L1 users: 30,000 (Edmondson 1992).
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Rongshui Hmong autonomous county, Yongle district, Simo, Xiatan, Xinglong (Xingyou) and other villages; Luocheng Mulam autonomous county border areas.
6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang.
A mixed language, with large amounts of Tuguai Hua (also called Pinghua, a Yue Chinese [yue] dialect) and Guiliu Hua (a southwest Mandarin [cmn] dialect) vocabulary, tone category, voice quality, and some word structure. The grammar has been more resistant to Chinese influence. Chinese scholars consider E a mixture of Northern Zhuang languages, Mulam [mlm], Dong [doc] and Chinese.
Northern Zhuang languages are not used. Traditional religion.