1,070,000 in China (1990 census). 570,000 Dbus, 460,000 Gtsang, 40,000 Mngahris out of 4,593,000 in the official nationality. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,172,940.
Xizang Autonomous Region; some in Xinjiang Autonomous Region.
2 (Provincial). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan.
Gtsang (Lhasa, Tsang), Dbus, Mngahris (Ngari), Deqing Zang. In the exile community a so-called diaspora Tibetan has developed.
SOV; noun head initial; definite and indefinite articles; ergativity; comparatives; 28 consonant and 16 vowel phonemes; tonal (4 tones); 2 levels of honorifics.
Vigorous. Speakers of other languages in the area can also speak Tibetan. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Narua [nru], Naxi [nxq]. Used as L2 by Boga’er Luoba [adi], Cuona Monba [twm], Darang Deng [mhu], Geman Deng [mxj], Horpa [ero], Jiarong [jya], Kangjia [kxs], Lisu [lis], Namuyi [nmy], Naxi [nxq], Northern Pumi [pmi], Northern Qiang [cng], Salar [slr], Shixing [sxg], Southern Pumi [pmj], Tshangla [tsj], Tu [mjg], Yidu Luoba [clk].
Xifan (Hsifan) and Bhotia are general terms for Tibetan. Probably includes many languages: Groma, Niarong, Lhomi, Panang, Sherpa, Tseku, Tinan Lahul. Nomads in central and northern Tibet in Phala on the 4,500-meter Chang Tang plateau are known as Drokba. They number around 500,000. Written Tibetan is reportedly based on a southern dialect. Buddhist, Muslim.