A language of Poland

Esperanto, Lingvo Internacia

2,001,000, all users. L1 users: 1,000 (Corsetti et al 2004), increasing. L2 users: 2,000,000 (Wandel 2015).


Scattered internationally. Most widely represented in Japan, China, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, United States, Brazil, Belgium, and United Kingdom (in order of number of members in the World Esperanto Association).

Language Status

3 (Wider communication). Esperanto was developed for intercommunication among L1 users of other languages. It is currently used by speakers in over 100 countries of the world.


SVO; prepositions; genitives, relatives after noun heads; articles, adjectives, numerals before noun heads; question word initial; definite article; case-marking (2 cases); passives; tense; comparative word; 23 consonant and 5 vowel phonemes; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable.

Language Use

L1 users learn Esperanto from birth from Esperanto-speaking parents. Home, Esperanto clubs and associations. Used by all. Positive attitudes.

Language Development

Literature. Periodicals. Radio. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible: 1900–1910. Agency: World Esperanto Association.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Non-indigenous. Most widely used constructed language in the world. Developed 1878 by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish ophthalmologist. For this reason, Poland has been selected as the primary country for Esperanto.

Page Views Left: