Bugawac

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A language of Papua New Guinea

Alternate Names
Bukaua, Bukawa, Bukawac, Kawa, Kawac, Yom Gawac
Population

12,000 (2011 W. Eckermann). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,500.

Location

Morobe province: Huon gulf coast. Central-Western dialect: Buhalu, Cape Arkona, Hec, Tikeleng, Wideru villages; Eastern dialect: Bukawasip, Ulugidu; South Western dialect: Asini, Busamang; Western dialect: Lae city villages.

Language Status

4 (Educational).

Dialects

Eastern Bugawac, Central-Eastern Bugawac, Central Bugawac, Central-Western Bugawac, Western Bugawac, South-Western Bugawac. Reportedly similar to Yabem [jae].

Typology

Tonal.

Language Use

Vigorous. Yabem [jae] decreasingly used in religious services, being replaced by Bugawac or Tok Pisin [tpi]. Home, community. Most also use Tok Pisin [tpi]. Also use Yabem [jae].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 80%. Literacy rate in L2: 80% in Tok Pisin [tpi], 15%–25% in Yabem [jae]. Taught in primary schools, in about half the villages. Poetry. Dictionary. NT: 2001.
Writing

Latin script [Latn], used since 2000.