A language of Malaysia

Alternate Names
Bulud Upi, Eraans, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan

10,000 (2013 SIL). Population includes 2,500 Begak. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2015 Pertubuhan Kebajikan Idahan Pewaris Madai, Lahad Datu (PEWARIS)).


Sabah: Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan and Sandakan districts.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Begak (Bagahak, Begahak), Subpan (Sungai, Supan), Ida’an. Isolate within the Sabahan subgroup.


Consonant fortition, vowel coalescence (ablaut), word-final stress, a 2 voice system, both verb-initial and subject-initial word order (slight preference for verb-initial), four pronoun sets, and no case marking on NPs. (Goudswaard 2005:4–5).

Language Use

Home and Friends. Mixed use: Work and Education. Some children and young people, all adults and elderly. Positive attitudes. All also use Sabah Malay [msi]. Many also use Standard Malay [zsm]. Some also use English [eng], Tausug [tsg]. Also use Kadazan Dusun [dtp]. Used as L2 by Suluk [tsg].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 70%. Literacy rate in L2: 95% in Standard Malay [zsm]; 60% in English [eng]; 50% in Suluk [tsg]. Most Ida’an people are literate in Standard Malay [zsm] and Sabah Malay [msi] as well as other languages. Poetry. New media. TV. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1987–2011. Agency: PEWARIS (Pertubuhan Kebajikan Idahan Pewaris Madai, Lahad Datu), Persatuan Aktivis Bahasa, Adat dan Budaya Idahan, Sabah (Idahan Language, Customs and Culture Activitist Association, Sabah), Begak Language and Culture Association.

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab], no longer in use. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Muslim, Christian.

Page Views Left: