Nicaragua Creole English


A language of Nicaragua

Alternate Names
Mískito Coast Creole English

18,400 (2009 UNSD). 630 Rama Cay Creole speakers (Holm 1989).


Scattered. North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Bluefields region, Corn islands, Pearl lagoon, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, Rama Cay island.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4).


Rama Cay Creole English, Bluefields Creole English.

Language Use

Positive attitudes. Also use English [eng], Spanish [spa]. Used as L2 by Garifuna [cab], Mískito [miq], Rama [rma], Spanish [spa], Ulwa [ulw].

Language Development

Taught in primary schools. Oral use, but no written use.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

There is a continuum of variation from basilectal Creole to acrolectal English of the educated. There have been efforts to develop a writing system but nothing has been standardized (2002 SIL).

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