L1 users: 56,300 (2009 census). Ethnic population: 58,100 (2009 census). Total users in all countries: 108,400.
Ysyk-Kol region: Karakol area; Chuy region: Bishkek and 2 small nearby border areas.
Ganzu (Gansu), Shaanxi (Shensi), Yage. Shaanxi and Ganzu varieties have difficult mutual inherent intelligibility. Debate over whether Dungan has 3 tones (a merging of 2 standard Mandarin tones) or 4 tones (with only a partial merging of the 2 standard Mandarin tones). Different from Mandarin [cmn] in phonology and lexicon.
Those under 50–55 speak Russian [rus] as L1.
Cyrillic script [Cyrl].
Came from China over 100 years ago. Muslim.