Abenaki, Eastern


A language of United States

Alternate Names
Abenaki, Alnombak, Alnôbak, Eastern Abnaki, Wawenock

No known L1 speakers. The last speaker, Madeline Tower Shay, died in 1993 (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 90 (2000 census). Total Abenaki in the United States.


Maine: Androscoggin-Kennebec and Penobscot valleys.

Language Status

9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Penobscot Nation.


Penobscot (Penawahpskewi), Caniba.

Language Development

Texts. Attempts to reintroduce the language in the elementary school (2011) and to publish the first Penobscot dictionary (2013).

Other Comments

Penobscot dialect survived to the late 20th century near Bangor, Maine.

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