L1 users: 12,000 (2005).
Yunnan province: Nujiang prefecture, Lushui county, Luobenzhuo Bai autonomous district, Chenggan, Gudeng, and Shangjiang districts, Liuku and Pianma townships; Baoshan municipality, Mangkuan township; Pu’er municipality.
6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai.
Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese and influence from Lisu [lis]. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.