A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen

30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 (2007 SIL).


CALABARZON region: Quezon and Rizal provinces; MIMAROPA region: Palawan province, Cagayan island between Negros and Palawan; Palawan coastal communities; north Palawan, Busuanga and Coron municipalities; south Palawan, Balabac island; National Capital Region; Negros Island region: Negros Occidental province, Silay city; Western Visayas region: Iloilo province.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).


Calamian Kagayanen.


VSO; prepositions; genitives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals all before noun heads; relatives (and relative clauses) after noun heads; question word in sentence-initial position; 2 maximum number of suffixes, 1 prefix; word order distinguishes subjects, objects and indirect objects, given and new information, topic and comment; affixes do not indicate case of noun phrases; passives; causatives; comparatives; ergativity; CV, CCV, CVC, CCVC (V and VC with glottal initial); nontonal.

Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. Some oral use in local administration, commerce, religion, some schools. Letters, oral literature. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Also use Cuyonon [cyo], English [eng], Filipino [fil], Hiligaynon [hil].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 85%. Literacy rate in L2: 75% in Hiligaynon [hil], Filipino [fil], Cuyonon [cyo], Kinaray-a [krj], or Cebuano [ceb]. Tendency to believe reading is in Filipino [fil] or English [eng]. Kagayanen used for speaking (2007 SIL). Taught in primary and secondary schools. Literature. Newspapers. Radio. Videos. Dictionary. Texts. NT: 2007.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

A growing number are moving to cities for economic improvement, education. Christian, traditional religion.

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