A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Praja Bhasa, Tsepang

48,500 (2011 census), decreasing. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 52,200.


Narayani Zone, Makwanpur, Chitwan districts; Bagmati Zone, southern Dhading district; Gandaki Zone, southern Gorkha district.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Chepang.


Eastern Chepang, Western Chepang. Bhujel [byh] has difficult intelligibility with Chepang due to different pronominal suffix morphology. Dialects of Chepang differ in verb forms. Reportedly similar in morphology to Kirati languages. Lexical similarity: 98% with Bhujel [byh] (2004 R. Caughley, based on 100-item word list).


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; relatives before or without noun heads; content q-word in situ; no prefixes, up to 8 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; affixes indicate case of noun phrase; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergative; tense and aspect; voice; causatives; comparatives; CV to CCCVCCC with certain restrictions; 18 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes; nontonal (not phonemic, but phonetic pitch). Whistle speech.

Language Use

Home; mixed use: Friends, religion, work. Young adults and older. Some use among children and adolescents. Positive attitudes. Speakers over 5 know some Nepali [npi]. It is often learned in school. Men can talk about most common topics and political affairs. Women know greetings and vocabulary for trade. Young people may sometimes speak Nepali to each other.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 40% men, 15% women in Nepali [npi]; 14% ethnic group (1991 census). Difficulties in reading Chepang: long words, consonant clusters. Written Chepang has lower prestige than Nepali. Motivation high for Nepali. Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1993.

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Christian.