L1 users: 9,390 (2012 UNSD).
Esmeraldas province: Cayapas river and tributaries (Canandé, Cojimíes, Onzole, Sucio, and others), north coastal jungle.
Elders and preschool-aged children are mostly monolingual (Crevels 2007). Also use Spanish [spa], but women, older adults, and those living in the isolated headwaters of the river are less bilingual in it.
Latin script [Latn].
Traditional religion, Christian.