to Lusengo [lse] and Bangala [bxg]. Lexical similarity: 33% with Bobangi [bni].

Typology

SVO; prepositions; noun head initial; 12 noun classes; no articles; verb affixes mark person, number; passives; tense; causatives; 16 consonant and 5 vowel phonemes; tonal (2 tones: high, low); tendancy to vowel harmony.

Language Use

Used as L2 by Asoa [asv], Babango [bbm], Bali [bcp], Baloi [biz], Bamwe [bmg], Bangi [bni], Barambu [brm], Boko [bkp], Bolia [bli], Boloki [bkt], Bolondo [bzm], Bomboli [bml], Bomboma [bws], Bozaba [bzo], Budu [buu], Budza [bja], Bwa [bww], Dzando [dzn], Eboo Teke [ebo], Efe [efe], Foma [fom], Furu [fuu], Gbanziri [gbg], Gilima [gix], Gobu [gox], Ibali Teke [tek], Kango [kty], Kango [kzy], Kele [khy], Komo [kmw], Kpala [kpl], Lalia [lal], Libinza [liz], Ligenza [lgz], Likila [lie], Lobala [loq], Lombo [loo], Lusengo [lse], Ma [msj], Mayogo [mdm], Mba [mfc], Mbandja [zmz], Mbesa [zms], Mid-Southern Banda [bjo], Moingi [mwz], Mongo-Nkundu [lol], Mono [mnh], Monzombo [moj], Ndaka [ndk], Ndobo [ndw], Ndolo [ndl], Ndunga [ndt], Ngando [nxd], Ngbaka [nga], Ngbaka Ma’bo [nbm], Ngbundu [nuu], Ngelima [agh], Ngombe [ngc], Northern Ngbandi [ngb], Ntomba [nto], Nzakara [nzk], Pagibete [pae], Poke [pof], Sakata [skt], Sengele [szg], So [soc], South Central Banda [lnl], Southern Ngbandi [nbw], Tembo [tmv], Tiene [tii], Togbo-Vara Banda [tor], Yango [yng].

Language Development
Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1970–2000.
Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Also spoken in:

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