L1 users: 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands. Ethnic population: 3,946,000 (2011 census).
Bali province: widespread; Nusa Tenggara Barat province: Kota Mataram and Lombok Barat regency; west central Lombok island.
Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes).
SVO; noun head initial; definite affix; causatives; 17 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable; 3 sociolinguistic registers.
Vigorous. All ages. Used as L2 by Kata Kolok [bqy].
Nusa Penida Island variety associated with Highland Bali dialect. It is a scattering of villages with minimal influence from the former Majapahit Empire. Hindu.