A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Chabacano, Chabakano, Zamboangueño

L1 users: 1,200,000 (Quilis 1996). 300,000 Zamboangueño (Steinkrüger 2013), 359,000 Zamboangueño (Rubino 2008); 4,000 Caviteño; 3,000 Ternateño (Lesho and Sippola 2013); 5,470 Cotabato Chavacano (Wurm and Hattori 1981).


Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindinao: Basilan province; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay provinces; scattered in Alicia, Buug, Cotabato city, Ipil, Isabela, Kabasalan, Lamitan, Lapuyan, Malamawi, Malangas, Maluso, Margosatubig, Siay, and Tungawan; Cavite, Ermita, and Ternate near Manila.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).


Caviteño (Cavite Chabacano), Ternateño (Bahra, Ternate Chabacano, Ternateño Chavacano), Ermitaño (Ermiteño), Davaweño Zamboangueño (Abakay Spanish, Davao Chavacano, Davaoeño, Davaweño), Cotabato Chavacano (Cotabateño), Zamboangueño (Chabacano de Zamboanga, Español quebrao, Southern Mindinao Creole, Zamboanga Chabacano).


Accusative actancy structure.

Language Use

Davaweño Zamboangueño dialect may have no remaining speakers. Ermiteño is extinct; Zamboangueño, Caviteño, and Cotabateño are still used. Most domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Most also use Filipino [fil]. Also use Cebuano [ceb], Tausug [tsg]. Used as L2 by Balangingih Sama [sse], Central Sama [sml], Yakan [yka].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 80%. Literacy rate in L2: 80%. Taught in primary schools. Literature. Radio. TV. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1981.

Braille script [Brai]. Latin script [Latn], primary usage.

Other Comments

A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical structure. Speakers in 60 of 66 provinces (1970 census). Christian.

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