German, Standard

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A language of Germany

Alternate Names
Deutsch, Tedesco
Population

69,800,000 in Germany (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 8,000,000 in Germany (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 129,601,230 (as L1: 76,912,230; as L2: 52,689,000).

Location

Widespread.

Language Status

1 (National). De facto national language.

Dialects

Major related varieties are Bavarian [bar], Schwäbian [swg], Alemannisch [gsw], Mainfränkisch [vmf], Hessisch, Palatinian, Rheinfränkisch, Westfälisch [wep], Saxonian, Thuringian, Brandenburgisch, and Low Saxon [nds]. Many varieties are not mutually intelligible. Our present treatment is incomplete. Standard German is one High German variety, developed from the chancery of Saxony, gaining acceptance as the written standard in the 16th and 17th centuries. High German refers to dialects and languages in the upper Rhine region. Lexical similarity: 60% with English [eng], 29% with French [fra].

Typology

SVO; prepositions; noun head final; gender (masculine/feminine/neuter); definite and indefinite articles; case-marking (4 cases); verb affixes mark person, number; passives; tense; comparatives; 22 consonants, 22 vowels, 3 diphthongs; non-tonal; stress on first syllable of the root.

Language Use

Many also use English [eng]. A few also use French [fra].

Language Development
Taught in primary and secondary schools. Fully developed. Bible: 1466–2004.
Writing

Braille script [Brai]. Latin script [Latn], primary usage. Latin script, Fraktur variant [Latf], used until 1940. Runic script [Runr], no longer in use.

Other Comments

Based equally on East Upper German and East Middle German. Christian.

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