A language of China

Alternate Names
Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ikor, Yani, “Ekaw” (pej.), “Ikaw” (pej.), “Kaw” (pej.), “Kha Ko” (pej.), “Khako” (pej.), “Khao Kha Ko” (pej.), “Ko” (pej.)
A˯ka˯daw˯‎ (Avkavdawv)

240,000 in China (Bradley 2007b), increasing. Ethnic population: 240,000 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 616,600.


Yunnan province: Simao and Xishuangbanna prefectures.

Language Status

5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Hani.


None known. Most closely related to Hani [hni].


SOV; noun head initial; classifiers; isolating language; 32 consonants and 11 vowels; tonal (3 tones); phonation types (lax and tense).

Language Use

All domains. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Used as L2 by Akeu [aeu].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 5%. Literacy rate in L2: 70% in any language (2000 census, Hani nationality); but functional literacy is low in Mandarin [cmn]. Orthographies in fairly wide use, but not in public schools (Bradley 2007b). Taught in primary schools. Literature. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 2002.


Latin script [Latn], used at least since 1950, used in China, Myanmar, and Thailand. Myanmar (Burmese) script [Mymr], used in Myanmar. Thai script [Thai], used in Thailand.

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Christian.

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