A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen

30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 25,000–35,000 (2007 SIL).


Palawan Province, Cagayan island between Negros and Palawan; Palawan coastal communities; south Palawan, Balabac island, Quezon and Rizal areas; north Palawan, Busuanga, Coron municipality; Iloilo Province, Silay, Negros, and Manila.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).


Calamian Kagayanen.


VSO; prepositions; genitives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals all before noun heads; relatives (and relative clauses) after noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position; 2 maximum number of suffixes, 1 prefix; word order distinguishes subjects, objects and indirect objects, given and new information, topic and comment; affixes do not indicate case of noun phrases; passives; causatives; comparatives; ergativity; CV, CCV, CVC, CCVC (V and VC with glottal initial); nontonal

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. Some oral use in local administration, commerce, religion, some schools. Letters, oral literature. All ages. Positive attitudes. Shifting from Hiligaynon [hil] to Filipino [fil], which is used for school, market, church, reading. Most also use English [eng], Cuyonon [cyo], or 1 or other Visayan languages; L2 acquired and used at home, school and community.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 85%. Literacy rate in L2: 75% Hiligaynon, Filipino, Cuyunon, Kinaray-a, Cebuano. Tendency to believe reading is in Filipino [fil] or English [eng]. Kagayanen used for speaking (2007 SIL). Taught in primary and secondary schools. Poetry. Newspapers. Radio programs. Videos. Dictionary. NT: 2007.
Latin script.
Other Comments

A growing number are moving to cities for economic improvement, education. Christian, traditional religion.