A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Cyo’bang, Praja Bhasa, Tsepang

49,640, all users. L1 users: 48,500 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 1,140 (2011 census). No monolinguals.


Bagmati zone: south Dhading district; Gandaki zone: south Gorkha district; Narayani zone: Chitwan and Makwanpur districts.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Chepang.


Eastern Chepang, Western Chepang, Bankariya. Bhujel [byh] has difficult intelligibility with Chepang due to different pronominal suffix morphology. Dialects of Chepang differ in verb forms. Reportedly similar in morphology to Kirati languages. Lexical similarity: 98% with Bhujel [byh] (2004 R. Caughley, based on 100-item word list).


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; relatives before or without noun heads; content q-word in situ; no prefixes, up to 8 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; affixes indicate case of noun phrase; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergative; tense and aspect; voice; causatives; comparatives; CV to CCCVCCC with certain restrictions; 18 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes; nontonal (not phonemic, but phonetic pitch). Whistle speech.

Language Use

Home; mixed use: Friends, religion, work. Some young people, all adults. Positive attitudes. Also use Nepali [npi], especially men for common topics and political affairs, women for greetings and trade, and young people among themselves; often learned in school.

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 40% men, 15% women in Nepali [npi]; 14% ethnic group (1991 census). Difficulties in reading Chepang: long words, consonant clusters. Written Chepang has lower prestige than Nepali. Motivation high for Nepali. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. NT: 1993.


Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Christian.

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