Malay, Baba


A language of Singapore

Alternate Names
Baba, Chinese Malay, Low Malay, Peranakan, Straits Malay

10,000 (Pakir 1986). Ethnic population: 250,000 (1986). Total users in all countries: 12,000.


Mainly Kallang district, near city center; Geylang and Jao Chiat districts.

Language Maps
Language Status

7 (Shifting).


None known. It developed after 15th century from Low Malay with many Min Nan Chinese [nan] borrowings. Regional variants between Malacca and Singapore. Partially intelligible with Standard Malay [zsm]. It is generally believed that Baba of Malaysia is more, refined, and that of Singapore more, rough. Most learn Standard Malay and English in school. Distinct from Peranakan Indonesian [pea]. Baba in Melaka, Malaysia speak a Hokkien-influenced Malay creole; those in Penang, Malaysia speak a localized version of Hokkien [nan] (2006 Tan Chee Beng).

Language Use

Mainly in the home. Mainly older adults. Also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Min Nan Chinese [nan], Standard Malay [zsm], Yue Chinese [yue].

Language Development
NT: 1913–2007.

Latin script [Latn].

Also spoken in:

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