A language of Spain

Alternate Names
Astur-Leonese, Asturian-Leonese, Asturleonese

550,000 in Spain, all users. L1 users: 100,000 in Spain (Salminen 2007). 50,000 in Central Asturian, 30,000 in Western Asturian, 20,000 in Eastern Asturian. L2 users: 450,000 (1994 F. Botas). Ethnic population: 550,000 (1996). Total users in all countries: 560,000 (as L1: 110,000; as L2: 450,000).


Asturias, Castille and Leon autonomous communities.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Leonese (Lleones), Western Asturian, Central Asturian (Bable), Eastern Asturian, Montañes, Pasiegan (Pasiego, Pasiegu). As different from Spanish [spa] as Galician [glg] or Catalan [cat]; more different than Murcian and Andalusian dialects. About 80% intelligibility with Spanish (1989 R. Hall) enough to cause disruption of communicative ability (1992 T. Erickson). The Vaqueiros ethnic group speaks Western Asturian. Functional intelligibility among the 3 dialects. Reportedly similar to Mirandés [mwl] in Portugal. Leonese may be a separate language. Central Asturian is considered the model, and has the most speakers.

Language Use

Some young people, all adults. Some children learn the language in Asturias; in other regions speakers are mostly elderly (Salminen 2007). Also use Spanish [spa].

Language Development

Leonese associations promote their language variety. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1997.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

About 43% immigrated into the region from the south since the 1950s, and have not absorbed Asturian culture or language. There is literature, both popular and literary, since the 17th century; poetry, traditional ballads, and chivalric novels of oral tradition. The Academy of the Asturian Language formed in 1981 to revive the academy of the 18th century. Western Asturian may need orthography adaptation. Montañes is a Spanish dialect with Asturian influence.

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