Chin, Anu-Hkongso


A language of Myanmar

Alternate Names
Kaungso, Kaungtso, Khaungtso, Khawngso, Khong, Khongso, No

4,000 (2008), decreasing.


Chin state: Paletwa township, between Kaladan and Michaung rivers.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Anu, Hkongso. Lexical similarity: 96%–98% and high intelligibility between Anu and Hkongso dialects, 72%–76% with Mru [mro] but intelligibility is low, 23%–37% lexical similarity with all neighboring Chin languages, but bilingualism is high.


SVO; negation is marked before the verb.

Language Use

Fairly strong vitality in Anu and Hkongso majority villages. But in mixed villages and intermarried families, Khumi [cnk] and Asang dialect of Eastern Khumi [cek] are now used. Most domains. Some young people, all adults. Positive attitudes. All also use Rakhine [rki]. Also use Burmese [mya], Eastern Khumi Chin [cek], Khumi Chin [cnk]. Used as L2 by Eastern Khumi Chin [cek].

Language Development

Anu and Hkongso have separate literature efforts. Some literacy classes. Bible portions: 2014.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Although the Anu and Hkongso varieties are not part of the Kuki-Chin-Naga branch, these groups consider themselves to be Chin. Christian, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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