Bali

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A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names
Balinese
Autonym
Basa Bali, Basa Bali
Population

L1 users: 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands. Ethnic population: 3,946,000 (2011 census).

Location

Bali province: widespread; Nusa Tenggara Barat province: Kota Mataram and Lombok Barat regency; west central Lombok island.

Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes).

Typology

SVO; noun head initial; definite affix; causatives; 17 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable; 3 sociolinguistic registers.

Language Use

Vigorous. All ages. Used as L2 by Kata Kolok [bqy].

Language Development
Grammar. Bible: 1990.
Writing

Balinese script [Bali]. Javanese script [Java], no longer in use. Latin script [Latn], used since early 20th century.

Other Comments

Nusa Penida Island variety associated with Highland Bali dialect. It is a scattering of villages with minimal influence from the former Majapahit Empire. Hindu.

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