L1 users: 456,000 (1991). Total users in all countries: 977,700.
Widespread. East Bié, Cunene, central Kuando Kubango, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, and west Moxico provinces.
3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity.
Minungo, Ulanda, Ukhongo.
Home, church, commerce. All ages. Positive attitudes. Many also use Portuguese [por].
Latin script [Latn].
Christian, traditional religion.