L1 users: 670,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001).
Njombe region: Njombe district; southwest Morogoro and north Ruvuma regions; Mbeya region.
Ilembula, Kilavungi (Kilavagi), Lupembe, Masakati (Masagati), Masitu, Mavemba, Maswamu, Ngaveeta, Nyikolwe, Sovi (Sove), Twangabita, Kinamanga, Ulanga. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pangwa [pbr], 65% with Hehe [heh], 55% with Sangu [sbp], 53% with Kinga [zga], 51% with Vwanji [wbi], 47% with Kisi [kiz].
SVO; prepositions; noun classes; 22 consonant phonemes; verbal affixation; 10 vowel phonemes (5 qualities, each with phonemic length contrast); tonal.
Private domains, market, traditional rituals. All ages. Positive attitudes.
Latin script [Latn].