Antigua and Barbuda Creole English


A language of Antigua and Barbuda

Alternate Names
Broken English, Dialect, Leeward Caribbean Creole, Patwa

67,000 in Antigua and Barbuda (2001), increasing. It is difficult to substantiate the number of Creole speakers and English speakers. Total users in all countries: 159,520.


Throughout Antigua and Barbuda.

Language Status

6a (Vigorous). De facto language of national identity.


Antiguan Creole English, Barbuda Creole English. Slight comprehension of Jamaican and perhaps Bahamas creoles. May be similar to English Creoles of the Virgin Islands and Netherlands Antilles. One dialect is spoken mainly by older generations who live in Jennings and Bolans villages, near Johnson. People perceive the Southern variety, spoken along Fig Tree Drive Road from Swetes to Bolans, as being most different and difficult to understand. Barbudan is perceived as being more linguistically distant than the Creole English of Montserrat Point (2003 K. Decker).

Language Use

Used by all. Negative attitudes.

Language Development

Oral materials available. Literature. Grammar.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Most villagers deny the existence of a creole, though they speak it. Although some negative attitudes toward it, its use in the community is quite strong. Its uniqueness and cultural role is valued. Many migrated to Antigua from Montserrat after the eruption of Soufriere Hills volcano on 18 July, 1995. Christian.

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