A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names

3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands.


Bali Province, widespread throughout entire island, including Penida; to east, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Kota Mataram and Lombok Barat regency, west central Lombok island.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes).


SVO; noun head initial; definite affix; causatives; 17 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable; 3 sociolinguistic registers.

Language Development
Grammar. Bible: 1990.

Balinese script [Bali]. Javanese script [Java], no longer in use. Latin script [Latn], used since early 20th century.

Other Comments

Nusa Penida Island variety associated with Highland Bali dialect. It is a scattering of villages with minimal influence from the former Majapahit Empire. Hindu.

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