Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, Shaanxi, and Shanxi provinces; some in Beijing, Gansu, west Hebei, and Henan provinces.
6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han.
All ages. Also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn].
Literacy rate in L2: 91% (2000 census, Han nationality). Highly literate in Chinese and they use that literature.