100,000 in Mali (2007 M. Almaki), increasing. 70,000 youth are monolingual. Total users in all countries: 101,800.
Gao region: Menaka circle; west into Ansongo circle. Menaka is principal town.
SVO; stress system.
Vigorous. All ages. Positive attitudes. Some also use Tamasheq [taq], although women and children in isolated encampments understand very little.
Shares culture with Tamasheq [taq].