A language of Kyrgyzstan

Alternate Names
Dzhunyan, Kwuizwu, Tungan, Zwn’jan

40,000 in Kyrgyzstan (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 41,900. Ethnic population: 100,000.


Gansu mainly in Prschewalsk and Osh; Shaanxi in Kazakhstan, and Fergana, Uzbekistan. Also in Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Language Status

4 (Educational).


Ganzu (Gansu), Shaanxi (Shensi), Yage. Shaanxi and Ganzu varieties have difficult mutual inherent intelligibility. Debate over whether Dungan has 3 tones (a merging of 2 standard Mandarin tones) or 4 tones (with only a partial merging of the 2 standard Mandarin tones). Different from Mandarin [cmn] in phonology and lexicon.

Language Use

Those under 50–55 speak Russian [rus] as L1.

Language Development
Bible portions: 2002–2011.
Cyrillic script.
Other Comments

Came from China over 100 years ago. Muslim (Sunni).

Also spoken in:

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